Note to Myself...Set up separate file under NORMAL\abnormal...



[Notice from County Supt. Wilkinson to Cowley County Teachers.]

Winfield Courier, July 29, 1875.

                                           To the Teachers of Cowley County.

We have arranged with Prof. E. W. Hulse, of Arkansas City, and Prof. A. B. Lemmon, of Winfield, to assist in organizing and conducting a Teachers’ Normal school, of four weeks, during the month of August next. We desire to learn immediately the names of all teachers who will enroll themselves as members. Arrange­ments will be made to secure reasonable rates of board and lodging. A small tuition fee will be charged to cover incidental expenses, but the enterprise is not calculated to make money and will be carried out on the strictest principles of economy. The school will close with an examination for teachers who desire to teach the coming fall and winter. All depends on the number of applicants who report their names within the next ten days. Teachers will see the necessity of being prompt in joining us in this praiseworthy enterprise. T. A. WILKINSON, County Supt.

Winfield Courier, August 26, 1875.

We visited the schoolhouse yesterday, and watched with interest the workings of the Institute now in session there. We have not the space to notice it as it deserves. It is strictly speaking, a high grade Normal school. The teachers are the pupils; and Professors Wilkinson, Hulse, and Lemmon, the faculty. The programme for each day is prepared in advance, and followed out to the letter. The afternoons are devoted entirely to study. We witnessed the exercises in English grammar and geography, and like their methods of instruction. To teachers who are “waiting to see how it will turn out,” we would say, come immediately, enroll your name, get down to square work, and you will be well paid for your trouble.

Winfield Courier, January 6, 1876.

About the last day of December, 1869, Judge W. R. Brown, H. B. Norton, T. A. Wilkinson, H. D. Kellogg, John Brown, Moore, and G. H. Norton drove into camp near Wood’s residence as members and representatives of the Walnut City town company.

A few leading citizens of Emporia, among the number, C. V. Eskridge, P. B. Plumb, J. Stotler, L. B. Kellogg, H. B. Norton, and Judge Brown and H. L. Hunt, of Cottonwood Falls, had orga­nized a town company and sent the party mentioned down into the Walnut Valley to locate a town at the junction of the Walnut River with the Arkansas River. The map of Kansas at that time showed that the junction was about the center of Cowley County. After some conference with the settlers, the newcomers took five claims adjoining Manning’s claim, east, southeast, and south, with the intention of making this the location of the proposed town. In a day or two upon an examination of the country below, the party decided to locate their town at the present town site of Arkansas City.

On January 1st, 1870, T. A. Wilkinson, John Brown, G. H. Norton, and John Strain staked out and claimed the four claims upon which Arkansas City now stands, as the location of the new town. H. B. Norton took a claim adjoining the town site on the north, H. D. Kellogg took a claim south of the town site. When this party arrived at the mouth of the Walnut, they found the bottom and timber claims taken by H. Endicott and his son, Pad, and G. Harmon, Ed. Chapin, Pat Summers [Somers], Mr. Carr, Mr. Hughes, and one or two others.

The Walnut City town company consisted of fifteen members, and the four claim holders mentioned were of the number, and were to hold the claims and enter them for the company. On their way down the valley the party discovered a Walnut City in Butler County, and concluded to change the name of their company to Delphi. On their return to Emporia the name was again changed to Creswell, and by this name the town was known for some months. On applying for a post office, the Post Office department in­formed Senator Ross, who made the application, that there was a Creswell in Labette County, Kansas, and that no two offices of the same name would be located in the State, and at Ross’ sugges­tion, it was called Arkansas City. When the commission came to G. H. Norton, who was the postmaster named, the town was named Arkansas City. This was in April 1870.

On the 9th day of January, 1870, a party of fifteen men under the lead of Thomas Coats took claims along the Grouse Valley. Their names were John Coats, Wm. Coats, Joseph Reynolds, Gilbert Branson, Henry Branson, Newton Phenis, I. H. Phenis, H. Hayworth, L. B. Bullington, J. T. Raybell, D. T. Walters, S. S. Severson, John Nicholls, and C. J. Phenis.

The Winfield enterprise took form in January of 1870, as did that of Arkansas City. From the start the parties interested in the two prospective towns were shaping events to secure the county seat of Cowley County whenever it should be organized. In February of 1870 a bill was introduced in the Senate of Kansas entitled, “An act to organize the county of Cowley,” and making Creswell the county seat. As soon as the news arrived at Winfield, James H. Land, A. A. Jackson, and C. M. Wood traversed the county in three days and took the census of over six hundred population, and reported at Douglass, in Butler County (the nearest place where an officer could be found to administer an oath), on the 23d of February. At that time the necessary papers were made out and E. C. Manning took them to Topeka and presented them to the Governor, who, thereupon issued the order organizing Cowley County and designat­ing Winfield as the temporary county seat. The bill organizing the county got through the Senate but failed in the House.

As specimens of “literature” of that day we produce the following circulars which were issued a short time previous to the first election held in the county, to-wit:  May 2nd, 1870.


To the voters of Cowley County:

The Creswell Town Company ask leave to present to you the claims of Creswell as a location for the county seat.

This town is situated on the Arkansas River, twelve miles above its intersection by the State line; said intersection being two and three-fourth miles below the mouth of the Grouse. The Walnut enters the Arkansas at Creswell, and the valleys of other streams on the south side of the Arkansas converge at this point, making it the natural centre of business and population for Cowley County.

Creswell is named as a point upon four chartered lines of railroad, viz: The Walnut Valley Branch of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe road; the Preston, Salina & Denver road; the Emporia & Holden road; and the Arkansas Valley, or Fort Smith & Hays City road. It is also confidently expected that this will be the point of crossing for the Fort Scott & Santa Fe road. The Legislature at its recent session, ordered the immediate survey of a State road, by the most direct route, from Emporia to Creswell.

The company have determined to spare no expense or effort to make Creswell the metropolis of the Arkansas Valley. The follow­ing are among the enterprises already inaugurated:

Sleeth & Co., of Eldorado, have contracted to put up their steam saw-mill and a shingle-machine in operation at Creswell by the 15th of May.

Daniel Beedy, now a resident at Emporia, has contracted to build a grist-mill, saw-mill, and planing-mill upon the Creswell water-power; to commence by July 1st, 1870.

G. H. Norton & Co. have opened a general stock of groceries, dry goods, boots and shoes, which they pledge themselves to sell at Eldorado prices.

Betts & Fraser, of Eldorado, will at once open a stock of groceries, provisions, and campers’ supplies.

C. R. Sipes, of Emporia, has purchased an interest in the town, and is preparing to open at Creswell the largest stock of hardware, tinware, and agricultural implements ever offered south or west of Emporia.

A stock of drugs and medicines has been ordered by responsi­ble parties, and a well provided drug-store will be speedily established.

We are also happy to announce that the best job and newspa­per office south of the Neosho will commence the publication of a newspaper at Creswell within the next ninety days.

Max Fawcett, recently of the Neosho Valley (Emporia) Nurs­ery, has transferred his entire interest to Creswell, and is arranging to establish there the largest fruit and nursery concern in Kansas.

L. F. Goodrich, of Emporia, is now at work erecting a feed and livery stable.

A ferry has been chartered, and will be running upon the Arkansas by July 1st.

We, the Town Company of Creswell, furthermore pledge our­selves to erect a first-class stone or frame building not less than thirty feet square and two stories high, suitably arranged for a court-room and county offices; and to deed the same, with one entire block of not less than fourteen lots, centrally located, to the county, to be its property so long as the county-seat remains at Creswell; the building to be completed within six months after Creswell is chosen permanent county seat.

The question of taxation is one of great importance to the people of a young and undeveloped country. It is only at the cost of heavy taxes that the county will be able to erect a courthouse and other county buildings. This expense the Creswell town company propose to wholly assume.

The immediate vicinity of the Arkansas River is the natural location for the cities and towns which are to one day adorn this great valley. The natural centers of population and business will be there. Let us choose wisely, and make a choice which will not speedily be reversed.

We commend these facts and offers to the thoughtful consid­eration of the voters of Cowley County.

                   H. B. NORTON, Associate Principal State Normal School, President.

                                C. V. ESKRIDGE, Lieut. Governor, Vice President.

                               W. R. BROWN, Judge 9th Judicial District, Secretary.

                          L. B. KELLOGG, Principal State Normal School, Treasurer.

                                                      J. STOTLER, Director.

                                                COL. P. B. PLUMB, Director.

                                             CAPT. G. H. NORTON, Director.

                                                       H. L. HUNT, Director.

                                             H. D. KELLOGG, M. D., Director.

                                                   J. S. DANFORD, Director.

Winfield Courier, June 8, 1876.

                                              Cowley County Normal School.

The second annual session of the school will be held at Winfield, commencing July 17th, and continuing four weeks.

In addition to daily exercises in all the branches of study required by the new school law, there will be a series of lec­tures on School Management and Theory and Practice of Teaching.

Several of the ablest educators in the State will be present to conduct class exercises and deliver evening lectures.

Under the new school law all the third grade teachers in the county will be compelled to raise their grade of scholarship or fail to get certificates. This will create a demand for well qualified teachers at increased wages.

To defray the expenses of the school a tuition fee of $3.00 per scholar will be charged. Good board can be secured at about $3 per week.

The teachers who desire to attend the Normal School should apply soon to

                                                   A. B. LEMMON, Principal,

                                                           Winfield, Kansas.

Winfield Courier, June 22, 1876.

A normal school, conducted by Prof. Shively, commences at Douglass on the 17th of July and will hold four weeks.

Winfield Courier, September 7, 1876.

                                                           Normal School.

The following are the names of teachers attending the Normal School at this place.

From Cedarvale: Oscar J. Holroyd; Lizzie Conklin.

From Winfield: Wm. J. McClellan; J. K. Beckner; Rachel Nawman; Kate Gilleland; Maggie Stansberry; Sallie E. Rea; M. J. Huff; C. A. Winslow; Amy Robertson; Mary E. Lynn; Lusetta Pyburn; Mrs. Bell Seibert; Nannie McGee; Sarah E. Davis; O. S. Record; Byron A. Fouch; Mary A. Bryant; Mina C. Johnson; Mattie Roberts; Emma Saint.

From Arkansas City: Xina Cowley; Anna O. Wright; Kate Hawkins; Stella Burnett; Adelia DeMott; Georgiana Christian; Laura E. Turner; Lizzie Landis; Jefferson Bowen.

From Lazette: George Lee; M. L. Smith; Lucy Bedell; Kate Fitzgerald.

From Tisdale: Ella Wickersham; Gertie Davis.

From Canola: Mary E. Buck; Anna Buck.

From New Salem: Belle Wren.

From Little Dutch: Helen Wright.

From Dexter: Mary J. Byard.

From Polo: Mrs. Sarah Hollingsworth.

Winfield Courier, September 7, 1876.

A COUNTY TEACHERS’ INSTITUTE will begin at the schoolhouse in Winfield, Monday, September 11, 1876, and continue four days, followed by a teachers’ examination, Friday and Saturday, Sept. 15th and 16th. The examination will be principally written.

                                      T. A. WILKINSON, County Superintendent.

Winfield Courier, February 8, 1877.

                                                           A GOOD LAW.

Senator Brown, of Marshal County, has introduced a Normal school bill, partially agreed upon by our very best educators, and one that meets with the hearty approval of our State Superin­tendent of Public Instruction, Prof. Lemmon.

It provides for the establishment of a system of county normal institutes, very similar to those so successfully conduct­ed for the past few years by the teachers and local superinten­dents of the various counties in the Southwest.

Under the present system of normal instruction, the taxpay­ers of the whole State are supporting three high schools, which are purely local in their influence and character and never can be made to benefit the average country teacher. A three week’s practical normal school, properly conducted at Winfield under this new system, would be worth more to the teachers of Cowley County than a nine years’ reflection upon the naked fact that the State normal buildings at Emporia and Leavenworth are models of beauty and architectural workmanship.

Winfield Courier, March 15, 1877. Editorial Page.

The Kansas Legislature appropriated for the State Peniten­tiary $243,881.97; for normal schools, $000,000.00. Comment is unnecessary.

Winfield Courier, July 19, 1877.

The Normal Institute for this county will begin work August 1. Prof. L. B. Kellogg, formerly of the Emporia Normal School, will have charge of the Institute. He will be assisted by Geo. W. Robinson, of Winfield, Miss Ella Wickersham, of Tisdale, and R. C. Story, County Superintendent.

Winfield Courier, July 19, 1877.

Addresses, upon topics of special and general interest, will be given by Rev. Rushbridge, Fleming, Platter, Wingar, and by D. A. Millington on the 13th of August. Doctor C. E. Pomeroy, President of the Emporia Normal School, will address the teachers and citizens. An examination of teachers on the 30th and 31st will close the labors of the Normal.


                                                        From Arkansas City.

                                             ARKANSAS CITY, Aug. 9, 1877.

EDITOR COURIER: At this season of the year there is seldom a break in the monoto-nous routine of a country town. We move, breathe, and have our existence with the regularity of the old open-faced Dutch clock that used to stand in the corner at home—and with almost as apparent indifference to the happenings in the outside world.

Our people had a partial awakening today, however, over that old sore—the school teacher. No man less self-willed than Grant need hope to teach the young ideas of Arkansas City how to shoot, and maintain amicable relations with the various so-called “rings.” (What would the average American talk about if that much-abused word were struck from the vocabulary of the English language?)

But to the meeting. The good people assembled at the schoolhouse, and actually dared to interfere with, and take exceptions to, the proceedings of that august body, the school board, in the matter of appointing a teacher.

Some of the bolder ones have expressed the opinion that, when two or more applicants present their names to a board, asking for an appointment, a vote should be taken by the members, a majority ruling, and no favoritism to be displayed. This, however, is clearly proven by the gentlemen in the negative, to be mere buncomb; that all that is necessary in such a case is an intimation by one of the board that the appointment of such and such a one would be desirable, and presto, the thing is done. Then, to avoid any serious complications between themselves, another member is granted the appointment of a particular friend (he may be a relative), and thus a most happy state of affairs is preserved.

As “those who know nothing about nothing,” a simple statement to the board that the applicant is efficient, and in every way capable, silences all questions on that score. Of course, it is a matter of no significance that the main supporters of this admirable system of municipal government are employees and relatives of these “moguls,” who thus openly tweak our social noses; and of course, the mere hint of such a thing as a “ring” is moonshine.

Such a thing might be in suburban villages, but in Arkansas City, the Lawrence of Southern Kansas, a “quituate” of the Emporia Normal School, and having the best school (house) in the county—preposterous!

The sum and substance of the whole matter is, no one has a particular dislike for the gentleman who is at present trying to gain a certificate which will justify him in calling for eighty dollars per month from our tax-payers, but there is a great deal of dissatisfaction among our people because of the looks of the thing.

If a man with but a common school education (such a one, in fact, as our school once aimed to give) can draw the same salary as the college graduate, the wielders of the birch bid fair to become numerous, while the reward for a higher type of learning will cease.

There are two ways of doing business—honorably and dishonorably. They have one way of doing it down here. Of course, we are not retrograding to the home of the sand hill, crane, and illiterate natives, but—just see how it looks!

Two or three people have got the fool notion into their heads that they want something, and how to get them rid of said notion is a perplexing question. One young enthusiast, but a stranger to Lindley Murray, went so far as to assert that the present appointee “don’t know nothing;” whereupon one of the “relatives,” who might profitably court the above named gentleman’s acquaintance, retorted with: “Yes, he does, too.” And I think so, myself.            TAX PAYER.

[NOTE. We would not allow such a state of affairs as the above to exist in Winfield a single day! Ed.]

Winfield Courier, November 22, 1877.

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, Emporia, Kansas. The winter term will commence Dec. 12th. Unsurpassed facilities are offered for a thorough professional or general education.

For circulars address the President, C. R. POMEROY.

Winfield Courier, January 24, 1878.


                                                            By R. C. Story.

                                          MONTHLY REPORT - DECEMBER.

Note: I am going to name district and enrollment only.


4, 26; 6, 21; 7, 30; 10, 38; 15, 28; 18, 29; 21, 46; 25, 41; 26, 44; 30, 44; 31, 27; 87, 88; 38, 21; 89, 41; 40, 33; 41, 30; 42, 24; 45, 35; 46, 45; 47, 50; 48, 20; 50, 43; 54, 36; 61, 22; 62, 56; 65, 23; 69, 31; 78, 42; 81, 27; 85, 31; 91, 25; 94, 40; 97, 20; 107, 23.

The above figures are taken from reports sent in by about one third of the teachers in the county. Why do not all of them make reports of their schools and forward them promptly? Blanks were gotten up by the state superintendent and have been distributed among the teachers of the state. Who is to be benefited by such labor? There is no statutory law making it obligatory upon a teacher to fill out these monthly banks; but that individual who waits to be compelled to do an act which will result in good to his school is unworthy to be called a teacher or to occupy the position of a teacher.

These reports enable the public to examine the schools, give district boards the basis on which to compare their respective districts with others; put into the hands of the teacher a strong argument by which to appeal to the pride of his pupils, and furnish the people a generous and healthy stimulus in the discharge of their duties and in the promotion of habits of promptness, good deportment, and self control.

Teachers, you who neglect to use this means to aid you in your work are refusing to take advantage of opportunities which can result only in the advancement of your respective schools. Let your pupils feel that their conduct, their tardiness, their promptness, their regularity in attendance, their deportment, their standing in studies will each month go before the eyes of the public and become a source of pride and honor or a cause of shame and sorrow, and you will then begin to see the end sought for in these reports.

Winfield Courier, January 24, 1878.

A state examination can probably be held in this county during the coming summer, should the number of applicants justify the state board in taking such a step. All who are interested in this matter should correspond with this office. Full particulars of requirements will be published soon.

Winfield Courier, January 24, 1878.

To the School Boards of Cowley County:

GENTLEMEN: The law makes it one of your duties to visit your respective schools; your interests as tax-payers ask you to do the same; your relations as patrons of your respective schools demand this work of you. As school officers, as citizens, as parents, do you feel the obligations resting on you in this matter? You can stimulate the scholars in their labors by calling on them while in school; you can see the methods of your teachers; you can judge of their merits and their defects in no other way so well as by visiting, and you can give the teachers the full benefit of your moral, personal, and official help in the discharge of their important duties. If your teacher needs your help in bringing unruly and lawless pupils into subjection, you should be willing and prompt to meet the demand. You should impress the pupils who may be inclined to insubordination with the fact that you are in full accord with the teacher and that you will allow no disobedience, no rudeness, no disorder to go unpunished. The moral obligations of your position demand this of you, and your interests as parents should compel you to assume and maintain such a stand.

Winfield Courier, January 24, 1878.

NORMAL SCHOOLS. No relations of a public nature can be more intimate than those of a teacher to his pupils, and none can be more important than those which he sustains to the agencies and influences that prepare him for his work. Hence, no relations ought to be more cordial than those between the normal schools and every part of that common school system whose mission and purpose are “to secure competent instruction to every child that shall be born.” In the absence of such relations, the normal school as a public institution has no justification for its existence, or if they be merely nominal, if they exist only in theory, then will both the teachers’ seminary and the common school system be shorn of their strength. Said the eminent French statesman, Guizot, in speaking upon this identical subject, “The prosperity of the teachers’ seminary will be the measure of the success of the people’s schools.” He further declares that “without ample provision for the training of teachers, nothing can be done to improve elementary instruction.” Educational Weekly.

Winfield Courier, January 24, 1878.

MISTAKES. It is a mistake for a teacher to suppose that he can keep up with his profession without the aid of school journals.

It is a mistake for a teacher to think that he can get along with school-work without a complete program.

It is a mistake for a teacher to deem it unnecessary to make special preparation for each day’s duties.

It is a mistake for a teacher to think that his duty lies solely in teaching text-book knowledge.

It is a mistake in a teacher to neglect regular and frequent exercises in composition.

It is a mistake to let pupils pass through school without much practical work in letter writing.

It is a mistake for a teacher to allow lip-study by the pupils.

It is a mistake for a teacher to allow whispering among pupils.

It is a serious but common mistake for pupils to be put forward into readers and arithmetics beyond their powers of comprehension.

It is a sad mistake if pupils are not taught honesty, truthfulness, manliness, self-respect in their every day work.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 31, 1878. Front Page.


                                                  WHEN TO SELL A CROP.

EDITOR COURIER: It is a sad comment on human nature that selfishness is dominant and a greed for more controls us; and it is equally true that as often as a grasp is made for more, the realization is far less, and disappointment follows.

As a rule, there is no better time to sell a crop than when it is ready for market. The idea of looking into the future and telling what is to be months hence is all wrong.

The spirit that prompts such a practice is the same that rules and ruins many men in business. The gambler in stocks predicts a margin in certain bonds or stocks, and buys or holds when he could dispose of them at a margin. The farmer has his crops or stock ready for disposal, but thinks that in a week or two prices will advance; so he waits until the price must advance a good percentage or he is a loser, as it costs to hold them. The shrinkage on grain when held is very large. The risk of being destroyed by fire, accident, or malice is considerable. With hogs, cattle, and other livestock there is liability of disease and death, to say nothing of the cost of feeding to keep them in condition. Then, again, the interest on the money is an item, and the freedom from worry and care is also an item that counts in the cost. When wheat, oats, corn, hogs, cattle, or anything else you may have for sale is ready, and you are ready to market it, then is the time to sell.

Experience teaches that those who sell early average a better price for their commodities. Not only all these things, but the seller gets his money and can pay his debts, assist general business, and make better times.

All business is largely dependent on the farmer, and the money for his crops should be put in motion. Hundreds of men fail because the farmer has not sold his crops and paid his debts. The wealth that nature gives in the crops is for the public good, and the farmer that holds his crops and refuses to sell is no better than the capitalist, or the man that lends his money at a high rate of interest, or the monopolist who locks up millions of money.

It is due the public that all these immense products should be so handled as to help commerce and relieve business and businessmen, and still you hear them talk about hard times when the trouble is with themselves, for they will not sell their products at a price that the businessman will take hold of, and bring out the money that is now idle.

                                                                  P. B. R.


Winfield Courier, January 31, 1878.

                                             INDEMNITY SCHOOL LANDS.

It is generally known that for many years the interior department of the general government held that under the act of admission our state was not entitled for school purposes to the 16th and 36th sections of several of our most important Indian reservations. Under this decision the state lost more than 250,000 acres of land that should have been secured for the benefit of common schools.

Last winter ex-governor S. J. Crawford was appointed the agent of the state to prosecute several claims that we have against the general government. His first victory was to secure a decision giving to the state for school purposes lands in lieu of all that had been lost under the ruling referred to above. For some time our state officers have been wrestling with the question, “How shall these lands be selected?” They have reached a decision that we think will be endorsed by everybody.

Usually, in cases of this character, the legislature appropriates money to pay the expenses of commissioners appointed by the governor to do the work. In this case, no appropriation had been made; and unless somebody would advance the money to pay for doing the work, these lands could not be selected until after another session of the legislature. In the meantime, owing to our present heavy, and rapidly increasing immigration, the best lands in the west would be occupied by settlers and the state would be forced to take those of inferior quality. It was felt by all that it would be a great gain to the state for these lands to be selected at once. Our state officers, we are pleased to say, were “equal to the emergency.” They have decided to advance the money to pay the expense attending the selection of these lands, and to trust to the next legislature for reimbursement. This makes each of these officers personally responsible for the manner in which the work is done, and will give us better lands at less expense in selecting them than we would be likely to secure in any other way.

Four commissioners are now in the field locating these lands. They are men of good judgment, and all have had experience in work of this character. They are expected to go up and personally examine each piece of land selected, to take none but first-class land, and not to locate more than two sections in any congressional township. This latter provision will cause the lands to be scattered as to be more valuable to the state, and least detrimental to the counties in which they are located.

It is expected that all these lands will be selected within the next sixty days, or before the heavy immigration that we are certain to receive this spring, has fairly begun. The sooner they are selected the better it will be for the state. We are assured that the work will be pushed as rapidly as the weather will permit.

Winfield Courier, March 7, 1878. Editorial Page.

                                                         Bancroft Bounced!

                                 An Emporia Real Estate Agent in a Tight Place.

  The State Normal School Loses $15,000 to $20,000, and “Still we have no Railroad.”

About eight years ago E. P. Bancroft, at that time a member of the board of regents of the Emporia state normal school, was appointed agent for the sale of the lands belonging to the institution. He continued to serve in this capacity until June last, not reporting during all this time the sale of an acre of land. Soon after his removal he reported land sales during the time of his agency amounting to about four thousand dollars, and paid the sum reported into the state treasury. Until quite recently no suspicion of dishonesty attached to Mr. Bancroft. He was regarded as an energetic, honorable businessman and no one doubted the correctness of his report. About a month ago a man living in western Kansas wrote to the state auditor for the deed to a certain tract of normal school land that he had purchased from Mr. Bancroft, and for the price of which he held Bancroft’s receipts. An examination of the auditor’s books revealed the fact that no report of the sale of this tract of land had been made. A meeting of the board of regents of the normal school was called at once, and ex-Senator Creighton of Labette County, a member of the board, was appointed to investigate the matter. He went first to Saline County, a considerable amount of these lands being located there, and by going from tract to tract found that much of the land had been sold and that the purchasers held Bancroft’s receipts for payments thereto. Some of these lands were sold months after Bancroft’s appointment had been revoked. Also it was discovered that Bancroft had sold and undertaken to convey, without any authority whatever, certain “salt lands” belonging to the state, some of these lands having changed hands several times. Nearly all of these lands are occupied by settlers, and on some of them valuable improvements have been placed.

The normal school lands that were sold during Bancroft’s agency are lost to the state. Those sold since his discharge, and the “salt lands” will be secured to the state, but the loss will fall heavily on the unfortunate purchasers.

The entire amount of the defalcation is not yet known. It is not less than $15,000 and may prove to be twice that sum. As his bond has not been renewed since it was made eight years ago, it is believed to be worthless.

The investigation was conducted so quietly that all the evidence necessary to convict the defaulter was secured before he suspected what was being done. Since he was first suspicioned, escape has been impossible, for the police have watched him constantly. What has been done with the money that has thus been stolen has not yet been determined. As he was the moving spirit in the K. C., E. & S. W. R. R. Co., it is believed by many that he has used it to pay for the grading that has been done on that road. If so, the enterprise will rest for the present.

It seems strange that an enterprising businessman would thus throw himself away. For years he has occupied responsible positions and has had the confidence of the public. Doubtless when he began his peculations he expected to account for every dollar that should come into his hands. He had considered it merely “borrowing.” One downward step leads to another, and today a useful member of society, one who has long been an honored citizen of the state, is ruined because he was not strictly honest.

                              Recap Only: Educational Events in Cowley County.

Winfield Courier, May 23, 1878.


                                                            By R. C. Story.

                                                      Monthly Report—April.

The Normal Institute of Cowley County will be held in Winfield beginning on Wednesday, the 3rd day of July, and closing Wednesday, the 31st day of July, 1878.

Prof. John B. Holbrook, of Ripley Normal School, Tennessee, will act as conductor. Prof. Holbrook is highly endorsed by leading educators in the State as one eminently qualified to make our Normal a complete success.

Prof. George W. Robinson, principal of the city schools of Winfield, will assist in the management of the Institute. Professor Robinson’s success as an instructor in normals and high schools is too well known to call for further praise. . . .

Teachers are requested to note the following requirements for certificates.

Grade “A,” two years, calls for a standing in every branch of not less than 90 percent, and an average of 95 percent, in all.

Grade 1, one year, calls for a standing of not less than 90 percent in all.

Grade 2, six months, calls for an average of 75 percent in all branches, and not less than 70 percent in any one study.

An examination for county certificates will be held, beginning on the 1st day of August  at 8 o’clock a.m.

An examination for state certificates will be held in Winfield, beginning August 26, at 8 o’clock a.m., and continuing through the 27th and 28th.

All parties desiring to attend said examination are requested to write to me at an early day for further particulars.

Winfield Courier, August 1, 1878.

Miss Nellie Aldrich has contracted to teach one year with Professor Holbrook in his normal school in Ripley, Tennessee. This is very complimentary to Cowley County, and Professor Holbrook secures the services of a first-class teacher.

Winfield Courier, August 1, 1878.

Professor G. W. Robinson has won golden opinions from our teachers by his earnest and anxious labors in connection with the normal institute. His work is first-class in every particular. An invitation was given him to go to Labette County to assist Professor Holbrook in normal work there, the coming month.

Winfield Courier, October 31, 1878. Editorial Page.

                                                          SAD DISASTER.

The beautiful State Normal School building at Emporia was destroyed by fire last Saturday morning. The loss is a heavy one, the building being worth about $100,000. The fire was caused by spontaneous combustion of coal stored in the basement of the building. We have not learned whether the building was insured or not.

Winfield Courier, January 30, 1879.

                                                       Teachers’ Directory.

District No. 1: WINFIELD.

Geo. W. Robinson

Emma Saint

Sarah Aldrich

Sarah Hodges

Mary Bryant

Allie Klingman

Ioa Roberts

Connected with Winfield.               District Number

Alice Aldrich                                                                              48

Mattie Minnehan                                                                         43

Mina Johnson                                                                             13

Celina Bliss                                                                       9

Mrs. Alice Bullock                                                        106

R. A. O’Neill                                                                              77

A. B. Taylor                                                                               21

Ella Freeland                                                                              50

Maggie Stansbury                                                         108

Ida Carey                                                                                   97

Elia Hunt                                                                                    90

John Bower                                                                                12

F. Starwalt                                                                     49

S. T. Hockett                                                                             64

Fannie Pontious                                                                          22

Larah E. Sitton                                                               31

District No. 2: ARKANSAS CITY.

C. H. Sylvester                                                   

Mrs. L. M. Theaker

Connected with Arkansas City.       District Number

T. J. Rude                                                                                  51

Lizzie Landis                                                                               42

Chas. Hutchings                                                                          89

J. M. Hawthorn                                                                            6

Albertine Maxwell                                                          32

Charles Swarts                                                               80

H. G. Blount                                                                               41

J. O. Wilkinson                                                               69

Risdon Gilstrap                                                               33

Frank A. Chapin                                                                         10

L. E. Norton                                                                               53

Flora Finley                                                                                34

James Perisho                                                                             62

District No. 20: FLORAL.

G. B. Richmond

Connected with Floral.

Squire Humble                                                                19

District No. 45: TISDALE.

E. A. Millard

Connected with Tisdale.

S. A. Smith                                                                     47

District No. 30: MOSCOW.

R. B. Hunter

District No. 26: LITTLE DUTCH.

T. J. Floyd

Connected with Little Dutch.

R. B. Corson                                                                              81

District No. 52: NEW SALEM.

Ella Davis

Connected with New Salem.

Sarah Bovee                                                                               39

[Miss] Ray Nawman                                                       55

District No. 14: LAZETTE.

Mary A. Tucker                                                                        

Connected with Lazette.

H. T. Albert                                                                                15

Emma Burden                                                                 95

M. Hemenway                                                                94

District No. 5: DEXTER.

W. Trevett

Connected with Dexter.

W. E. Merydith                                                                          54

R. C. Maurer                                                                                7

Allie Hardin                                                                                88

Viola Hardin                                                                               88

S. F. Overman                                                                56

Alpha Harden                                                                             29

District No. 84: CEDAR VALE.

H. P. Attwater

Connected with Cedar Vale.

Alice Dickie                                                                                79

N. P. Seacord                                                                            56

James Seacord                                                               83

District No. 60: POLO.

Thos. B. Kidney

Connected with Polo.

Mrs. Sarah Hollingsworth                                   74

District No. 18: BALTIMORE.

Lou Bedell

District No. 24: ROCK.

Electa F. Strong

Connected with Rock.

E. Limoric                                                                      25

Simeon Martin                                                                29

District No. 72: RED BUD.

J. T. Tarbet

Connected with Red Bud.

R. A. Hall                                                                                   91

District No. 73: DOUGLAS.

L. L. Hollinger

District No. 11: BUSHNELL.

L. McKinley

Connected with Bushnell.

Sadie Davis                                                                                71

District No. 85: SILVERDALE.

Jennie Scott

District No. 8: OXFORD.

Hattie McKinley

District No. 107: OTTO.

E. B. Poole

Winfield Courier, January 30, 1879.


In 1878 the following circular was sent out by the State Superintendent. Circumstances prevented my submitting the matter therein to your attention. The object of this work is an excel­lent one, and it is not too late to begin the desired work. In a short time sample pages of paper, fools-cap size, showing head­ings and rulings, will be sent to every teacher in the county. Can you not put on record the work of your classes? Let some subject be taken every week, or every month if time permits, and have the pupil write the questions and answers on fools-cap paper, using but one side of a leaf. This work, when completed, should be collected and sent to my office. It is intended to use all material thus sent in to make an educational exhibit at our next county fair. Read the circular carefully, then follow its suggestions.

                                                             R. C. STORY

Winfield Courier, January 30, 1879.


TOPEKA, KANS., NOV. 10, 1878.

DEAR SIR:—Most teachers require of their students occasional written exercises in study, recitation, and examination. The value of such exercises is unquestioned. It is now proposed to use them in the collection of the material for an educational exhibit that shall show what is actually being done in all the classes of every grade of schools in the state. Your cooperation in this undertaking is earnestly solicited.

It is proposed that this collection shall be divided into three sections, viz.”

1. Common or country-school work.

2. Graded-school work.

3. The work of higher institutions of learning, including the State University, State Agricultural College, Normal School, and denominational colleges.

To make such a collection valuable, the work should be prepared on a plan that should be followed strictly by all participating schools. To aid in securing uniformity of work, the following rules are respectfully suggested:

1. All exercises should be prepared on paper uniform in size and ruling with the enclosed.

2. The work should be collected by classes; every member of the class should be represented, either by work, or by a sheet of paper on which the teacher shall give the reason of the child’s failure.

3. Use pen and ink in making all written exercises.

4. Specimens of work should be collected from time to time as the teacher thinks best. These should illustrate—(a) methods of study, (b) recitations, (c) examinations. During a term, every member of each class should be required to prepare several papers.

5. Students should not be given time for special prepara­tion for this work. The papers should show the average work of each student, nothing more. Teachers should require their students to be prepared to put themselves upon the record at any time. By so doing, they can make the preparation of these exercises an excellent incentive to study.

6. In assigning a written exercise in study, recitation, or examination, the teacher should announce the time to be given for its preparation, and at the expiration of that time, he should collect all papers and note the exact time in which they had been prepared. These papers should be fastened together and put in covers similar to those sent herewith.

Students’ work prepared as herein suggested, can be made a very interesting part of a school examination. It will give parents and others a better idea of the teacher’s methods, and the actual progress made by students than can be obtained in any other way.

The next meeting of our State Teachers’ Association will be held at Lawrence. Is it not possible to make a collection of school work an interesting and valuable feature of that meeting?

If you think so, and if you are willing that your work shall be compared with that of others, you are requested to begin to make such a collection at once. Attend the meeting of the Associa­tion, if you find it possible, and bring your “fruits” with you. If unable to be present at the meeting, send your work by ex­press, addressed to me, and it will be placed on exhibition. It is proposed, finally, to place the collection in the office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, where it may be examined at any time.

Very respectfully, your ob’t servant,

                                                      ALLEN B. LEMMON,

                                          State Superintendent of Pub. Instruction.

Winfield Courier, March 13, 1879.

                                                         State School Fund.

The quota of state school fund apportioned to this county, amounting to $3,692.62, has been received by the treasurer and is ready for distribution. Superintendent Story informs us that it will amount to 68-1/4 cents per scholar of school age.

About this time they changed name from Normal School to Normal Institute and at other times it was referred to as “Cowley County Normal” or “Normal.” MAW


Winfield Courier, May 15, 1879.

The Cowley County Normal will open Monday, August 4, and will close the first week in September. William A. Wheeler, of Ottawa, Geo. W. Robinson, of Winfield, Miss Lillian F. Hoxie, of Fort Scott, and Superintendent Story will have charge of the classes. Three grades will be formed, and work adapted to each grade will be given. The aim of conductor and instructors will be to make the labors of this session fruitful in the practical work of the school-room.

At the close of the Institute proper a county organization of the teachers will be effected, and two or three days will be given to discussion of the needs of country schools and to consideration of matters of general and special interest to the teachers. Can not every teacher in Cowley county attend this session and start in at the beginning? Teachers must realize the fact that they must either keep abreast of their professional work and progress or else fall behind and out of the ranks.

Winfield Courier, July 31, 1879.

The Normal Institute opened up with an enrollment of 107, and it is expected that fully 125 will be in attendance by next week. We expect next week to give the names of the teachers attending and an account of the progress of the Institute.


Winfield Courier, August 14, 1879.

The Normal is now in fair running order, and the teachers are getting down to hard, solid work. Profs. Wheeler, Story, and Trimble, with their corps of assistants, are working like bea­vers, and there is a united feeling among teachers and pupils to make the time count. The teachers in attendance number 117, and seem as intelligent and as capable of training the young ideas as can be found anywhere.

Below we append a corrected list of those in attendance.

Lorenzo Harris, S. P. Bailey, C. W. Crank, Sarah Boovee, Lou A. Bedell, T. B. Hall, Mina C. Johnson, Mollie L. Rouzee, C. L. Swarts, Martha Thompson, Mary Buck, John L. Ward, John W. Jones, W. E. Ketcham, Squire Humble, C. C. Overman, R. B. Over­man, P. S. Martin, Carrie Morris, Mattie L. West, R. S. White, Jonathan Hunt, Henrietta King, Florence Wood, Effie Randall, Jerry Adams, Ella E. Davis, Mattie E. Minihan, Allie Wheeler, A. B. Taylor, Ray E. Newman, John Bower, Adam L. Weber, R. A. O’Neil, John C. Rowland, Jennie Davy, Rosa Frederick, Flora Ware, Mattie Mitchell, J. J. Harden, Jennie R. Lowry, Mary Cochran, Alice Bullock, Maggie Stansbuerry, Ella Hittle, George Wright, Cinna May Patten, Mrs. J. E. Brown, Elecia Strong, Mary Tucker, Mrs. E. T. Trimble, A. Limerick, E. A. Millard, E. I. Johnson, R. B. Corson, Celina Bliss, Fannie Pontious, Ella A. Kirkpatrick, Ella Kelly, Mrs. S. Hollingsworth, Lizzie Landis, Fannie McKinley, Mrs. L. M. Theaker, Mary S. Theaker, Alice Pyburn, L. C. Brown, T. J. Floyd, Alivin E. Hon, Nettie D. Handy, Alfred Cochran, J. P. Hosmer, Floretta Shields, Ella Akers, Ella Sandford, Lusetta Pyburn, Mrs. Southard, Allie Klingman, Amy Robertson, Annie Hunt, Sarah Hodges, H. G. Blount, Grant Stafford, Risdon Gilstrap, James Lorton, James E. Perisho, Nannie M. McGee, Ella Z. Stuart, Anna O. Wright, T. J. Rude, Nellie R. Waggin, Alice E. Dickie, Inez L. Patten, Ella Freeland, Sarah E. Davis, Mollie Davis, Mattie Walters, Nannie Andrew, Albertine Maxwell, Ella Grimes, H. C. Holcomb, Hattie Warnock, D. S. Armstrong, S. A. Smith, J. F. Hess, Tirzie B. Marshall, C. Hutchins, Arvilla Elliot, Ella Bosley, L. McKinley, James Warren, A. J. Denton, Fannie Skinner, Hattie McKinley, Estella Cronk, Jessie Sankey, Anna Bartlett, Anna L. Norton.

Winfield Courier, August 21, 1879.

We extract the following from a letter in the Ft. Scott Monitor, signed “L. H.” and supposed to have been written by Miss Hoxie, assistant conductor of the Normal Institute.

                                                  “WINFIELD, Aug. 4, 1879.

“That branch of the Santa Fe which is to be extended through Sedgwick and on into Cowley County is rapidly approaching comple­tion. They expect to reach Winfield about the 1st of September. Twenty-four miles of the track are finished, but not in opera­tion. The benefit of the terms upon which the land of old Osage Reservation was settled are plainly visible here. One notices the difference immediately. . . . Cowley County is one of the best in the southern part of the State, and is well developed, being settled by thrifty and intelligent people. While patroniz­ing an old-fashioned stage-coach—whose only advantage consists in allowing a good view of the country—I counted sixty-two wheat stacks in riding a distance of half a mile. In one wheat field there were three sulky plows, each drawn by three mules, employed turning stubble.

“Winfield is a fine town. It contains upwards of 3,000 inhabitants, and is the center of trade for a magnificent farming section. It will soon be a railroad terminus for two lines, and will gain a large amount of Territory trade, which now goes to Wichita.

“It was an interesting sight to see one hundred Indians ride into the latter place last week to trade. They are cash buyers.”

Winfield Courier, September 4, 1879.

The normal institute closed last week, there having been one hundred and thirty-two teachers in attendance. Prof. Story has won high praises by his efficient and untiring efforts to make the institute a success. The examination of teachers closes today.



For three years my labors have been earnestly put forth to advance the cause of education in Cowley county. Thro’ the columns of the county papers, in visits made to a large part of the schools and districts of the county, and in addresses in many neighborhoods this work has been untiringly pushed. The territo­ry is so large, the district so numerous, the interests so vast and so varied that the question of meeting the demands made upon me compels me to seek new and additional forces with which to carry on successfully the duties of my office. In the hope of meeting these demands and duties, and in the broader hope of reaching more widely and more deeply all who are concerned in the welfare of our common schools, this new venture is undertaken. There will be much labor and little money in it. The means to meet the expenses of publishing and editing this paper come from the generous businessmen who advertise in its columns. The full tax however may not be met this way, but the balance will be gladly met should the paper prove to be serviceable in promoting the cause for which it appears.

Its constant aim will be to reach and benefit the pupils and teachers in the public schools, the families from which come teachers and pupils, and the district officers, who are the educational guardians of their people. R. C. STORY, Co. Supt.

Cowley County Teacher, October 8, 1879.

                                                          THE NORMAL.

The attendance at the late Normal Institute was all that could be wished by anyone. For the first time the number of teachers enrolled exceeded the number of districts in the county.         SKIPPED THE REST.

Cowley County Teacher, October 8, 1879.

                                                     TEACHER’S WAGES.

The question is often asked by parties living in the east, what wages do you pay teachers in Kansas?  In this county wages for female teachers, in 1877 and 1878 averaged $25.99; for male teachers, $31.52 per month. The average number of weeks of school was 18.08. The returns for last year are not all in, and no exact estimate can be given. Probably the wages will range about as they were the year before.

The length of terms and the quality of teaching are increas­ing, while districts are growing stronger in value of property and in the number of children. These are the causes that deter­mine the wages of teaching. As districts get out of debt; and grown in school population and in resources, it is natural to infer that better wages will be paid.

Occasionally one hears that teachers have formed a combina­tion to put up wages; or that the examining board advises teach­ers to demand higher wages; or that the county superintendent is seeking to raise the pay of teachers. How or why these silly rumors begin no one can tell. The pay of teachers, like the wages of all working classes, depends on laws which are above the control of superintendents, examining boards, and teachers. The factors that make the wages given teachers are three:  the financial resources of the districts, their freedom from indebt­edness, and the quality of teaching. Only one of these factors can be affected by any influence from teachers or school offi­cials, and that is the quality of the teaching. Who can exert the greatest influence on this factor?  Who would be benefited most, financially, by its increase in worth?  Those who labor in the school-room in the position of teachers. In this county, as elsewhere, good teachers are sought for, and are paid good wages for their labors. When teachers cry out for better wages, they should be told to increase the worth of their wares, and their pay will increase proportionally.

Cowley County Teacher, October 8, 1879.

FIRST PARAGRAPH PARTIALLY TORN...ENDS UP WITH THE FOLLOWING WORDS...”and organized a permanent association.”


The work of the general institute was practical and success­ful, and was summed up in the following resolutions.

Resolved, That monthly reports should be made by teachers strictly in accordance with the blank reports sent out by the county superintendent, and that such reports should be made promptly at the close of each calendar month.

Resolved, That both written and oral class examinations should be held as often as once a month, and that oral reviews should be had at least once a week.

Resolved, That county schools should be divided into pri-

ma­ry, intermediate, and grammar grades, and that the teacher should grade his school according to its needs and advancement.

Resolved, That written work in schools should consist (1) of written preparation for recitations; (2) of written work at recitation; and (3) of writen work at monthly examinations.

Resolved, That this work should be prepared frequently, and kept by the teacher for the inspection of parents, officers, and visitors.

Resolved, That while we, as teachers, do not condemn the judicious attendance of pupils and teachers at socials and lyceums, yet we recommend that such meetings be held only on Friday or Saturday night.

Resolved, That no class of entertainments should continue in session later than 10 o’clock, p.m.

Resolved, That such entertainments should not be held oftener than once in two weeks.

Resolved, That the teachers of Cowley county hereby tender Hon. Allen B. Lemmon their sincere thanks for his recent visit, and for his hearty words uttered in behalf of education. We deeply appreciate the worth of his devoted and untiring efforts in the cause of common schools, and we trust that all true friends of education will recognize in him a worthy and conscien­tious co-laborer.

Resolved, That our thanks are due, and are hereby tendered, to all who have been engaged in working with us in our normal, in the capacity of instructors.

Cowley County Teacher, October 8, 1879.

                                                    Cowley County Teachers.

                                                    WINFIELD—A GRADE.

Prof. E. T. Trimble

Mrs. E. E. Timble

Miss Kate L. Meech

Miss Sarah Hodges

Miss Mina C. Johnson

Miss Allie Klingman

Miss Sarah E. Davis

P. S. Martin

T. Jay Floyd

                                                    WINFIELD—B GRADE.

Miss Nellie Aldrich

Miss Lena Bartlett

Miss Celina Bliss

Miss Hattie McKinley

Miss Ella Freeland

E. P. Hickok

R. A. O’Neil

A. B. Taylor

Lincoln McKinley

John Bower

                                                    WINFIELD—C GRADE.

Miss Mollie Davis

Miss Lusetta Pyburn

Miss Amy Robertson

Miss Rose Frederick

Miss F. M. McKinley

Miss Henrietta King

Miss Mattie Minihan

Miss Ray E. Nawman

Miss F. E. Pontious

Miss Alice E. Pyburn

Miss Maggie Stansbury

Miss Effie Randall

Miss Mattie E. Walters

Mrs. P. B. Seibert

Mrs. Alice Bullock

John C. Rowland

A. E. Hon

Samuel E. Davis

Grant Stafford

Reuben S. White

                                              ARKANSAS CITY—A GRADE.

C. H. Sylvester

Miss Lizzie Landis

Miss Fannie Skinner

Miss Al Maxwell

                                              ARKANSAS CITY—B GRADE.

T. B. Hall

Mrs. L. M. Theaker

Miss Mattie Mitchell

C. L. Swarts

H. G. Blount

Risdon Gilstrap

                                              ARKANSAS CITY—C GRADE.

Miss Jessie Sankey

Miss Mary L. Theaker

Miss A. O. Wright

D. P. Marshall

J. F. Hess

Charles Hutchins


W. D. Noble (State certificate).

R. B. Hunter, (A)

S. A. Smith, (B)

Mrs. Ida C. Brown, (C)

T. J. Johnson, (C)

A. E. Millard, (B)

Miss Gertie Davis, (C)

Miss Sada Davis, (C)

Miss Mattie West (C)


Miss Mary Tucker, (A)

M. Hemenway, (C)

H. F. Albert, (C)

H. T. Albert, (C)

Miss Lu A. Bedell, (C)

Miss Arvilla Elliott, (C)


S. F. Overman, (A)

T. J. Rude, (C)

R. B. Overman, (B)

O. Phelps, (B)

                                                         NEW SALEM—C.

Miss Ella E. Davis

Miss Mary E. Buck

                                                            MAPLE CITY.

W. E. Ketcham, (B)

G. F. Gilliland, (C)

Jas. E. Perisho, (C)


Squire Humble

Lorenzo Harris


Miss Allie E. Dickie, (B)

J. P. Hosmer, (C)

Miss Martha Thompson, (C)


Simeon Martin

Alex. Limerick


D. S. Armstrong

Miss Electa Strong


Mrs. S. E. Sitton

Miss Mollie Rouzee


Mrs. E. Gard


Henry Waters

                                                          LITTLE DUTCH.

R. B. Corson, (A)

Adam L. Weber, (C)


Jennie Scott


Mrs. S. Hollingsworth

                                                            RED BUD—B.

Porter Wilson


P. W. Smith

                                                           SALT CITY—C.

Libbie M. Conrad

S. J. Gilbert


E. W. Woolsey


Winfield Courier, October 16, 1879 - Front Page.

From the Cowley County Teacher.

The question is often asked by parties living in the east, what wages do you pay teachers in Kansas. In this county wages for female teachers, in 1877 and 1878, averaged $25.00; the male teachers, $31.52 per month. The average number of weeks of school was 18.08. The returns for last year are not all in, and no exact estimate can be given. Probably the wages will range about as they were the year before. The length of terms and the quality of teaching are increasing, while districts are growing stronger in value of property and in the number of children. These are the causes that determine the wages of teaching. As districts get out of debt, and grow in school population and in resources, it is natural to infer that better wages will be paid.

Occasionally one hears that teachers have formed a combina­tion to put up wages; or that the examining board advises teach­ers to demand higher wages; or that the county superin-tendent is seeking to raise the pay of teachers. How or why these silly rumors begin, no one can tell. The pay of teachers, like the wages of all working classes, depends on laws which are above the control of superintendents, examining boards, and teachers.

The factors that make the wages given teachers are three: the financial resources of the districts, their freedom from indebt­edness, and the quality of teaching. Only one of these factors can be affected by any influence from teachers or school offi­cials, and that is the quality of teaching. Who can exert the greatest influence on this factor? Who would be benefited most, financially, by its increase in worth? Those who labor in the school-room in the position of teachers. In this county, as elsewhere, good teachers are sought for, and are paid good wages for their labors. When teachers cry out for better wages, they should be told to increase the worth of their wares, and their pay will increase proportionally.


Winfield Courier, October 16, 1879.

The State Superintendent, A. B. Lemmon, states that in the event school district boards have not completed the work of adoption and introduction of school books by the 16th Sept., 1879, the date of the expiration of the new school law, it is their duty and right to proceed until the work is completed.

Winfield Courier, October 30, 1879.

All teachers who want monthly report cards should at once notify the County Superintendent, as he is at work getting up a form for use in the county. The cost will be about fifty cents a hundred.

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879. [Date Not Given.]

Officers of Cowley County Sabbath School Convention.

President:  S. S. Holloway.

Vice President:  John Service.

Secretary:  James McDermott.

Asst. Secretary:  R. C. Story.

Treasurer:  H. D. Gans.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE:  P. B. Lee, W. D. Mowry, W. H. Rose, A. L. Crow, and J. R. Thompson.


Winfield City:  W. O. Johnson.

Walnut:  G. W. Youle.

Pleasant Valley:  Joel Mason.

Vernon:  S. P. Chase.

Tisdale:  V. P. Rounds.

Cresswell:  S. C. Murphy.

Bolton:  Dr. Carlisle.

Beaver:  C. W. Roseberry.

Silverdale:  G. B. Harris.

Dexter:  G. W. Jones.

Spring Creek:  W. E. Ketcham.

Cedar:  Mrs. Strong.

Otter:  C. R. Myles.

Liberty:  Alex. Thompson.

Windsor:  Mrs. S. M. Fall.

Harvey:  Lilburn Smith.

Omnia:  E. A. Henthorn.

Silver Creek:  T. P. Carter.

Richland:  T. R. Carson.

Rock:  A. Limerick.

Maple:  Simeon Martin.

Ninnescah:  Howard Stull.

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

                                               ASSOCIATION DISTRICTS.

For the purpose of holding teachers’ associations in the different parts of the county, the following division of town­ships has been made.

District No. 1. Ninnescah, Maple, and western portion of Rock.

District No. 2. Eastern portion of Rock, Richland, and Omnia.

District No. 3. Harvey, Windsor, Silver Creek.

District No. 4. Walnut, Vernon, Beaver, Pleasant Valley, Tisdale, Liberty, and city of Winfield.

District No. 5. Creswell, Bolton, Silverdale.

District No. 6. Spring Creek, Cedar.

District No. 7. Dexter, Liberty, Otter.

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

                                              THE LATE EXAMINATIONS.

The examinations held in September and October disclosed two serious defects in the education of a majority of our teachers. The lack of accurate knowledge of general literature and of general information is indeed lamentable. What shall be said of applicants who class Shakespeare, Tennyson, Cowper, Dryden, Byron, Milton, among American poets?  Of what use has the study of history been to those who locate Bunker Hill, Lexington, and Yorktown in New Jersey, and who make Franklin and Hamilton generals in the Black Hawk war?  What does that teacher know of curent events who says that the Isthmus of Darien is the “body of water” that connects the Red Sea and the Mediterranean?  Why should so many applicants say that John Brown’s raid was one of the most important events in Kansas history?

One other serious defect in the education of our teachers is shown in the bad spelling, bad composition, and erroneous use of capitals and punctuation marks. Many papers were given in which contained not a single mark of punctuation. Others were found in which capitals seemed to have been scattered broad-cast, in the old manner of sowing wheat.

Such ignorance and such errors must be eradicated. It will take time, labor, and perseverance, but it must be done. Appli­cants for certificates must show an ability to use correct English. They must know something of the present generation and of the current events of national importance.

To secure these two ends follow this course:  Take Swinton’s or Pinneo’s Composition, and study it, making it a basis for much original work in writing. Read a selection, or memorize one--then write it out on paper, and compare this work with the original in regard to capitals, punctuation, spelling, and language. Subscribe for some leading paper of national reputa­tion, and read and study its contents, using atlas, dictionary, and note-book constantly.

To those whose standing has been running low, let a word of warning be given. Make such use of the fall and winter months as will find you next spring able to pass a thorough examination in every subject in which your standing is low. A hint to the wise is sufficient.

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

                            Educational Summary of Cowley County for the Year

                                                      Ending July 31, 1879.

No. of districts organized:  122

No. of districts reported:   122

Total school population:  6,779

No. of pupils enrolled in school:  4,485

Average daily attendance:  2,580

Percentage enrolled:  .66

Percentage in daily attendance:  .38

Percentage not in daily attendance:  .62

No. of persons between 8 and 14  not attending school 3 months:  192

No. of teachers required:  117

Grade “A”:  10

Grade “B”:  76

Grade “C”:  58

Total No. of different teachers employed: 137

Average salary—males:            $30.34

Average salary—females:          $22.10

Average No. of weeks of school session: 21.3

No. of rooms used for schools: 116

No. of private schools: 9

Teachers in private schools: 9

Pupils in private schools: 176

Average weeks of private schools: 10

Reported No. of persons over 16  who cannot read or write: 60

Estimated value of buildings and grounds: $52,251

Estimated value of furniture: $6,966

Estimated value of apparatus: $1,208

Amount of bonds issued this year: $2,590

Present bonded indebtedness: $36,738

Assessed valuation of personal property: $370,043

Assessed valuation of real property: $1,443,942

No. of districts furnished with record books: 89

No. of districts furnished with unabridged dictionaries: 16

No. of districts that have uniform text-books: 89

No. of persons examined: 177

Average age of applicants: 23

No. of applications rejected: 36

No. of certificates granted: 141

No. of districts visited by county superintendent: 64

No. of visits made by Co. Supt.: 134

No. of new districts organized: 6

No. of districts having 3 months school: 108

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

                                                     FINANCIAL EXHIBIT.

Balance in hands of district treasurers July 31, 1878: $3,328.82

Amount received for teachers’ wages: $15,144.42

Amount received from State Fund: $5,420.95

Amount received site & building fund: $1,844.41

Amount received library fund: $121.80

Amount received sale of bonds: $2,360.00

Amount received all other sources: $1,753.27

Amount received from all sources: $29,973.41

Amount paid for teachers’ wages: $17,420.89

Amount paid for rents, fuel, etc.: $4,285.36

Amount paid for text books: $440.92

Amount paid for books for library: $51.50

Amount paid for maps and apparatus: $289.33

Amount paid for sites, buildings: $3,126.47

Total amount paid out: $35,614.47

Amount in hands of district treasurers Aug. 1, 1879: $4,359.10

                                         TEXT-BOOKS USED IN DISTRICTS.

Reading and Orthography.

McGuffey: 17

Harvey: 19

Monroe: 14

Edward: 16

Independent: 43


Ray: 36

Felter: 7

Hagar: 10

Peck: 17

White: 39


Spencerian: 53

Eclectic: 40

Feltor’s Book-Keeping: 5

Swinton’s Language Series: 15


Mitchell: 2

Warren: 9

Eclectic: 26

Monteith: 33

Harper: 29


Harvey: 46

Greene: 14

Swinton: 6

Clark: 27


Barnes: 45

Ridpath: 3

Goodrich: 6

Anderson: 8

Venable: 5

Beard: 5

Swinton: 10

Unabridged Dictionaries: 16

                                                      COUNTY NORMAL.

Enrollment: 131

Average attendance: 101

Amount on hand at close of last year’s Normal: $11.00

Amount from examination fees: $177.00

Amount from registration fees: $125.00

Amount from State: $50.00

Amount from county: $70.40

                                                           TOTAL: $433.40

Amount paid instructors: $356.60

Amount for current expenses: $76.80

                                                      Total paid out: $433.40

No. of districts having nine months’ school: 5

No. of districts having six months’ school: 42

No. of districts having four months’ school: 33

No. of districts having three months’ school: 28

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

Five teachers sent in reports for September, districts 29, 42, 48, 77, and 99.

The Winfield teachers are over-worked, and two of them think of going out of the service.

Miss Fannie McKinley is seriously ill. Hopes of her recov­ery have been given up by her friends.

Sixty-seven teachers have reported contracts made for teaching school, while only 39 have sent in reports for work done in October.

A supply of the new edition of the School law has been received, and district clerks can get copies by calling at the Superintendent’s office.

Six hundred copies of the first and seven hundred copies of this number of the TEACHER have been sent out. This paper goes into the hands of every teacher and school official in the county.

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

A Teachers’ Directory was given in this issue.

The Districts for Teachers Listed was given.

“This list is made from postal cards sent in by teachers. Those whose names are not in this list will please report prompt­ly on making contracts with district boards.”

Winfield Courier, November 13, 1879.

Two of the most efficient of the Winfield teachers, Miss Johnson and Miss Meech, have tendered their resignations, to take place at the close of the present term. The crowded condition of our schools makes it almost impossible for a teacher to keep up with the work. The grammar department, over which Miss Meech presides, had an average attendance for the month of October of 52, when 40 is as many as one person can possibly teach and do justice to the pupils. Some step should be taken in this matter.

Cowley County Teacher, December, 1879.

Miss Fanny McKinley has recovered from her late serious illness.

The problem given in the November TEACHER was solved by Miss Fannie Skinner, Miss Henrietta King, Jerry Adams, and Harry C. Shaw, the last named being a pupil of Miss Lizzie Landis and aged thirteen years.

Winfield Courier, December 4, 1879.

The school examinations for the present term will occur in the High school on Wednesday and Thursday and in the other rooms on Thursday and Friday. The examinations will be both oral and written, and by attending parents can judge of the advancement of their children. The teachers will be pleased to have parents and friends of the schools present at the examinations.


Winfield Courier, December 4, 1879.

ED. COURIER: Is Winfield a first class city? And does it propose to keep that rank among the cities of Kansas? If such are its pretentions and aspirations, would it not be well to stir up the school board to a proper realization of the educational demands from towns that plume themselves on being first class?

If the glory of our county lies in its system of free schools, does not our share of that glory grow beautifully less when our schools are run on a basis that was demanded for them when the city was half its present size? When there were less than four hundred children in the district, six rooms and six teachers were considered necessary. Now, when there are nearly eight hundred children, six teachers and six rooms are still deemed suffi­cient! Granting that only half the children of school age attend regu­larly, that would give more than sixty pupils to a room. And what are the facts? In the COURIER of a few weeks ago a state­ment of the enrollment was given by rooms or departments, and it is seen that the total enrollment was 378 and the average atten­dance 329, thus giving an average of over fifty to each teacher. But the case is still worse if we look at the schools separately. The primary schools had an average attendance during October of 69 and 63; the intermediate, 54 and 60; the grammar, 52; and the high school, 31. Here we find our rooms overcrowded, three in a seat, and many of them scattered promiscuously around the ros­trums, or hanging on the corners of teachers’ desks. But to cap the climax, our children below seven are forced out of school because there is not room for them! Then to make matters even worse, those who do go to the primary school can drink at the fountain of learning only half a day at a time. Truly somebody needs punching up, and if it isn’t the board, who in the world is it? Why don’t they rent rooms, and employ three or four more teachers? A couple of temporary frame buildings could be erected at an expense of two or three thousand dollars, and our children could then be allowed to go to school. I for one don’t like the way things run in the school line. A FATHER.


Winfield Courier, December 11, 1879.


In presenting to the School Board and citizens the above report, I wish to call attention to a few facts regarding the term’s work in the different departments of the public schools.

According to the school census taken last fall, there were in the school district 132 persons of school age. Since that time some territory has been admitted into the school district, and the number has been still further increased by families moving into the city. Owing to the fact that we have but six rooms, it was necessary to keep all under seven years of age out of the schools.

During the present term there has been enrolled in all the departments 550 pupils; 113 of these have for various reasons withdrawn, leaving an actual attendance of 437. Could this number be equally divided, it would give 73 pupils to each room. But this cannot be done, as the greater number are in the Primary and Intermediate departments. In the First Primary there is at present an attendance of 107, with a daily average of 70 for the term. The last week of the present term the daily average was 86. In the Second Primary there are 86 pupils in attendnce, with an average of the last week of the term of 74.

In the First Primary it became necessary to divide the school into two divisions, and have one division attend in the forenoon and the other in the afternoon, as there are not seats to accommodate over one half the pupils.

In some of the other rooms, pupils are compelled to sit three in a seat, and should there be an increase in attendance during the coming term, there will be no alternative but to divide the other departments as has already been done in the First Primary.

The work of the term, while as good as could be expected under the cirrcumstances, cannot but be unsatisfactory to both parents and teachers, for no teacher can do thorough work under such unfavorable circumstances.

By an examination of the above report, it will be seen that the average attendance is not so large as it should be, and yet it is really larger than could be expected, as it is not surpris­ing that children should prefer to remain away from school when they are obliged to sit on the rostrum while there.

If we are to have prosperous and pleasant schools, some steps should immediately be taken to provide better facilities. With the present enrollment we should have at least two more teachers, and were we to admit children between 5 and 7 years, we would need at least four more teachers.

It certainly is a wise policy for any community to furnish the best of facilities in the way of public schools, as no other ever does so much toward raising a people to that plain of knowledge and enlightenment upon which every American citizen should stand.

In a state having a compulsory school law, every community should have the power to provide schools for all its children, and it is unjust that people should be compelled to pay school tax and yet be obliged to send their children to private schools.

                                             Yours respectfully, E. T. TRIMBLE.

Cowley County Teacher, January, 1880.

T. J. Floyd has gotten married, and of course will make no school reports during the next few months.

Foster Tucker came home from the State University to spend the holidays. He likes his school well, and reports all inter­ests flourishing.

George Thompson, of Baltimore, now a student in the Agricul­tural College, Manhattan, writes us a pleasant letter about that institution. He seems well pleased with the school, and is making good progress.

Cowley County Teacher, February, 1880.

                                                    Teachers’ Examination.

An examination of applicants for teachers’ certificates will  be held March 19 at Winfield. The work will begin at 9 a.m. precisely.

Certificates will be issued as follows: Grade B to every applicant whose average standing is 90, and who falls below 80 in no one subject. Grade C to every applicant whose average stand­ing is 80, and who falls below 70 in no one branch. Answers to questions will be carefully examined and rigidly graded. Candi­dates must show good scholarship in the papers submitted to entitle them to certificates. The standard herein mentioned will be insisted upon invariably.

The subjects on which examinations will be made are Orthog­raphy, Orthoepy, Reading, Penmanship, Geography, Arithmetic, Grammar, U. S. History, U. S. Constitution, and Theory and Practice. R. C. STORY, County Superintendent.


Winfield Courier, February 26, 1880

The State fund for 1880 and 1881 will  be about one-half what it has been in years past. Instead of 70 cents per capita of school population the apportionment will be 30 or 35 cents. This will make considerable difference in the teacher’s fund in many districts. This is attributable to the wise (!) spirit of economy that the last legislature manifested. Teacher.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880. [Vol. I, No. 6.]

                                                      DEXTER SCHOOLS.

My school is running delightfully, not a single case of tardiness this month; the concentration of mind to business is excellent, the daily results very gratifying. We have a young class in bookkeeping, full of promise, one in physisiology, one in botany, and rigid and exacting reviews. The work in defining words and using them has grown fascinating, and the buying of dictionaries is becoming lively. I am much encouraged by the enthusiasm that has arisen to dig to the bottom, to the very root. The large boys have left for work, but I am surprised and pleased that our best classes go on climbing, with plenty of good scholars.

                                                              O. PHELPS.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

                                                        Duties of Teachers.

ART. VI., SEC. 1, School Law:  It shall be the duty of the teachers of every district or graded school to keep, in a regis­ter for this purpose, a daily record of the attendance, and the deportment of each pupil, and of the recitation of each pupil in the several branches pursued in such school, and to make out and file with the district clerk, at the expiration of each term of the school, a full report of thw whole number of scholars admit­ted to school during such term, distinguishing between male and female, the text books used, the branches taught, and the number of pupils engaged in the study of said branches, and any other information the district board or county superintendent may require. Teachers:  how many of you kept the records required in the foregoing law?  How many of you made such a record of the standing of each pupil in your schools that your successors can follow you without any loss of time, or trouble in organizing their schools?

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

District 124 was organized last week.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

One hundred and seventeen schools were in session in Cowley county during the last fall and winter.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

About fifty percent of the applicants at the February and March examinations failed to get certificates.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

District 116 had an arbor day this spring and put out 81 forest trees about the school-house. Good! Who else can say as much?

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

C. C. Holland, formerly a teacher in this county, returned recently from Ann Arbor, Michigan. He comes back with a sheep­skin marked LL. B.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

Arrangements have been partly made for the Normal of the coming summer. It will come off in July. Miss Hoxie will again be with us and assist in work.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

No March number of THE TEACHER was issued. The examinations and other duties threw the issue of the paper so late in the month that it was deemed well to publish the number as the April issue.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

NOTE:  There was a breakdown of taxes and state fund [1873 to 1879]. The figures showed money drawn by district treasurers from taxes, State and county fund from August 1872 to August 1879. Only dollars were given.


District 1:

1878-1879  $5,910

1877-1878  $3,069

1876-1877  $2,358

1875-1876  $   853

1874-1875  $1,540

1873-1874  $   867


Winfield Courier, April 15, 1880.

The fatality attending the teachers’ profession is truly alarming. There were Miss Buck, Miss Johnson, Miss King, Scott, who bravely began work last fall! Now where and who are they? Go ask Judge Gans. “And still there’s more to follow.”

Winfield Courier, April 15, 1880.

In the statement of moneys drawn from the county treasury by school district treasurers, made in the Teacher for April and printed in the COURIER of last week, the first line of figures given with each district shows the taxes, the second line the State fund drawn each school year since 1872. Supt. R. C. STORY.


Winfield Courier, April 29, 1880.

                                                     OTTO, Ks., 4, 15, 1880.

We are determined you should know that the good people of Cedar still live, prosper, and enjoy life, notwithstanding their remoteness from the railroad city, Winfield.

Elder Hunt, of Wellington, Sumner county, the noted Adventist revivalist, having recently held a series of meetings at Virgil school-house, seems to have made a profound impression. Some ten or twelve of the best citizens joined with him in looking for the near coming of our Savior.

I have not noticed the name of Prof. Story among the names of eligible citizens for county and state officers. It may, in some cases, be well enough to object to the third term, but it would surely be doing ourselves a great injustice to drop Mr. Story at this time. He has certainly labored with indefatigable industry in every department of his office which has required his attention. The sleet, the mud, and the coldest weather has found him in remote parts of the county, patiently visiting schools and inquiring into their wants and needs. His experience in the great law school at Ann Arbor, Michigan, makes him master of all the law required. One term is needed to acquaint him with the duties of his office; a second to acquire a thorough knowledge of his 130 districts, their various wants, their citizens, and school officers, the teachers of the county, etc. Verily we say Mr. Story is just now prepared to make an efficient Superinten­dent. We are informed by one who doubtless knows that Mr. Story, so far from making anything, has actually sunk money since his induction into office. Cedar township will go solid for him, and my acquaintance with Dexter, Spring Creek, and Otter townships confirms me in the belief that they both look for and expect Mr. Story to be their next County Superintendent.

The above remarks will apply in large degree to the Hon. A. B. Lemmon. We, in southeastern Cowley, expect nothing else, and will accept nothing short of Mr. Lemmon as our next State Super­intendent, but as the entire State is of the same mind, few words will sufffice. Tediously, but earnestly, I. KNOW.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

The Normal Institute will open the first Monday in July.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

Miss Lillian F. Hoxie, Orlin Phelps, E. T. Trimble, and R. C. Story will be the teaching force in the July Normal.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

Purchasers of school lands should carefully comply with the provisions of the law regarding these lands. Several purchasers in the county have forfeited their lands by failure to pay interest when due.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

Miss Carrie Morris and Miss Ella Davis, determined not to be behind Misses Strong, King, Buck, Johnson, and Scott, and Messrs. Floyd and Robinson, have taken life certificates. A few other teachers are quietly moving in the same direction, but we won’t mention their names at this time. Send us some of the cake.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

The course of study will be sent to anyone who wishes to attend the Normal.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

Several young men went from this county to Newton to attend the examination for West Point.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

An examination of applicants for teachers’ certificates will take place the first week in August.

                                                   THIS MARKS THE END.


                                 [OCTOBER 8, 1879, THROUGH MAY, 1880.]

Winfield Courier, May 13, 1880.

Prof. Trimble will conduct the Normal Institute in Labette County this year.

Winfield Courier, May 20, 1880.

Mr. A. J. Worden, of Vernon township, is talked of as a candidate for Superintendent of Public Instruction. Mr. Worden is an early resident of this county, a bright young man, and a fine scholar. He has had experience in some of the best Ohio schools and in this state, and is a graduate of the New York State Normal School at Buffalo. He would no doubt make an excellent officer in that capacity.

Winfield Courier, May 27, 1880.

The Cowley County Normal meets July 5th. It promises to be the most successful one yet held here.

Winfield Courier, July 8, 1880.

The Normal opened Monday with a large attendance. Prof. Story is making the Cowley county Normal one of the best in the state, and his success should be as gratifying to himself as it is edifying to the teachers.


Winfield Courier, July 8, 1880.

Miss Lillian Hoxie, who will assist in the Normal Institute, arrived last Friday evening. She is stopping at the Olds House with her brother, S. E. Hoxie, who has been here some weeks. Miss Hoxie made many friends while here last summer, who will gladly welcome her return on account of her pleasant companion­ship as well as her able assistance rendered in the Normal Institute.


Winfield Courier, July 15, 1880.

The Normal Institute for 1880 has opened with a large attendance of teachers. Four instructors have charge of the divisions, and the aim of all is to make this summer’s work especially practical. The morning exercises begin at 7:30, in the courtroom, and the recita-tions end at 1 p.m. There are at present enrolled 79 teachers as follows.

Arkansas City: Susie L. Hunt, Mrs. F. E. Phelps, Ella Grimes, Chas. W. Grimes, R. C. Gaily, Mattie F. Mitchell, Flora L. Finley, Linnie Peed, Blanche Marshall, Sadie E. Pickering, Elva Pickering, Rose Sample, Chas. Hutchings, Mary S. Theaker, Durwin Hunter, Jessie Sankey, Thirza Dobins, Chas. W. Finney, Mrs. L. M. Theaker, Alice M. Warren, Alto Maxwell, S. C. Murphy, Will M. Penderson, Jerry L. Adams, Frank Chapin, and Nellie Swarts.

Winfield: Ella Freeland, Mrs. W. B. Caton, A. E. Hon, Nannie McGee, Estella M. Cronk, Iowa Roberts, Maggie Stansbury, Ella Hittle, Fannie A. Pontious, Ray E. Newman, Amy Robertson, Mary J. Melville, Rosa Frederic, Lincoln McKinley, Mattie Gibson, E. L. Cook, Anna F. Cuppage, James Lorton, Alice Aldrich, Lena Bart­lett, Nellie Aldrich, Ida G. Trezise, Nettie B. Porter, Sarah Hodges, Grace Scovill, Lou Lee, Lutie Newman, W. B. Dickerson, J. J. Stevens, Lena McNeil, Alice Bullock, Mary Randall, Hattie Andrews, A. B. Taylor, Ed Farringer, Ella Kelly, Mrs. A. M. Gillespie.

Burden: Arvilla Elliott, Richard L. Winn, Shadrach Chan­dler, Nannie A. Crum, E. A. Millard.

Dexter: Ada Overman, J. M. Merry, R. B. Overman.

Cambridge: R. C. Stearns.

Tisdale: Rosa A. Rounds and Mattie West.

Milton: Nellie D. Handy.

Silver Cliff, Colorado: C. C. Holland.

Grenola: Alice E. Dickie.

New Salem: L. C. Brown.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 11, 1880.

The Normal has closed, and our city once more looks natural, now that the young ladies are among us again. They report a jolly time at the county seat.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 11, 1880.

C. C. Holland, after a two months’ visit in Cowley County for the purpose of attending the Normal, left for Silver Cliff, Colorado, this week. There is no doubt but Chris. will secure his certificate.

Winfield Courier, August 19, 1880.

Supt. Lemmon has gone to the northwestern part of the state on his final trip visiting normal institutes. The remainder of his official term will be largely devoted to the prepara-tion of his forthcoming biennial report. Most of this work will be done here. When down last week he rented the residence of L. J. Webb, Esq., east of the city and will occupy the same until his own house on Ninth Avenue is vacated, enlarged, and repaired.


Arkansas City Traveler, September 1, 1880. Front Page.

                                              TEACHERS’ RESOLUTIONS.

At the close of the recent Normal Institute the teachers of Cowley County met in their annual association. Two days were spent in the consideration of topics of interest to teachers, to schools, to school boards, and to the public generally. It is probable that at no association in the state have questions of wider or deeper significance been discussed by teachers. This fact shows the advanced standing held by the teachers of Cowley County. Their resolutions were as follows.

Resolved, That it is unwise to admit children under seven years of age to our public schools, as they are too young for anything but the kindergarten work, which cannot be given in our ordinary schools, and when they are thus admitted, three hours a day should be the utmost limit of their stay, lest they be injured in health and stupefied and dwarfed in mind.

Resolved, That, in addition to the indispensable studies of reading, writing accounts, and language, including orthography, orthoepy, correspondency, business forms—we should carefully and zealously cultivate the aesthetic nature of the young, by the studies of man, literature, poetry, plants, insects, and all that is beautiful around us, as an essential condition or happi­ness, and a shield from vice.

Resolved, That district clerks be paid a reasonable compen­sation for their services.

Resolved, That the power of changing district boundaries should be transferred from the county superintendent to some other persons.

Resolved, That the law of the state should require school boards to furnish at least fifteen square yards of black board for each school room.

Resolved, That true economy would justify, and a just pride in our schools should encourage the surrounding of our schoolhouse with grateful shade, both for protection and ornament.

Resolved, That experience has proved in other states the great superiority of the township system of schools, and we ask its adoption throughout our state, including the appointment of county superintendent by the township trustees, since it has been shown to be thus less fluctuating than when an elective office, and the best men are thus retained longer in the places in which they excel.

Resolved, That successful work in the school room should entitle the teachers to a certificate recognizing such work, and that certificates of high grade should become permanent after thorough examination in the school room and before the examining board.

Resolved, That the holding of low grade certificates for two successive years should render the holder ineligible to the office of teaching.

Resolved, That general information should take prominent place in the studies and in the examination of teachers.

Resolved, That this association meet monthly, holding its sessions in Winfield, Arkansas City, and Burden.

Resolved, That monthly reports should be made by the teacher promptly at the end of each calendar month and that the same should be at once sent to the county superintendent.

Resolved, That we would rebuke and condemn as unworthy of our profession any persons, who so far disregards a decent respect for an obedience to the school law of the State as to teach in our public schools without a certificate, or after it has expired, and believe a school board deserves prosecution that is so disorderly as to expend school money for such lawless teaching.

The officers for the following year are:

President, R. C. Story.

Vice President, E. A. Millard.

Secretary, J. R. L. Adams.

Assistant Secretary, Linnie Peed.

Executive committee—Orlin Phelps, Ella Freeland, M. J. Melville, W. E. Ketcham, A. Limerick.     Commonwealth.


Winfield Courier, September 2, 1880.

The following persons hold certificates at this time and are legally qualified to contract with school boards.


                                                               GRADE A.

Mary J. Melville.

Arah E. Davis.

P. S. Martin.

T. J. Floyd.

R. B. Corson.

Nellie M. Aldrich.

Lena Bartlett.

                                                               GRADE B.

Allie E. Dickie.

Mrs. Will B. Caton.

A. B. Taylor.

Ella Freeland.

Lena McNeil.

                                                               GRADE C.

William Wycoff.

Anna F. Cuppage.

W. B. Dickerson.

Rosa Frederick.

A. E. Hon.

Nannie McGee.

Caro F. Meech.

Ray E. Nawman.

Fannie Pontius.

Amy Robertson.

Mrs. P. B. Seibert.

Maggie Stansbury.

Mrs. Flora Ward.

J. J. Stevens.

R. S. White.

                                                        ARKANSAS CITY.

                                                               GRADE A.

Fannie B. Skinner.

Albertine Maxwell.

Mrs. Lizzie L. Standley.

Frances Pehlps.

Orlin Phelps.

Mary Theaker.

Mattie F. Mitchell.

                                                               GRADE B.

J. R. L. Adams.

Chas. Hutchins.

Jas. E. Perisho.

Mrs. L. M. Theaker.

                                                               GRADE C.

Ghyrza Dobyns.

Flora Finley.

R. C. Galley.

Ella Grimes.

W. N. Henderson.

Derwin Hunter.

Susie L. Hunt.

Blanche Marshall.

S. C. Murphy.

Linnie Peed.

Sada Pickering.

Jessie Sanky.


S. F. Overman. - B.

R. B. Overman. - B.

Ada Overman. - C.

A. P. Cochran. - C.


H. T. Albert. - B.

H. F. Albert. - B.

M. Hemenway. - B.

R. O. Stearns. - C.


Mary A. Tucker. - A.

E. A. Millard. - A.

Arvilla Elliott. - B.

S. Chandler. - C.


T. H. Aley. - B.

Martha Thompson. - B.

J. H. Bartgis. - C.

S. T. Hockett. - C.


Sada E. Davis. - C.

Rosa Rounds. - C.

Mattie West. - B.

                                                            MAPLE CITY.

W. E. Ketcham. - B.


Porter Wilson. B.

P. W. Smith. - B.


L. McKinley. - B.


Mrs. H. Knickerbocker. B.

Mrs. A. M. Gillespie. - C.

W. H. Funk. - C.

                                                            NEW SALEM.

L. C. Brown. - C.


Nettie D. Handy. - C.


F. A. Chapin. - C.


A. Limmerick. - B.


Winfield Courier, November 25, 1880.

The Winfield schools are underway with ten rooms occupied and ten teachers, viz:

Mrs. Will B. Caton, first primary, first ward, north room, first floor.

Miss Mary A. Bryant, first primary, second ward, south room, first floor.

Miss Laura Bartlett, second primary, first ward, east room, first floor.

Miss Jennie Melville, second primary, second ward, north room, first floor.

Miss Alice Aldrich, first intermediate, first ward, west room, first floor.

Miss Allie Klingman, first intermediate, second ward, south room, second floor.

Miss Cook, second intermediate, first ward, north room, second floor.

Miss Sarah Hodges, second intermediate, second ward, north room, second floor.

Prof. A. Gridley, Jr., grammar, first ward, east room, second floor.

Prof. E. T. Trimble, high school, first ward, west room, second floor.

The schools will soon be perfectly organized, graded, and in the best working order.

Prof. Trimble is the principal and Prof. Gridley, assistant. Their departments receive pupils from both wards, in the other departments the pupils will attend the schools in their own wards.

Winfield Courier, December 16, 1880.

The school board is making arrangements to fit up the old frame school house and will employ two more teachers. It seems almost impossible to get school room enough for all the children in Winfield. Two of the school rooms have enrolled over one hundred scholars each and all the others are crowded.


Winfield Courier, December 23, 1880.

The meeting of teachers, Saturday, was well attended. Professor Trimble had charge of the class in algebra and physiol­ogy. Superintendent Story had the class in geometry. The exercises were in every way commendable. The opportunity of “going higher” in these studies will be improved by many of our teachers. The query is, why don’t all of them join in this work? Without question physiology will be added to the list of subjects for the examination of teachers, while algebra may become one of those necessary for a first grade certificate. Be this as it may, the teachers who have gone into this course of study and work will grow, while many who do not will get the dry rot. The recitation in primary reading, conducted by Miss Mary Bryant, gave the teachers a clear idea of the best method of beginning reading. The word, the phonic, the sentence, and the alphabet methods can be combined and followed with success. The debate on the compulsory educational law was conducted by Messrs. Hickok and Trimble. The fact was brought out that this law is occasion­ally the means of getting boys and girls into school who would otherwise be out all the time. The next meeting will be January 15, 1881.

Teachers present:  Messrs. Trimble, Gridley, Hickok, Corson, Hutchins, Thompson, Wilson, Beaumont, Armstrong, McKinley and Dickinson; Mrs. Will B. Caton, Misses Bryant, Klingman, Cook, Aldrich, Melville, Dickie, Freeland, Davis, Hunt, Bowman, Kelly, Rounds, Frederick, Dobyns, and McKinley. Several other teachers were in town, but were too busy to attend the meeting. The program for the January session will be review and multiplication in algebra, the first book in geometry, and circulation in physiology. Teachers take hold of this work now.

Winfield Courier, January 27, 1881.

President Welch, of the Emporia Normal School, will lecture on Friday evening, Feb. 4th, at Manning’s Hall. The proceeds of the lecture will be given to the public schools of Winfield for the purchase of apparatus.

Winfield Courier, January 27, 1881.

We would call attention to the statement of A. A. Wiley, and many others state the same, that in the fall of 1879 the whole country of the Indian Territory south of us was burned over. It is well known that the greater part of the prairies of this county were also burned over. The same thing happened in the fall of 1873. Since then there has been no year in which these fires were general in the country about us and southwest of us except the fall of 1879.

The summer of 1874 was our dry season when most of our crops failed and we were surrounded by distress and want. The editor of this paper spent a great deal of time during the fall of 1874 obtaining and comparing information, statistical and otherwise, with regard to all countries which have suffered for want of rain, so far as such information was in his reach. He examined the theories of the writers on physical geography carefully, examined and compiled the facts, and gave the general conclusions to which he arrived in a lecture which he subsequently delivered to the teachers association in this city; to the affect that always in those countries where the ground is well covered with forest or vegetation, whether dry or green, there is always plenty of rainfall, and in countries where dry ground, whether rock, sand, or clay prevails, there is little or no rain; that in a country which is bare one year and covered the next, will be drouth one year and plenty of rainfall the next; and he predicted that for the future of our country in those years following the widest range of prairie fires, there would be the greatest drought; and in those years following least prairie fires, would be most rain.

He reasoned that as there is always during the spring and summer months enough moisture in the vapor of the upper currents, which are always passing over us in a northeast direc­tion from the equatorial seas, to deluge the whole country if rapidly condensed; that as this is the source of nearly all our rainfall, that all other sources are “but as a drop in the bucket!” The vapor in these upper currents must be more or less condensed while passing over us or we can have no rain.

He called attention to the facts that on account of electri­cal and other changes in the atmosphere, there condensations would frequently take place if not prevented by warm air rising into them or the radiation of heat from the earth; that the direct rays of the sun do not heat the atmosphere, nor to any considerable extent ground covered by forests or vegetable matter, but that they do heat bare ground to a very important extent; that the air is only heated by coming in contact with something hot, as heated earth; that hot air rises and warms the vapor laden currents, preventing the chill which condenses the vapors; and that therefore it cannot rain on wide tracts of bare earth except in times of rare and violent convulsions. The predictions he made that year have been verified every year since.

In the fall of 1876 [think this was a typo...1879 seems more likely as the date that should be used], the prairies around us and southwest of us were generally burnt over and the result was very little rain and failure of crops in 1880 following. Since 1879 he has frequently repeated these views in the COURIER.

The outlook is now bright for 1881. The prairies are not yet burned over. Do not let any fire get out this winter and spring if it can possibly be prevented. Do not say it is a mere hobby but act on it if possible this year and see the result.

Winfield Courier, February 3, 1881.

We have just heard that a school teacher was fined by a justice for whipping an unruly and disobedient pupil. The teacher was right, and the J. P. was wrong. The law does allow a reasonable amount of punishment by teachers in order to secure obedience, respect, and diligence. Only when the punishment becomes cruel, does the law interfere.


Winfield Courier, February 3, 1881.

The Teachers’s Association met in the high school building Saturday week. Present: Trimble, Hickok, Jewett, Limerick, Bower, Carson, Story; Mrs. W. B. Caton, Misses Melville, Dickie, Bartlett, Kelly, Davis, Cook, West, Frederick, and Bowman.

The work in algebra and physiology was very satisfactory. The time for geometry was too limited for much work.

The next meeting will be held February 12th, when the subjects of division in algebra, respiration in physiology, and the second book in geometry will be reviewed.

Messts. Trimble, Hickok and Story, and Misses Cook and Melville, reported the following petition and resolutions.

To the honorable members of the Kansas Legislature:

Gentlemen: The undersigned citizens of Cowley county, Kansas, most respectfully ask your attention to the following suggested changes in the school law. We respectfully ask that such changes be made, should they seem in your judgment desirable for the good of the public schools of the state.

1st: That a state certificate and no less than three years work in the public schools be made prerequisite qualifications to the county superintendency.

2nd: That the county superintendent be required to give his entire time to the schools of the county.

3rd: That the township system of schools be substituted for our present district system.

4th: That high grade certificates be clothed with a degree of permanency attainableupon successful work in the school room.

5th: That the annual school meeting be changed from August to June, or to an early day in July.

The third and fifth recommendations drew out considerable debate, but were approved by a majority of the teachers present.

Petitions with these recommendations will be circulated for signatures and then will be sent to the Solons at Topeka.


Winfield Courier, February 3, 1881.

Quite an incident occurred yesterday in one of the rooms of the west side school house. Miss Melville, one of the teachers, attempted to punish a boy about 14 years of age, when the young offender drew a revolver to defend himself with. The plucky teacher relieved the boy of his weapon on very short notice, and gave him a threshing he probably won’t forget very soon.

Winfield Courier, February 17, 1881.

The next meeting of the county teachers’ association will be March 12. The storm interfered with the meeting Saturday.


Winfield Courier, March 31, 1881.

WINFIELD: Misses Loy Pyburn, Maggie Stansbury, Ella Hittle, Jennie Carey, Caro F. Meech, Maggie Seabridge, Ella S. Kelly, Messrs. I. N. Lemmon, and W. B. Dickerson.

BURDEN: George Wright.

CAMBRIDGE: Miss Sue Weaverly.

NEW SALEM: Miss Jane Whetstone.

DEXTER: Thomas J. Rude. H. H. Fawcet, E. C. Million, Misses Ida M. Black and Florence Goodwin.

FLORAL: Mrs. A. M. Gillespie.

TISDALE: Miss Sadie Cains.

GLEN GROUSE: Mrs. D. M. Pomeroy.

CEDARVALE: J. H. Bartgis.

OXFORD: Mrs. P. B. Seibert.

UDALL: Mrs. L. C. Turner. Telegram.

Winfield Courier, April 7, 1881.

The teachers’ meeting Saturday was especially interesting. Professor Phelps, of Arkansas City, conducted the exercises in physiology, and Professor Trimble in algebra. Work in botany was mapped out, the lesson for the next meeting, April 30, being “leaves.” As the new school law classes physiology in the first grade studies, those teachers who have followed the county work have done well. Botany is a delightful study and teachers can succeed well with this science in the spring. As a means of furnishing teachers with object lessons, botany has no equal. Teachers present: Professors Trimble, Phelps, Gridley, Hickok, and Mrs. Caton, Misses Cook, Melville, Bartlett, Aldrich, Kelly, Frederick, and Nawman.

Winfield Courier, April 14, 1881.

The amount of funds on hand for school purposes will be exhausted this month, but several teachers are organizing private schools, so that all who are able to pay the tuition fees can have schooling for their children.

Winfield Courier, April 14, 1881.

ARBOR DAY. Friday afternoon of this week will be observed in the east ward as arbor day. All citizens are cordially invited to assist the teachers and pupils in making the school grounds attractive and pleasant. If any can donate trees, they will inform the principal, who will see that they are properly planted. All who can plant a tree will please be on the grounds early Friday afternoon.


Winfield Courier, May 12, 1881.

Mentions renovation of the old paper mill (of which paper mill company E. C. MANNING was once secretary) into a flouring mill by the firm of Higinbotham, Stingley & Huntress at Manhat­tan.

Also, CAESAR mentions Dr. S. W. Williston, of whom Cowley people will be glad to learn. Dr. Williston and folks lived on Silver Creek for a few years, a few miles below where Burden now stands; but the dry weather of 1874 drove them to Manhattan, where Williston was born and raised. He graduated at Kansas State College in 1872 with high honors. After devoting a few years with the late Prof. Mudge in the study of science, he concluded to go to Yale College, where he graduated about a year ago. Immediately after graduation, he was employed as lecturer on anatomy and teacher of paleontology. Dr. Williston has worked his way up to this position by his own exertions, and will teach in Yale the coming year at a very good salary. He has been in Manhattan about a week visiting parents and friends. While here he delivered a fine lecture upon “Fossil wonders of America,” under the auspices of the Webster Society, of which he was an organizing member. Everyone was well pleased with the lecture and wish him future success. X. Y. CAESAR.

April 30, 1881.

Jana, portion of long article: giving population, school data only. MAW


Winfield Courier, June 9, 1881 - Front Page


The new census shows the population of the county to be 20,649, an increase of 2,892 in one year. Generally they are intelligent, enterprising, go-ahead, move in the best society, and educated in the best schools of other states. They read the newspapers, support the schools and churches heartily, and think for themselves. They are the kind of people God sends to a country he intends to bless. The man who hesitates about coming to Kansas on account of society is fooling himself. It is as good and as cultivated as he will find anywhere.


This county contains one hundred and seventeen school districts, nearly all of which has good substantial school houses; most of them are paid for. In a few years every dollar of her school bond indebtedness will be paid. The people tax themselves freely for the support of schools, and keep them open as long each year as they can afford to. There are a large number of thoroughly well educated and efficient teachers, and the schools are noted for their good work. The schools are as convenient to all and as efficient as in most of the eastern states.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, June 16, 1881. Front Page.

The year just closed has been very unsatisfactory to all concerned. Last year the schools were so crowded that the teachers could do but imperfect work, but with the increase of room afforded by the new buildings, it was thought that there would be sufficient accommodations for all.

With the increase of room has come an increased attendance, and the various departments have been as crowded and the teachers as much overworked as the year before. Then, too, the short term has given but a poor opportunity for advancement or satisfactory work.

Yet comparing the work of this year with that of last, we find the result shows great advancement considering the difficul­ties under which we have labored. I give a comparable table showing the important statistics of the two years.

1879-1880       1880-1881                   GAIN

Whole No. enrolled:                                         621                              726                                105

No. that attended 6 mos.:                                  422                              546                                124

Average attendance:                                         247                              452                                205

Percent of attendance:                             84                                92                                          8

I would call attention especially to the gain shown by the above table. While the gain in enrollment is only 105, the gain of average attendance is 205, thus showing that there is a strong tendency on the part of teachers and parents to secure a regular attendance. There is also a gain of 8 percent in attendance.

These results have been reached under very difficult circum­stances as you are all aware that the Scarlet Fever scare was a great drawback to regular attendance, some of the departments during that time were reduced one half. While the crowded condition has served as an excuse for many children to remain at home yet it must be confessed that many have remained away who should have been in school and it would be well if some means could be devised by which parents would be obliged to comply with the law in this respect and send their children to school at least 3 months in the year.

There are so many things which seem to me to be absolutely necessary for the future success of the schools and to these I beg leave to direct your attention.

And first I notice a need for more teachers. Next year it will be necessary to open another grammar room and employ a teacher for that grade.

There should be two more primary teachers employed if it is desired that the pupils of that grade should attend all day. However, I consider it more necessary to provide for the higher grades first, and do not think a child between 5 and 7 should attend more than three hours a day.

An assistant teacher in the high school is necessary for the successful operation of the schools.

With the present magnitude of the schools and the increased number of teachers, it is impossible for the principal to provide for the success of the schools without giving the several depart­ments his personal supervision. It is impossible for him to teach all the time and do what is necessary as a superintendent. He may plan and give directions, but his plans and directions may never be carried into effect unless he can personally inspect every department. And he can only do this by having an assistant teacher at least one half of each day.

A want of apparatus is another serious drawback to the progress of the schools. In this age when appliances are so convenient and cheap that every country district can procure what is necessary, it is certainly a mistake for a city to attempt to conduct her schools without these auxiliaries. A small sum invested in this way will be a paying investment in interest and profit to the schools. All experience shows that the best teaching is that which presents to the child something which it can grasp and investigate. One experiment in Philosophy is worth pages of text book illustrations and to the beginner one lesson from a globe is worth weeks of study in geography.

I would also recommend that the teachers of the different departments be not employed until after a competitive examina­tion. The positions in the city schools can command the best talent the county affords and the readiest way to discover that is by a competitive examination. Of course, this would not apply to those already employed in the schools. I would recommend that all who have given satisfaction be retained as it is always better to continue a tried teacher than to try the experience of a new one.

Two years ago the grade was first established and was in advance of the school; now the departments have not only advanced up to but have gone beyond the grade, so that a revision of the grade is necessary. In order to meet the present demands, an extension of the course of study is necessary.

Hoping that the above recommendations may meet with your approval and support, I am very respectfully yours, E. T. TRIMBLE.

Winfield Courier, June 16, 1881.

George Rhodes found Monday morning his coal on fire at the bottom of the pile in such situation that only spontaneous combustion could account for it. It was a bin of Osage coal. This is not the first case of spontaneous combustion in a coal pile. The burning of the Normal Institute at Emporia two years ago was started by spontaneous combustion in the coal bins.

Winfield Courier, June 16, 1881.

District 78, Burden, has an enrollment of 70 pupils, and in May had an average attendance of 74. E. A. Millard is the teacher.

Winfield Courier, June 16, 1881.

RECAP: Celebration under management and control of the County Sunday School Association. Five minutes to be given each dis­trict Sunday school vice president to represent his district. Outlined obtaining services of the Winfield Coronet band. Outlined 38 men and 38 men to ride in procession on horseback with appropriate costume to represent the 38 states. Thirty little boys in costume under the management of Miss Melville and Mrs. Caton to march as representatives of “The Cold Water Army.”

                           [COLD WATER ARMY: WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?]

Fifty little girls from the different Sunday schools of Winfield, under the management of Mr. Hickok, to be appropriate dressed with mottoes, badges, banners, etc., to ride in a wagon drawn by four horses as repre­sentatives of Kansas Past and Kansas Present.

Further, 200 or more of the little ones from the infant classes of Winfield Sunday schools, under the control of their different teachers, to ride in wagons with banners and badges to represent the “Army of the little innocents of Cowley County.”

Best singers, under management of G. H. Buckman, to sing patriotic songs. Also, little Sunday School children, under management of Mr. Bair, assisted by Mr. Jewell and Miss McDonald, to sing for the people.

Declaration of Independence to be read by Samuel Davis [a promising young man of Winfield, just home from college].

Procession to include mayor, city council, county officers, newspaper editors, city/county church ministers, County Sunday School Association officers, etc. Sunday School delega-tions from the various townships to report on arrival to S. S. Holloway, county superinten-dent. City schools to be under the management of W. O. Johnson. General Green to act as marshal of the day: forming the procession and the order of marching.

Celebration to be held in the Riverside Park west of the Santa Fe depot, where will be found an abundance of shade, ample room for teams, and an abundance of good water for man and beast. The speakers’ stand consists of one solid stone, donated by Wm. Moore, Winfield citizen. There will be plenty of seats provided so all may be comfortable and happy. There was a postscript telling everyone to “bring an abundant supply of good things to eat.”

Jana, In Indian book he is mentioned more than once. He assisted C. M. Scott and was also one of the main Nez Perce Indians to work with Presbyterian ministers to get Nez Perce Indians back to their own country. Naturally, Courier called him Rubens. I had a heck of time tracking down correct spelling for his name. Corrected first entry. Left second alone since I have already used Reuben in a book. MAW

Winfield Courier, August 4, 1881

Mr. Jas. Reuben, a Nez Perces Indian, is attending the Normal. Mr. Rubens is a well educated, gentlemanly person, and is employed by the government as a teacher and interpreter at the Agency.


Winfield Courier, August 11, 1881.

The corps of teachers selected by our school board, for the coming year, are: Prof. C. T. Atkinson, as principal, with Miss Peterson, Miss Susan Hunt, and Mrs. Theaker, as assistants. Some of the above are strangers amongst us, but all come well recom­mended, and if the parents of scholars will do all they can to aid them in their arduous task, we feel sanguine that an era of prosperity will crown their efforts during the coming school year.


Winfield Courier, August 18, 1881.

We normalities still “live, move, and have our being,” notwithstanding the torrid heat that has prevailed the greater part of the time, much to the discomfort of all participants in our noble work: that of elevating humanity.


A few days previous to last—Thursday, August 11, 1881,—a gloomy, disconsolate feeling was creeping over ye reporter from the weary tread-mill duties which are incumbent on a Normalite, when an invitation to attend a wedding at Floral was received. Our spirits were soon on the ascendancy, regardless of the admonitions of the thermometer. Procuring one of Speed’s best livery outfits, and remembering the divine injunction, “it is not well for man to be alone,” secured the companionship of one of Eve’s representatives, and soon whirled Floralward amid a cloud of dust. Arriving at our destination without any serious

casual­ty, we found the residents, who recently witnessed a panoramic scene of desolation, on tip toe with excitement. The center of attraction we soon discovered to be the residence of Mr. Wright, which was surrounded by cheerful friends of the high contracting parties.

The appointed hour, 6 o’clock p.m., having arrived, matters were abruptly brought to a focus by the appear­ance of the offici­ating minister, Rev. J. J. Goodwell, accompa­nied by the bride and bridegroom, Miss Helen Wright and Jas. P. Frakes. During the ceremony a solemn stillness reigned. The couple looked as pretty as a pair of turtle doves fondly cooing for each other, and when they were authorized to join hands, we imagined that we could hear their happy hearts fluttering in quadruple time: four beats to the measure, and measuring as often as was consistent with the condition of the temperature, which, at that particular crisis, had apparently lost its equilibrium.

After the ceremony, there was much joyous handshaking and such tender embraces by certain members of the party, that made ye reporter uncomfortably nervous and long for the old-time custom, when it was fashionable and admissible for all parties to kiss the bride.

The evening’s entertainment closed with a most excellent supper which I shall not attempt to describe; but of such was the extensive variety and deliciousness of the tempting viands under which the table groaned, that the irrepressible John Cottingham, wished that weddings occurred three times a week in that vicinity and he was favored with an invitation to each one.

The parents of the bridegroom, who reside in Missouri, were telegraphed for, and they arrived on the evening train just in time to witness the ceremony.

After feasting until each was too full for utterance, all repaired to their respective homes feeling as “happy as a clam.” HORATIUS.

Aug. 12, 1881.

Winfield Courier, September 22, 1881.

Mr. Albert Stuber, one of our Cowley County teachers, returned from Illinois Sunday with a blooming bride. Albert seems to have gone about this rather suddenly.

Winfield Courier, October 20, 1881.

Of 148 teachers employed in public schools of the county last school year, only 59 reported to the county superintendent the terms of their contracts for teaching.


Winfield Courier, October 20, 1881.

Teachers are scarce this year, and we think they will be scarcer next year as nearly all the teachers this year have third grade certificates, and the majority of the school boards prefer a teacher who has a first grade certificate. NOVUS HOVUS.

Winfield Courier, November 17, 1881.

About ten teachers are still needed in Cowley.

Winfield Courier, November 17, 1881.

The following applicants were examined, Saturday, for teachers’ certificates: Wm. M. Coe, C. L. Cunningham, J. B. Curry, Ansel Gridley, Anna Martin, Ray E. Nawman, Luther Nellis, Anna L. Norton, R. B. Overman, N. J. Waterbury.

Winfield Courier, December 8, 1881.

Owing to the fact that the lower departments of the schools are more crowded in the East Ward than in the West Ward, it has become necessary to send those children living west of Loomis St. to the West Ward schools. The Second Intermediate room in the East Ward had in attendance 48 pupils, while that in the West had 30; the First Intermediate in the East Ward had 70 pupils, while that in the West Ward had 39. It will be seen by the above comparison that the work of the teachers was very unfairly distributed and in some cases almost doubled. In addition to this was the inconvenience of crowded rooms and lack of seats. In the primary departments there are in the East Ward 132 pupils, in the West Ward 69. As there are two Primary teachers in the East Ward, a division in this department is not necessary. While the change may cause some temporary inconvenience, it was made with a view to the general welfare and advancement of the pupils.

Winfield Courier, December 22, 1881.

District 50, Vernon Township, is moving in the right direc­tion. A festival will be given by the school on the 30th inst., for the purpose of raising funds to buy library and reference books for the school. Thomas Rude is teacher, and that insures good work.

Winfield Courier, December 29, 1881.

Prof. Story went up to Topeka Monday to attend the State Teachers’ Association.

Winfield Courier, December 29, 1881.

For the past year Mr. T. R. Bryan has been Superintendent of the Christian Sabbath school. He carried his accustomed energy into the work; and as a result, the school has prospered, and he has endeared himself to scholars and teachers. Several Sundays ago he was absent at Dexter and the school planned a Christmas surprise for him. Saturday evening after Mr. Bryan had assisted to distribute the presents on the Christmas tree, Judge Gans stepped forward and brought from its hiding place a mammoth easy chair, upholstered in silk and elegantly carved, and in a few appropriate remarks presented it to the superintendent as a gift from the school. Mr. Bryan didn’t make a speech. He just sat down in the big chair and looked red in the face, but the happy little folks who had helped to bring the embarrassment upon him, forgave him for it.

Winfield Courier, December 29, 1881.

An examination of teachers will be held in the Courthouse Saturday, December 31, 1881. Work will begin at 9 o’clock a.m. R. C. STORY, Co. Supt.

The Winfield Courier, January 5, 1882.

Messrs. D. M. Patten and N. W. Dressie, of Cedar Township, called us Thursday. They were up looking after a teacher and school fixtures, and are anxious to get the school running as soon as possible.

The Winfield Courier, January 5, 1882.

Little Dutch.

The teachers of the Northwestern Association district will meet at Valley Center Schoolhouse January 7th. Come out teachers, we expect to have a good meeting.

The Winfield Courier, January 12, 1882.

An entertainment was held at the schoolhouse in district 50 Friday evening, December 30th, to raise funds with which to buy reference books for the school. The people took hold of it in a way that made the teacher, Mr. T. J. Rude, and other promoters of the scheme feel good and made the effort a towering success. The net proceeds were $50.10, and the school will hereafter draw knowledge from a Webster’s unabridged and a first-class Encyclopedia. The exercises were also somewhat abridged so as to give everyone an opportunity to have a grand old time—and they had it. It was one of the most enjoyable occasions that has visited District 50 for many a day, and the generosity of those who attended will long be remembered by the school. Much credit is due Mr. Rude for this successful effort to benefit his pupils. He is one of the most energetic young teachers in the county on general principles.

The Winfield Courier, January 12, 1882.

On the fourth page will be found a carefully prepared directory of all the teachers in the County, where they are teaching, and the salaries per month which they receive. Some of them are most wretchedly low. Let school officers read this and then go and see if something cannot be done to better the condition of Cowley’s teachers.

The Winfield Courier, January 12, 1882.

Teachers Directory: 1881-82.    WINFIELD.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Prof. E. T. Trimble, city schools: $90.00

Sarah J. Clute, city schools: $40.00

Mattie Gibson, city schools: $40.00

Allie Klingman, city schools: $40.00

E. L. Crippen, city schools: $40.00

Alice E. Dickle, city schools: $40.00

Alpha Hardin, city schools: $40.00

Lena Bartlett, city schools: $40.00

Mary Hamill, city schools: $40.00

Mary Bryant, city schools: $40.00

Mrs. W. B. Caton, city schools, $40.00

Celina Bliss, District 9: $40.00

Anna Harden, District 68: $35.00

Finnie Harden, District 116: $30.00

Mattie E. Minihan, District 1: $30.00

Ella Freeland, District 12: $30.00

Lillie M. Gregory, District 127: $30.00

Nettie O. Wanner, District 41: $35.00

Anna F. Cuppage, District 82: $30.00

Jennie R. Lowry, District 37: $30.00

Finnie E. Pontious, District 168: $25.00

E. L. Merriam, District 52: $34.00

Prof. E. P. Hickok, District 43: $40.00

C. W. Armstrong, District 30: $40.00

R. S. White, District 21: $40.00

J. A. Hilsabeck, District 10: $40.00

F. H. Burton, District 106: $50.00

M. H. Marckum, District 75: $40.00

D. J. Brothers, District 45: $35.00

Frank Akers, District 99: $35.00

J. S. Baker, District 48: $40.00

John Bower, District 65: $40.00

A. D. Stuber, District 31: $35.00

W. M. Coe, District 77: $35.00

T. J. Rude, District 50: $40.00

A. Gridley, Sr., District 57: $36.50

Teachers Directory 1881-82.    ARKANSAS CITY.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Prof. C. T. Atkinson, city schools: $75.00

Jennie Peterson, city schools: $35.00

Mary Theaker, city schools: $30.00

Susie Hunt, city schools: $30.00

Alice D. Herbert, District 35: $30.00

Nate Bebeductum, District 32: $25.00

Linda Christian, District 33: $30.00

Sadie E. Pickering, District 34: $30.00

Jessie Sankey, District 51: $35.00

Rose L. Sample, District 80: $30.00

F. M. Goodwin, District 93: $30.00

E. W. Coulson, District 44: $33.33

L. C. Brown, District 53: $40.00

W. M. Henderson, District 89: $35.00

G. W. Crawford, District 96: $40.00

C. F. Cunningham, District 69: $37.00

J. B. Curry, District 36: $40.00

N. J. Waterbury, District 79: $35.00

C. G. Furry, District 6: $36.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    BURDEN.    MONTHLY SALARY.

E. A. Millard, District 78: $35.00

Mattie L. West, District 28: $28.00

Nannie A. Crum, District 90: $30.00

Thirza E. Dobyns, District 19: $40.00

R. O. Stearns, District 76: $40.00

Emma Burden, District 113: $35.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    DEXTER.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Nellie A. Aldrich, District 5: $45.00

Etta B. Robinson, District 5: $30.00

Emma Elliott, District 49: $30.00

Ollie L. Keyes, District 70: $30.00

Elda Thayer, District 111: $28.00

Anna L. Hunt, District 56: $30.00

A. P. Cochran, District 40: $32.00

Kate L. Ward, District 88: $30.00

Luther Nellis, District 38: $27.50

Hattie Taplin, District 54: $22.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    ROCK.    MONTHLY SALARY.

A. H. Limerick, District 24: $40.00

R. B. Hunter, District 29: $40.00

Albert Brookshire, District 26: $33.00

J. C. Martindale, District 73: $32.00

Alice G. Limerick, District 122: $30.00

Maggie Stansbury, District 23: $32.50

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    TORRANCE.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Laura Elliott, District 97: $35.00

Arvilla Elliott, District 14: $30.00

T. A. Mercer, District 7: $30.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    CAMBRIDGE.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Howard F. Albert, District 16: $34.00

D. W. Ramage, District 117: $33.33

Maud Leedy, District 15: $30.00

H. T. Albert, District 15: $_____

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    TISDALE.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Jennie Davy, District 119: $27.50

S. A. Smith, District 46: $40.00

Wm. H. Funk, District 47: $31.66

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    POLO.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Mrs. S. Hollingsworth, District 60: $30.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    MULVANE.    MONTHLY SALARY.

R. A. Hall, District 92: $37.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    RED BUD.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Villa M. Combs, District 114: $25.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    WILMOT.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Mary A. Tucker, District 22: $32.50

Lizzie Palmer, District 105: $30.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    OXFORD.    MONTHLY SALARY.

William Wycoff, District 8: $40.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    NEW SALEM.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Ettie Johnson, District 97: $25.00

E. L. Cook, District 30: $35.00

E. J. Hall, District 55: $45.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    BALTIMORE.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Maggie C. Seabridge, District 109: $27.00

E. W. Woolsey, District 103: $35.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    MAPLE CITY.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Ada Overman, District 28: $30.00

S. F. Overman, District 102: $33.33

A. H. Havens, District 86: $35.00

W. E. Ketcham, District 85: $36.00

R. H. Overman, District 58: $30.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    TANNEHILL.    MONTHLY SALARY.

L. P. King, District 4: $33.33

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    BOX.    MONTHLY SALARY.

S. P. Firestone, District 94: $40.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    UDALL.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Jennie E. Hicks, District 11: $36.75

George Wright, District 81: $40.00

Mrs. Minnie Bleakmore, District 71: $30.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    SEELEY.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Mrs. Lizzie Turner, District 13: $37.50

L. McKinley, District 91: $37.50

Nannie McKinley, District 25: $30.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    LITTLE DUTCH.    MONTHLY SALARY.

R. B. Corson, District 125: $42.50

Porter Wilson, District 26: $40.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    CONSTANT.    MONTHLY SALARY.

J. E. Grimes, District 115: $35.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    GLEN GROUSE.    MONTHLY SALARY.

Emma Brills, District 17: $30.00

Teacher Directory 1881-82.    CEDARVALE.    MONTHLY SALARY.

G. W. Bartgis, District 63: $30.00

J. R. Marsh, District 66: $35.00

The Winfield Courier, January 12, 1882.

                                                         GREEN VALLEY.

After a protracted silence I once more raise my quill to record the happenings of this neighborhood.

County Superintendent Story deserves the highest praise for the earnest endeavors he is putting forth to secure for the teachers of this county the benefit of a permanent standing in the branches in which they are required to be examined. This is a move in the right direction, and the teachers will fully appreciate the efforts put forth in their behalf.

The Winfield Courier, January 19, 1882.

EDITORS COURIER: Please announce that the Teachers’ Association of the Central Division will meet in the Winfield school building, Saturday, January 28th, at 10 o’clock a.m.

The following programme indicates the teachers of the Central Division, and the work assigned them for the next meeting.

1. Manners and Morale: How Best Taught. F. H. Burton, Anna Hardin, and A. P. Cochran.

2. How to Study. S. A. Smith, S. P. King, and Emma Elliott.

3. Public Spelling. E. P. Hickock, A. H. Stuber, and Celina Bliss.

4. Lessons on the Use of the Globe. R. S. White, W. M. Coe, and Ella Grimes.

5. How to Study Literature in the Common School. M. H. Markcum, John Bower, and Nettie Wanzer.

6. Spelling Classes—their Uses and Abuses. A. J. Brothers, Jennie R. Lowry, Fannie Harden, and Laury Elliott.

7. Ventilation. A. P. Cochran, Ella Little, Lillie M. Gregory, and Frank Akers.

It is hoped that the meeting will be largely attended by the intelligent, energetic teachers of this and the adjoining divisions. ELLA FREELAND, Secretary. T. J. RUDE, President.

Winfield Courier, February 2, 1882.

Teachers’ Association.

EDS. COURIER: Please announce that the teachers of the Northwestern Association District, will hold their next meeting at Udall, Friday, February 3, and continuing through the next day. The following is the program for Friday evening.

1. Song by Anna and Maggie Martin.

2. Address of welcome: P. W. Smith.

3. Response: A. H. Limerick.

4. Music by R. B. Hunter.

5. Declamation: Jennie E. Hicks.

6. Music.

7. Essay: Fannie McKinley.

8. Declamation: R. A. Hall.

9. Address: R. C. Story.

    10. Music.

The following is the program for Saturday.

1. Mistakes in teaching: Porter Wilson.

2. Troubles in Ireland; cause and cure: A. H. Limerick.

3. Comparison of Longfellow and Tennyson: R. B. Hunter.

4. Dinner.

5. Digestion: L. McKinley.

6. Teachers’ aids: Mrs. Alice G. Limerick.

7. Rainfall: Jennie E. Hicks.

8. Report of critics.

9. Business of the Association.

Teachers, be there.


Winfield Courier, February 2, 1882.

                     [Comments by Courier Concerning Article about Cowley Teachers.]

                                                          Wretchedly Low.

“Let us whisper to your ear the cause of low wages in Cowley County and the source from whence the cause must come. Your County Superintendent has an itching for the State Superintendency. He spends much more time in writing, or having written, long-winded articles on education than he does in attending to the interests of Cowley’s schools. Further, in pursuance of his plan to go higher in politics, he must be popular at home. In order to be popular at home, he must grant certificates to all who ask an examination for them and some of Cowley’s teachers have never ‘syphered’ through the ‘Rule of Three,’ have no accurate knowledge of even the elements of grammar, they spell by guess, and read without understanding. They are not qualified to teach because they know nothing of how to teach. The ‘steadiness’ characteristic only of an age, many of them have not yet reached, renders their government faulty or worthless. You want to weed out the boys and girls, put to the men and women, and drive away or kill the drones and the numbskulls. Book knowledge is much in favor of a teacher, but the man or woman of good, sound sense, thinking and energetic, with judgment matured, will accomplish ten times what your book worm will, with no guide but his theories.” El Dorado Times.

We quote the above for the purpose of making some corrections of matters which the Times knows nothing about, but makes guesses which do great injustice, not only to our Superintendent, but to the teachers of this county. The usual way to answer such articles is to charge the writer with slander and falsehood, but we prefer merely a statement of facts. Though we may think the wages paid teachers in this county are too low, the fault is not peculiar to this county. Probably no county in the state pays on an average, higher wages to teachers.

In this county are employed 119 teachers; 56 males and 63 females. The lowest wages is $22 per month to a female, and the highest is $90 to a male. The average of wages is $32.18 to females and $37.67 to males. If Butler County can make a better showing, bring on your figures.

If it is a fact that Supt. Story has an itching for the state superintendency, he has the merit of being as well qualified for the position as any man in the state. It is true that he writes many articles on education for publication, and it is equally true that they are among the best that are written, but it is not true that he spends more time in writing than he does in attending to the interests of the schools. On the contrary, he spends nearly all his time in visiting schools in all parts of the county and in work at his office, and no superintendent in the state does more work or does it more efficiently. It is not true that he and the examining board grant certificates which are not fully merited. The only complaints heard of here are from persons who did not get certificates, or as high grade certificates as they believed they merited. We believe the certificates issued in this county stand for as high orders of merit as the same grade certificates in any county in the state, higher than in Butler County, and that the teachers in this county rank as high in all that makes efficient teachers as those of any county in the state.

The writer of the above from the Times was superintendent of Butler County for the four years ending January, 1881. During that four years, according to his own reports, he visited schools as follows: 19, 102, 33, 73, total 289. Supt. Story during the same four years visited schools: 26, 97, 134, 160, total 417. Will the Times man take some of his criticisms to himself?

Winfield Courier, February 9, 1882.

                                      Central Division Association of Teachers.

The Central Division Association of teachers met in the high school building in Winfield, on Saturday, January 28. President T. J. Rude was promptly at his post of honor. The Secre-tary being absent, M. H. Markcum was appointed secretary pro tem. The inclemency of the weather prevented quite a number of the fair portion of the members of the Association from attending. However, a sufficient number of the stalwarts assembled to constitute a quorum, and make an interesting time. The subjects that were particularly and thoroughly discussed were as follows:

Spelling classes, which was championed by Miss Celina Bliss.

Use of globes found a strong advocate in the personage of Wm. White.

How to study English literature was elucidated by M. H. Markcum.

Miss Etta Johnson handled the subject of moral training, while our worthy president ably defended phonic spelling.

The above topics awakened an enthusiastic discussion, pro and con, by the whole body of teachers present, which made a very pleasant entertainment, and profitable time for those pedagogues who were fortunate enough to participate in the exercises of the day. Not a little of the credit of the success of the Central Association is due to its energetic and enthusiastic president, who ranks among the most able educators of this county.

The next meeting of the Association will occur at the regular time, on the last Saturday of February, and it is hoped that every member of the Central division will make a determined effort to be present, though it be necessary to make a sacrifice of some kind to do so. SECRETARY.

Jana, giving the following as “Olivia” was a favorite with Courier readers....

Winfield Courier, February 9, 1882.

                                                            NEW SALEM.

Again my dear friends I am ready for a little social chat with you through the medium of our highly prized COURIER. But I scarcely know where to begin, so much has happened of late and I have kept no minutes except in my memory; for with so much to keep head, hands, and tongue busy, I neglected this part of my programme.

But enough excuses. School is out and from all indications an excellent time was had by those that were fortunate enough to be there. The pupils all agreed to bring something good in the way of dinner and all would dine together. A few were invited in and all fared sumptuously off the many dainty nic nacs. There was chicken, pickles, bread, biscuits, butter, jelly, pies, tarts, cookies, and eleven kinds of cake, and tea for the old maids and bachelors. A short address by Miss Meriam, the teacher, the same by Rev. Graham, then all went to their homes, we trust, happier and wiser than when they came.

Oh, by the way, let me here say to the Floral correspondent, he or she must call on someone else than “Olivia” to soften the hearts of their old baches. That is entirely out of my line and all the oil of kindness is kept for somebody more deserving than Dan and John. (I mean for the little ones and so on), and if their hearts are too hard, just let them soak in “kerosene.”

When my own grows desperate, I take a dose of woman’s soothing syrup (a good cry). But enough taffy.

Mr. and Mrs. Kelsoe, of Geuda, visited Mr. Edgars lately and found some new acquaintances while here.

Mr. Pixley and Frank, accompanied by Miss Julia Bovee, visited friends on Grouse last week. Mr. Franklin and Ed. visited relatives here this week. Mr. Gardner has a number of relatives or friends lately come to Kansas, and we learn they intend to make this their home. One family is living for the present in Mr. Miller’s house, another on Mr. Brooks’ farm. Some are stopping with Mr. Gardner.

We are soon to lose James Peters and family; we hear he has purchased a farm and will bid Salem adieu for the present.

Our Prairie Home friends dedicated their new schoolhouse last Friday evening by a regular feast of delicious viands that would tickle the palate of a king or suit the modern epicure, but Olivia was left out in the cold and never got a crumb; that is all right, we don’t get hungry lately. We understand they had a large concourse of people and there are piles of good things left. We are glad to know there are so many happy and good people in this district and we bid them welcome to the Salem festivities, Sunday school, etc.

Miss Mary Dalgarn will board with Mrs. Joe Hoyland and attend the Prairie Home school. Mr. John Shaughnessy and his partner will also board there and feed their sheep.

Joe thought his hand was lost, strayed, or stolen, for he attended a party and like to forgot to come back.

Mr. J. W. Hoyland is seriously indisposed and Mrs. J. W. Is afflicted with rheumatism.

Mr. Hetrick’s boy is very bad off, suffering intensely with inflammatory rheumatism. Mr. Gambs had a sale last week and intends to leave Salem ere long.

Mr. Samuel Allen is certainly doing his share as he is coal master, agent for plows, ticket agent too, we believe, and I forget the rest. Multum in parvo must be his motto.

St. Valentine will soon be making his annual visits.

Mr. J. M. Dalgarn has been suffering with a felon on his hand. Some of Mr. Crain’s children have had the chicken pox, also Mr. Buck’s little ones, and quite a number. We hope the small pox will not visit our vicinity.

Dr. Irwin sent off for virus fresh from a cow and is prepared to vaccinate any who wish, or will furnish them so they can do it themselves.

Little Edith Shields has been very ill, but under the care of Dr. Phelps, has recovered.

The Salem barber had better look out for his laurels, for Olivia sometimes has a victim to the razor and brush; and it’s fun to wield them if the razor is fearful dull.

Mr. Christopher has returned from Iowa.

Mr. and Mrs. Goforth spent Sabbath in Salem, and enjoyed the warm clasp of friendly hands in cordial greeting.

Mr. and Mrs. Shepherd are holding a series of meetings in Pleasant Hill schoolhouse. The meetings are well attended and all that have been present seem to be favorably impressed with the speakers. May their work be crowned with success.

For two weeks Rev. Graham has labored faithfully, and not without success, for our dearly loved ones, and our neighbors are breaking away from self and sin and intend to fight under a different leader, and may they be lead on from victory to victory and never turn their back to the foe, but be strong and valiant soldiers in the army of the Lord and seek in every way to promote the cause, never bringing shame to themselves or their leader, and when their time comes to lay off the armor, to sheathe their sword, may they hear the welcome voice calling them up higher to receive their crown to be clothed in spotless purity, to sing the songs of redeeming love and reign forever with the Lord.

Four have already joined the church and seem determined to live differently. Others have said by actions, some by words, that they are tired of serving the wrong master.

What glorious truths we learn from the book of life, what encouragement we find there, for in the “New Jerusalem,” sin, sorrow, pain, and tears are unknown. “Love thy neighbor as thyself,” is a direct command, and I think we obey that better perhaps than some other commands, for love and good feeling to all mankind seems to prevail.

Some of our Moscow neighbors heard the call, “Come over to Macedonia and help us,” and their help was thankfully received and we can say with one voice, come again. May God still continue to bless us all, and may the sweet songs reach the heavenly choir and thus the music of our souls be wafted on and up to the throne of glory. God bless you and may we meet to love in heaven. OLIVIA. Feb. 4th, 1882.

Winfield Courier, February 9, 1882.

                                                     VERNON JOTTINGS.

Prof. Anderson has organized a class of thirty-two in vocal music, at the Easterly schoolhouse, and now sweet melodies tickle the ears of the citizens of this neighborhood Monday and Wednesday evenings.

A literary is now in full blast in District No. 75. President, Jno. Bowers; secretary, Miss Cordie Kimble; marshal, Joe. Poor; treasurer, Philo Kent. The way the Ciceros and Demosthenes of modern times air their eloquence, is, to put it mildly, refreshing in the extreme. Question discussed last evening: “Resolved, That the press has exerted a greater influence for good than the pulpit.” Decided in favor of the affirmative.

Prof. Story gave the patrons of the Tannehill school district a practical talk on school matters last Tuesday evening. The relations existing between patrons of schools and teachers should be more thoroughly understood than is at present among the masses. The Prof. will have accomplished a great deal of good for the cause of education in this county if he succeeds in making matters pertaining to school more closely understood by the people.


Winfield Courier, February 16, 1882.

                                                     Teachers’ Association.

EDS. COURIER: In accordance with instructions, the following report of the fifth Northwestern Teachers’ meeting is submitted for publication.

The teachers met at Udall Friday evening, Feb. 30. Udall’s school mistress, as usual, had fled to parts unknown; but there were a goodly number of teachers and people present. President Wilson failed to put in an appearance, leaving the teachers like sheep without a shepherd, but Vice President Corson made a very good “hireling.” A part of the teachers had not seen the program in time to prepare the work assigned them, but impromptu exercises from them and some of Udall’s citizens supplied the deficiency. The welcoming address by P. W. Smith was full of characteristic wit and energy. The response by A. Limerick showed a good comprehension of the educational question. In addition to other exercises the following were given.

Declamation, P. W. Smith; Recitation, Smith, P. W.; Prof. P. W. Smith, five minute speech; debate, “Duties of patrons to schools.” Affirmative, R. A. Hall. Negative, P. W. Smith (ex-teacher).

At the Saturday meeting the attendance was much better than last November. A lively interest was manifested by all present. Some very good thoughts were suggested by an ex-teacher. The following are some of the conclusions reached by the association on the subjects discussed.

First, “Troubles in Ireland,” cause—religious oppression, the monopolizing of wealth and power by the few, and ecclesiastical education. Cure: ecclesiastical education must not take the place of secular, and the planting and maintaining of such social and political systems as exist in the United States at present.

Second, “Teachers’ aids.” We learn from the mistakes of others, and from visiting their schools. It is better to use an author’s key to get a clear explanation than to give a poorer explanation without help. Compare notes with neighboring teachers and render mutual aid. Teachers may read professional books and papers, but there must be careful thought and study to apply the new ideas to their own schools.

Third, Digestion. The principles of digestion of food (and thought) should be taught in schools, especially the laws of health of the organs of digestion.

Fourth, Mistakes in teaching. Teachers should in school be quiet, but firm; dignified but condescending and kind. Do not assume to know everything. Be sure that a statement is correct before it is left. Do not meddle with all the trivial affairs of scholars that come incidentally to notice. No set of rules can be made at the beginning of a school where the teacher is not acquainted that will apply to its special needs. Be careful at first to impress upon the pupils your ideas of right and wrong, and a few general rules; then make others as necessities arise.

Fifth, Rainfall. The subject is already understood (?).

It was resolved to hold the next session at Darien schoolhouse, March 3rd and 4th. Friday evening’s program is as follows.  Music; Welcoming address, Miss Fannie McKinley; Response, Miss Jennie Hicks; Essay, Mrs. A. Limerick; Declamation, George Wright; Recitation, Mrs. Normie Wilson; Music, B. B. Hunter; Exercises by Darien school; Declamation, L. McKinley; Select reading, R. B. Corson. Question drawer. Topics for Saturday were assigned to the following: Mrs. A. Limerick, Porter Wilson, A. Limerick, R. B. Hunter, Miss J. E. Hicks, L. McKinley, and George Wright.

Teachers, the next meeting will be the last of the season, and let us make it the best. District Boards are especially invited. The Association returns its thanks to the citizens of Udall and suburbs for the kind entertainment received. L. McKinley, Secretary pro tem.

IN MEMORIAM. It becomes our painful duty to chronicle the departure of our late lamented President, Porter Wilson. About dark Friday evening he was seen wending his way toward Udall, musing on Mistakes in Teaching. Coming to the Dunkard mill-dam, Luna’s rays cast a silvery gleam on the sheet of water. Mistaking the reflection for ice, our honored president ran plump into the water and sank, to rise no more. When last seen he was sweeping over the mill dam. May his good deeds follow him, and his spirit hover around at the next meeting. L. M.

Winfield Courier, February 16, 1882.

I wish to express my thanks to those who so kindly favored me with a present of Dickens complete works. The work of a teacher is laborious and sometimes seems but a thankless task. Events like this form the Oasis in the memory of both teacher and pupils. While it is the duty of the teacher always to do the best he can for those under his care, yet it is a great encouragement to him to know that his efforts are appreciated. E. T. TRIMBLE.

Next. Can’t you just visualize what would happen to the teacher in 1999? Wow!

Winfield Courier, February 23, 1882.

A. B. Taylor’s school was the scene of a matinee one day last week, which occurred thusly: A smart Alex paid a visit to the school and proceeded to raise Cain in the most approved fashion. He was invited to take a seat on the rostrum, which he refused to do, and found himself on the broad of his back in a “jiffy,” with the teacher’s hand on his throat like a vise. He pleaded for mercy and was marched to the rostrum, where he quietly remained until school was dismissed. Visitors should behave when they visit that school.

Winfield Courier, March 16, 1882. [FROM CORRESPONDENTS.] Front Page.

                                                 TEACHERS’ INSTITUTE.

The design of teachers’ meetings and institutes is general improvement of teachers and making them feel a lively concern in the welfare of their profession; also to show the public (parents and guardians especially) what the teacher’s opposition is, to enlist their sympathy and cooperation with him and to engage every influence that will promote the success and respectability of the work of education. This is to be accomplished by lectures, essays, dis-cussions, and such other exercises as the ingenuity of true and live education may conjecture.

Such persons always regard it as a labor of love to engage in any enterprise that looks to the accomplishment of this design.

From the report of the Fifth Northwestern teachers’ meeting, the writer gleaned the following: “The mistress of the Udall school had, as usual, left for parts unknown. President Wilson failed to put in an appearance, leaving the teachers like sheep without a shepherd. A part of the teachers had not seen the program in time to prepare the work assigned them.”

Now then, just such failures on the part of the managers of teachers’ meetings as set forth in the above report, are some of the main causes that hinder the success of teachers’ meetings and institutes are the following.

1. Dry and prosy addresses and other exercises that often amount to but little more than a play upon words, even when they come from persons who have great reputation as scholars and teachers.

2. The indiscretion of committees of arrangement in making business for the meeting, failing to provide in time a program of exercises that will afford matter for thought, that will be both interesting and edifying.

3. Persons attending such meetings merely to take some of the honors and to solicit fame for some kind of performances that will not interest teachers in this work, nor show to parents and school boards their duty to teachers and schools.

4. Lack of professional courtesy among teachers; some feeling as if they had attained the acme of proficiency in the business, and then being too proud to aid in elevating others to the same standard.

5. Not naturally considering what benefit may arise from such assemblies, and that when a teacher strives to promote a higher standard in his profession, and aid his fellow laborers, he greatly benefits himself, and sometimes gains a greater advantage than those for whom he labors.

All topics presented at teachers’ meetings should come from practical educators, and they should have a direct bearing on the policy needed in common schools. Displays of sublime oratory and flowery composition are much less appropriate than pertinent and common-sense disquisitions on that kind of school management which will answer the wants of the coming generation.

Some of the most appropriate subjects, men of extensive learning may deem trite and commonplace; but those who would be instructors of the young must condescend to their capacity, take them as they find them, and lead them onward and upward. Young learners need a kind of intellectual food that is not known to men of profound erudition; and young teachers may be much benefited by the knowledge and experience of veterans in the profession. When teachers’ meetings are wisely conducted, and appropriate and edifying exercises therein held, teachers will go from them nerved anew for their work, as well as better informed; and their influence may easily be made to reach parents and guardians, and show them what are their duties to the young, and their duties toward teachers and schools.

                                               Vernon Township. J. S. BAKER.

[Yes, the paper had “nerved anew for their work.”]

Winfield Courier, March 23, 1882.

The indications now point toward an eight week’s normal institute this summer.

Winfield Courier, March 23, 1882.

Prof. Cooper, of Lawrence, will conduct the Cowley County Normal this summer. Miss Lillian F. Hoxie, of the State Normal at Emporia, will be with our teachers this summer.

Winfield Courier, May 25, 1882.

The examination of teachers ordered by the Board of Education has been postponed until after the normal.


Winfield Courier, June 1, 1882.

The Cowley County Normal will open July 5th, closing August 25th. In July classes will be formed in Orthography, Reading, Languages, Arithmetic, Geography, and Didactics. Also in Algebra and Bookkeeping, if desired. Fees: One dollar per month. County Association of teachers, August 28 and 29. Teachers’ examination Aug. 30 and 31. Exercises in Winfield High School building. R. C. STORY, County Superintendent.

Winfield Courier, June 22, 1882.

Persons desiring boarders during the Normal should confer with Superintendent Story.

Winfield Courier, June 22, 1882.

Miss Hoxie’s Normal class in drawing competed today for prizes for plan, elevation, and perspective for a country schoolhouse. The first prize, the “Cyclopedia of Education,” was won by Miss Mary Tucker, of Winfield. The second, an educational work, title not given, by Miss Lillian Dudley, Marion Center. The Judges were Dr. Cordley, George Gallaher, and Miss S. E. Crichton. Emporia News.

Winfield Courier, July 6, 1882.

The County Normal Institute opened Wednesday with between twenty and thirty teachers in attendance. We will give a full list of those present next week.

Winfield Courier, July 13, 1882.

Dr. P. S. Williams, who conducted our normal last summer, will be in Winfield Tuesday, August 1. He will visit the normal and will probably give a public lecture.

Winfield Courier, July 27, 1882.

Doctor P. J. Williams, the conductor of the Normal in 1881, will visit Winfield, Tuesday of next week. He would be glad to see any who think of going to the State University, with which institution he is now connected.

Winfield Courier, August 3, 1882.

Mr. I. N. Selby, of Fort Scott, is in the city and made us a pleasant call Tuesday. He is connected with the Kansas Normal College at that place and is attending our county normal in its interest. The Fort Scott school is managed somewhat after the manner proposed by us  a few weeks ago for such a school here. The building, worth about $8,000, was built by a stock company and is leased to Prof. Sanders rent free. Otherwise, the institution is self-supporting.

Winfield Courier, August 3, 1882.

Miss Hoxie arrived Saturday and commenced work in the Normal Monday morning. Miss Hoxie is one of the most successful and efficient Normal teachers we have ever known.

Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.

E. A. Millard, of Burden, is attending Normal.

Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.

The normal booms. One hundred and fifteen enrolled.

Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.

Teachers from several of the surrounding counties are attending our County Normal.

Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.

                        OUR NORMAL. Notes About Our Teachers and Their Work.

The first month of the County Normal closed Friday week. The enrollment was 68 and the average attendance for the month was 62. The B class took a careful study of the U. S. Constitution, thorough work in bookkeeping, language, and arithmetic. The C class had daily drills in elocution and reading, arithmetic, geography, and practical language. The work of July was pleasant, deliberate, and fruitful. Those who attended the first month are in excel-lent condition for the work of the present month. Prof. J. W. Cooper, of Lawrence, and Miss Lillian F. Hoxie, of Emporia, have arrived, and the work of August starts off with flattering prospects. The opening exercises are held in the Court Room, from 7:45 till 8:30 a.m. The recitations then take place in the High School building upstairs. Friends and school officers are invited to visit the Normal at any time.


Of Winfield: Misses Florence Goodwin, Ella S. Kelly, Rose A. Rounds, Alpha Harden, Annie L. Hunt, Josie Bard, E. L. Cook, Alice E. Dickie, Mary Bryant, Alice Dunham, Floretta Shields, Mrs. E. T. Trimble, Mrs. R. M. Story.

Of Arkansas City: Misses S. E. Pickering, Jessie Sankey, Jennie F. Peterson; and W. M. Henderson.

Udall: Porter Wilson.

New Salem: W. M. Christopher.

Burden: Geo. Wright; E. A. Millard.


Of Winfield: Jennie Lowry, Rose Frederick, Emma Gridley, Villa Combs, Fannie Harden, Jennie E. Davy, Maggie Stansbury, Fannie Pontious, Maggie Seabridge, Amy Robertson, Etta B. Robinson, D. J. Brothers, Frank Robinson, Ansel Gridley, Samuel Aldrich, Charles Ware.

Seeley: Fannie McKinley.

Oxford: Anna D. Martin.

Burden: Hattie Mabee.

Torrance: Jennie Hicks.

Of Arkansas City: Misses Flora Finley, Anna L. Morton, Rose Sample, Maggie Sample, Linda Christian; J. W. Warren.

Akron: Clara Green.

New Salem: Mrs. A. M. Gillespie.

Rock: Mrs. A. G. Limerick; J. C. Martindale.

Cambridge:  James Hutchinson; Lizzie Palmer.

Burden: R. O. Stearns.

Grenola: J. H. Crotsley.

Lawrence: S. L. Herriott.

Maple City: W. E. Ketcham.


Of Winfield: Anna Kuhn, Mary E. Curfman, Emma L. McKee, L. M. Page, Mary A. Orr, Ida Bard, Hattie E. Andrews, Lou M. Morris, Leota Gary, Lydia L. Horner, Anna McClung, Haide A. Trezise, Ida G. Trezise, Hattie Pontious, Mary Berkey, Maggie Kinne, B. B. Bartlett, Will Tremor, Harry Bullen, Miss Fannie Headrick.

Udall: Kate A. Martin; Lizzie Burden; P. M. Leach.

New Salem: Ora Irvin.

Oxford: Ida Hurst; M. J. Bennington; W. M. Jackson.

Seeley: Gertrude McKinley; Clara V. Pierce; Lilly Perrin.

Grenola: Lizzie Young.

Cloverdale: Bertha Hempy.

Arkansas City: Emma Rhodes, Dido Carlisle, Wm. E. Gilbert.

Tisdale: Mrs. Ella Kephart.

Burden: Charles Walch; M. M. Stearns.

Chetopa: Bert Dersham.

Dexter: J. R. Smith.

Rock: Jno. C. Bradshaw.

Cambridge: Grant Wilkins.

Baltimore: Chas. M. Messenger.


Winfield Courier, August 31, 1882.

Our Schools.

The revision of the course of study of the Winfield schools has been completed and printed. Our schools are now in a prosperous condition and offer good opportunities for any who may desire a good education. There are now three distinct courses of study in the High School: a High School, Latin, and Normal course. The latter offers inducements to teachers and to those who desire to become teachers. In addition to the study of methods, students in this course will have an opportunity to observe the teaching in the various grades, and if desired, can have practice in teaching. With our substantial and comfortable school buildings and the improvements now in progress, there is no reason why the schools of Winfield may not rival any of the state.

Winfield Courier, November 9, 1882.

Teachers’ Association. The Burden Division of the Teachers’ Association met at Burden, Oct. 28, 1882, and agreed upon the following organization.

President, E. A. Millard.

Vice president, R. O. Stearns.

Secretary, J. H. Hutchison.

Assistant Secretary, T. J. Rude.

Treasurer, C. I. Walch.

It was decreed that the present corps of officers should constitute the executive commit-tee and that said committee should meet at Burden on Saturday, Nov. 18, 1882, at 6 o’clock p.m., to arrange matters and assign topics for next meeting. But few teachers were present, however the meeting was spirited and enthusiastic, and a determination was shown on the part of those present to make the Association a success. The meeting adjourned to meet Nov. 18, 1882. The teachers of this division are respectfully invited to attend. Remember “those resolutions” passed at the Normal. JAMES H. HUTCHISON, Secretary.

Winfield Courier, November 9, 1882.

Teachers’ Meeting. The next meeting of the Winfield division of Teachers’ Association will be held Saturday, Nov. 18th, promptly at 10 o’clock a.m., in the High School building at Winfield. The committee on program has assigned the following topic to the several teachers herein mentioned.


1st subject. The organization of a school, including gradation, classification, seating, program, branches of study, and extent of term’s work for each pupil—R. C. Story.

2nd subject. Model lesson in practical language—Miss E. L. Cook, Miss A. E. Dickie, and Mr. A. Staggers.

3rd subject. How to prepare a reading lesson—Miss Emma Gridley, Miss S. J. Clute, and Mr. J. H. Crotsley.


1st subject. A lesson on the use of the globe and maps of the world—Prof. Trimble, Miss Sadie Pickering, and Mr. T. H. Burton.

2nd subject. The best method of teaching notation—Miss Lizzie Gridley, Mrs. W. B. Caton, and Mr. R. S. White.

3rd subject. Longfellow and Tennyson—Miss Rose Frederick, Miss Mattie Gibson, and Mr. D. G. Brothers.

4th subject. Miscellaneous business.

We hope that every teacher in the Winfield Division will feel an interest in this work and will come prepared to discuss any and all topics that are brought up. COMMITTEE.

Winfield Courier, November 30, 1882.

Public Schools of Cowley County, 1881-82.

The annual report of the County Superintendent shows the following statistics for the school year closing July 31.

No. Of districts organized: 135.

No. Of districts reporting: 135.

School population: 7,474.

Pupils enrolled: 6,192.

Average attendance: 3,870.

Different teachers employed: 169.

Average No. Of weeks of school: 19.56.

Average salary, male: $36.27.

Average salary, female: $30.55.

School bonds issued: $36,912

Av. No. Mills levied for school purposes: 9.3.

Estimated value of school property: $79,756.

No. Of school buildings: 121.

No. Of persons examined: 191.

No. Of applicants rejected: 55.

Certificates granted, first grade: 16.

Certificates granted, second grade: 44.

Certificates granted, third grade: 82.

No. Of schools visited by County Superintendent: 137.

No. Of visits made by County Superintendent: 203.

No. Of districts having school: 125.

No. Of districts not having school: 10.


Balance in hands of district treasuries August 1, 1881: $5,924.62.

District taxes: $31,108.03.

State and County school fund: $$7,208.84.

Sale of bonds: $6,272.

All other sources: $1,797.29

TOTAL RECEIVED: $52,314.69.


Teachers’ Wages: $27,041.25.

Incidentals: $6,767.98.

Library and apparatus: $448.99.

Sites, buildings, furniture, etc.: $7,008.98.

All other purposes: $1,899.54.

TOTAL: $43,157.74.

BALANCE AUGUST 1, 1882: $9,156.95.

Normal opened July 6th, closed Aug. 26th.

Enrollment in July, 41; in August, 114.


Winfield Courier, April 19, 1883.

Commissioners’ Proceedings.

The Board remitted all tax on Ezra Meech’s sheep except in Walnut Township.

The J. A. Hood road was rejected and Mr. Hood charged with the cost of view and surveying thereof.

Messrs. Al. Clark, of Creswell, and J. S. Mann, of Winfield, were appointed to count the funds in the treasury.

Road tax in Spring Creek Township levied by mistake of assessor was remitted.

Geo. Russell, of Creswell, was given his constitutional exemption of $200.

H. J. Sandfort’s personal property tax was transferred from district 20 [?] to district 19.

The school tax was remitted to James Gilleland in Spring Creek.

Tax sale on lots 15 and 16 in block 15, Arkansas City, was declared invalid.

J. M. Hooker resigned as trustee of Silver Creek Township. No appointment in his place.

The tax on Chinn’s cattle, in Bolton Township, was remitted.

The resignation of Niton Jackson as constable of Tisdale Township was tendered, but not accepted by the Board.

Fifty dollars were appropriated to the County Normal, and an insurance of $3,000 on the Courthouse ordered.

In the appeal of district 113, the action of the Superintendent was sustained.

Wm. Hixon’s tax was remitted owing to erroneous assessment, also tax of Amos Biddle, in Beaver Township.


Winfield Courier, May 17, 1883.

                                           KANSAS STATE INSTITUTIONS.

There are nine State institutions as follows:

University at Lawrence.

Normal school at Emporia.

Agricultural school at Manhattan.

Deaf and dumb asylum at Olathe.

Blind asylum at Wyandotte.

Insane asylum at Topeka.

Penitentiary at Leavenworth.

Reform school at Topeka.

Insane asylum at Osawatomie.

A brief description will be given of these institutions in the order named.

The University, situated at Lawrence, is a large stone building 246 feet in length, 68 feet wide, with wings 62 feet wide, and 65 feet high. In the building are 54 rooms, including main hall, which is nearly a hundred feet long and over 50 feet wide.

In the university are six departments: collegiate, preparatory, normal, musical, law, and preparatory medical. Each department is provided with a suite for its especial convenience.

The University at Lawrence was established in 1859 by the Presbyterians. In 1861 it passed to the control of the Protestant Episcopal Church. The building and grounds were afterwards secured by the city of Lawrence, and given to the state for the purpose of establishing a state University. In 1871 a new building was erected, $100,000 being given for that purpose by the city of Lawrence. The institution is now in a flourishing condition, having an able corps of 17 professors, and an attendance of 1,000 pupils.

The State Normal school at Emporia is a fine building. It is supplied with water from the city water-works, heated by steam, and ventilated in the most perfect manner.

Established in 1845 with a liberal endowment of land, it has been in successful operation ever since. The building, costing $35,000, was in 1878 entirely destroyed by fire, but has been replaced by another superior to the first. Pupils of the school receive State certificates upon graduation.

The Agricultural College, another State educational institution of prominence, was established in 1863. It provides for the technical education of both young men and women.

The oldest college building, and about one hundred acres of land, were donated to the State for this purpose by the Bluemont Central College Association. Manhattan Township gave $12,000 toward purchasing the remaining farm.

The United States government endowed it with 90,000 acres of land, the most of which has been sold and invested in bonds, the income of which is upwards of $30,000. Appropria-tions are made by the legislature to meet its expenditures. The college has an annual atten-dance of about 200 pupils.

The various asylums at Olathe, Wyandotte, Topeka, and Osawatomie are managed in a scientific and practical manner, and the unfortunates in their charge are well cared for.

Winfield Courier, May 17, 1883.

The Cowley County Normal Institute will open at Winfield, Monday, June 25th, 1883, and continue five weeks. Conductor: Prof. Buel T. Davis, State Normal School, Emporia. Instructors: Prof. A. Gridley, Jr., Chanute; Prof. E. T. Trimble, Winfield. For particulars address A. H. Limerick, Supt., Public Instruction.

Winfield Courier, June 21, 1883.

Cowley County Normal Institute.

Opens Monday, June 25th, 1883, at the Public School building in Winfield.

Director: Prof. Bud T. Davis, State Normal School.

Assistants: Prof. A. Gridley, Jr., Chanute; Prof. E. T. Trimble, Winfield.

For particulars and course of study, address A. H. Limerick, Winfield, Kansas.

Winfield Courier, June 28, 1883.

The Normal.

The County Normal Institute opened Monday with about sixty-five teachers in attendance. Prof. Davis, of the State Normal School, acts as Conductor, and Profs. Gridley and Trimble as instructors. The work starts off nicely and promises a most prosperous session. The following is a list of those in attendance at present and their grades.


Alice A. Aldrich, Mattie Berry, Leander C. Brown, Will C. Barnes, Frank A. Chapin, Laura Elliott, Rosa Frederick, Anna L. Hunt, D. W. Ramage, Lida Strong, Mary E. Hamill, Silas Overman, Allie Klingman, Fannie M. McKinlay.


Anna Barnes, C. B. Bradshaw, May Christopher, Clara Davenport, Oliver Fuller, Anna Foulks, Leota Gary, Zella Huntchison, Maggie Herpich, Bertha Hempy, Ella Kephart, Anna Kuhn, Lewis King, Lizzie Lawson, May Rief, Etta Robinson, Ella Rounds, Maggie Seabridge, Lou Strong, Lizzie Burden, May Carlisle, Geo. Crawford, Estelle Cronk, Fannie Gramman, Ida Hamilton, James Hutchinson, Clara Pierce, Chas. Wing, Horace Norton.


Carrie B. Andress, Hattie E. Andrews, Mary E. Curfman, Emma Darling, Lydia E. Gardner, Meddie Hamilton, Lucy F. Hite, Rose E. B. Hooker, Lyda Howard, Ella Kempton, Maggie Kenney, Ida Kuhn, Mary E. Miller, Clara B. Page, Ella Pierce, Laura Phelps, Carrie Plunkett, Caddie Ridgway, Claudius Rinker, Charlie Roberts, Edly Roberts, Anna Robertson, Nettie Stewart, Minnie Stewart, James Stockdale, Minnie Sumpter, Eliza Taylor, Louella Wilson, Lillie Wilson, Kate Wimer, Etta King, Ida Grove, Ora Irvin, Emma McKee, Hannah Gilbert, Lizzie Gilbert, Mary Berkey, C. A. Daughterty, Mary Rief, Elfrida White.

Winfield Courier, November 8, 1883.

Teachers’ Association.

The Central Division of the Cowley County Teachers’ Association will meet November 17th, 1883, at the High School building, Winfield. Following is the program.


1. Course of study: S. I. Herriott.

2. Adaptation of Methods: Miss Laura Elliott.

3. Libraries: S. W. Norton.

4. How to Teach Notation and Numeration: Jas. Hutchinson.

5. Methods for Primary Reading: Miss Mamie Garlick.

6. Franklin and Hamilton: F. P. Vaughan.

7. Needs of our School System: General Discussion.

8. Amusements for Teacher and Pupils: H. G. Norton.


1. Select Reading: Miss Mary Hamill.

2. Essay: Miss Anna Barnes.

3. Declamation: W. P. Beaumont.


An Address by President Taylor of the State Normal School.

Winfield Courier, November 22, 1883.

Teachers’ Association.

The Teachers’ Association (Central Division) met in the East Ward school building Saturday, November 17th, at 10:30 a.m. S. L. Herriott presented some very valuable suggestions on course of study for our common schools. General discussion followed. Messrs. Limerick, Lucas, and Gridley were participants. Amusements for teachers and pupils was the next topic introduced by H. G. Norton, whose remarks provoked a very lively discussion, engaged in by Messrs. Limerick, Brown, Lucas, Herriott, and Gridley. At the close of this discussion, the Association adjourned to meet at 1-1/2 o’clock p.m. At the after-noon session there was a large attendance. A spirited discussion engaged in by various members of the Association, on the following topics: “Libraries” and “Defects in our School System.” President Taylor of Emporia Normal School, being present, made an address to the teachers with much wholesome advice. An evening session was held at the Courthouse, with select reading by Miss Mary Hamill, declamation by W. P. Beaumont, and an excellent lecture by President Taylor of Emporia. It is to be regretted that more teachers and school officers did not hear the above lecture. The next meeting of the Association will be held December 21 and 22, to which all the teachers of the county are cordially invited.

Winfield Courier, December 6, 1883.


The pupils in Miss Crippen’s room, West Ward schoolhouse, were shown a picture of a boy and rabbits and requested to each write a composition on the picture. The following are some of the results. The compositions are given verbatim et literatim et “punctuatim.”


I see a little boy with his pet rabbits. He is feeding them carrots. He has seven of them. They have long ears and pink eyes. He has curly hair. And red cheeks and blue eyes. I think that his mother has sent him to feed them. He is about three years old. He is in barn yard.

                                                  May Harter, Aged, 9, years.


Oh see that little boy, he has seven pet rabbits. Do you think that little boy likes his rabbits? I do, because he would not put his arm around them if he did not like them. He has brought out some carrots for them to eat. His rabbits have quite long ears. He has red rosy cheeks, and bright blue eyes. He has golden hair. The boys name is Fred.

                                               Berenice Bullen, Aged-10 years.


Once upon a time there was a little boy. He had seven pet rabbits. He has a cage for them but when he feeds them he lets them out. They are white ones. His name is Bennie. He hugging them.

                                                   Artie Wood. Aged-9 years.


Hear is a little boy with his seven little white pet rabbits he is feeding them some carrots. The rabbits has pink eyes. The rabbits will eat bread cake and clover and hay and drink milk.

                                                Nellie Anderson Age 10 years.


I see a little boy and his rabbits. He has seven little rabbits. He is hugging them. He is feeding them carrots. The little boy has rosy cheeks. And golden hair. He has a red dress on. His sleeves are rolled up. The rabbits are on a table. I will call him willie. O Hattie come here and see this little boy and his rabbits. His rabbits are white.

                                                     Elda Fitch. Age 9 years.


O’h see that pretty picture! It is a little boy and his pet rabbits. Their are seven of them in all. If I had them I would feed them grass twigs bread and other things. He is feeding them carrots. He is hugging them he has red curley hair. The rabbits have pink eyes. He has a little red coat on. He has a sweet smiling face his cheeks are as red as roses. I think one of them is named Benny. The little boys name is Tommy. I think they are having a happy time.

                                             Laura B. Parkhurst Age 11 years.


I see a little boy and seven rabbits in a picture. I think the little boy is willie. I think he is feeding his rabbits turnips or readishes in a pan. The rabbits has brown eyes and has long ears and pointed nose. They are white rabbits. And he has his arms thrown around them. I think they are having a nice time.

                                                Edgar. L. Stone. Age. 9. years


This little boys name is Harry. He has seven pretty white rabbits. He is feeding them some carrots. Harry and his rabbits look very happy. Harry has curly hair. He loves the rabbits. Harry has a red dress on.

                                                  Mollie Kennedy Age 9 years


I see the picture of a little boy and his rabbits. They are pet rabbits. He loves them. He calls them Bunney. He is feeding them carrots. He loves his rabbits. If I would have a rabbit I would make a pet of it. Did you ever see a rabbit?

                                                  Alexis Snyder Age 11 years


I see a little boy and he has fetched his pet rabbits some gras to eat. How many rabbits has he? He has seven of the nicest white rabbits in the town of winfield. He has golden hair. And he has a red coat on. And his name is Eddie. He is eight years old.

                                             Willie, S, T, Conrad. Age 10 years.


Charlie has six young Rabbits and one old one. This little boy has brought them out to feed them some corn. Charlie has red cheeks. He has blue eyes. The rabbits are precious little things. If I had some rabbits I would feed them good. These rabbits has black years. His father got him these Rabbits.

                                               Charlie E. Trump Age 10 years


These is a little boy with his pet rabbits. There are seven of them. They are white as they can be. I think his mother has sent him one to feed them. He is feeding them carrots. He has very curley hair. And blue eyes And red cheeks. He is not more than two years old. The rabbits have very pink eyes. The little boys name is Frank.

                                                  Ella L. Gentry, Age 9 years.


Here is Harry with his rabbits. Harry has seven white rabits. He loves his rabbits and his rabbits love him. Harry would not put his arms around them if he did not like them, I think so dont you? Harry is a pretty little boy. He has golden color hair. His hair is curly. He looks as if he was saying O Alma come here and see how tame my rabits are. I can put my arms around them and they wont haredely move. Here they all are. The large one and the little ones.           Lillie Trezise Age 9 years

Winfield Courier, February 7, 1884.

Miss Ella D. Kelly, of this city, has been granted a Normal Instructor’s certificate by the State Board of Education. Miss Kelly is going way up in educational circles.

Winfield Courier, March 6, 1884.

Miss Mary Berkey left last Saturday for Emporia, where she will take a course in the State Normal school. Miss Mary is a bright young lady and we are glad to see her afforded an opportunity of advancing in educational matters.


Winfield Courier, May 22, 1884.

The County Normal Institute opens in Winfield on June 16th and continues two months. It will be conducted by Prof. B. T. Davis, assisted by Prof. A. Gridley and County Superin-tendent, Limerick. A new department has been added for this year called the “Model School.” The purpose of this department is to give teachers ample opportunity to see in actual operation the best of the new methods of Primary Instruction. Miss Jessie Stretch, late of the State Normal School of Indiana, a teacher of much experience in this class of work, will have the supervision of this department.

Winfield Courier, May 29, 1884.

Model School.

Those wishing to enroll pupils in the Model Department of County Normal Institute will please do so before June 1st. Application should be made to Miss Stretch or County Supt. Enrollment limited to forty, $1 per month.

Winfield Courier, June 19, 1884.

Nothing has so much influence over a susceptible young man as a pretty, intelligent school ma’am, and we are afraid the managers of the Normal Institute will find it necessary to put an embargo on the visits of young gentlemen before the two month’s siege is ended.