[Notice from County Supt. Wilkinson to Cowley County Teachers.]

Winfield Courier, July 29, 1875.

                                           To the Teachers of Cowley County.

We have arranged with Prof. E. W. Hulse, of Arkansas City, and Prof. A. B. Lemmon, of Winfield, to assist in organizing and conducting a Teachers’ Normal school, of four weeks, during the month of August next. We desire to learn immediately the names of all teachers who will enroll themselves as members. Arrange­ments will be made to secure reasonable rates of board and lodging. A small tuition fee will be charged to cover incidental expenses, but the enterprise is not calculated to make money and will be carried out on the strictest principles of economy. The school will close with an examination for teachers who desire to teach the coming fall and winter. All depends on the number of applicants who report their names within the next ten days. Teachers will see the necessity of being prompt in joining us in this praiseworthy enterprise. T. A. WILKINSON, County Supt.

Winfield Courier, August 12, 1875.

                                                         A Normal Institute

Begins at Winfield, August 17th inst., continuing three weeks.


Incidental Fee: $2.50.

Boarding per week: $3.50.

Rooms can be rented cheap, in which Teachers can board themselves.

The Board of Examiners have determined to raise the grade of Certificates, and offer this opportunity for Teachers to improve themselves. In connection with the Institute, Prof. Hulse and Mr. Wilkinson will conduct a Musical Convention. A tuition fee of $1. will be charged. The Convention to close with a concert.

Committee: T. A. WILKINSON, Co. Supt., A. B. LEMMON, E. W. HULSE.

Winfield Courier, August 19, 1875.

                                                         THE INSTITUTE.

The following is a list of the teachers in attendance at the Normal Institute, now in session at this place.

James Tull, Lazette.

Z. Foster, Red Bud.

Belle Seibert, Winfield.

Rachael Nawman, Winfield.

Ella Davis, New Salem.

Harvey Thomas, Winfield.

John M. Reed, Winfield.

Nina Cowles, Arkansas City.

Ada Millington, Winfield.

Amy Chapin, Winfield.

Lettie Smith, Dexter.

Amy Robertson, Winfield.

Celia Taplin, Dexter.

J. T. Tarbet, Rock.

L. C. Turner, Nenescah.

Ettie Fowler, Little Dutch.

Mary Stansbury, Winfield.

Mary Houston, Little Dutch.

L. Graham, Winfield.

We publish this list for the purpose of showing to the different school boards who the teachers are that have the interest of our public schools at heart.

They have come here for the purpose of getting thoroughly informed as to the best modes of teaching. They are devoting their whole time to this work, and we predict that Cowley County will have a better grade of teachers in consequence thereof. If the school boards do their duty, they will make a note of this and take it into consider­ation when they come to employ teachers this fall.

Winfield Courier, August 26, 1875.

The Winfield Public School will reopen September 6th, 1875. During the fall term

                                                       A NORMAL CLASS

will be sustained, which will offer superior advantages to all who wish to fit themselves for the teacher’s work.

Non-resident students will be received on paying tuition fee as follows:

Normal and High School Dept., per month: $2.00.

Intermediate Department, per month: $1.25.

Primary Department, per month: $1.00

Good boarding can be secured at from $3.50 to $5.00 per week; or by renting rooms and boarding themselves, the expense can be reduced to $1.50 per week.

For further information, apply to ALLEN B. LEMMON, Principal.

Or G. S. MANSER, District Clerk.

Winfield Courier, August 26, 1875.

We visited the schoolhouse yesterday, and watched with interest the workings of the Institute now in session there. We have not the space to notice it as it deserves. It is strictly speaking, a high grade Normal school. The teachers are the pupils; and Professors Wilkinson, Hulse, and Lemmon, the faculty. The programme for each day is prepared in advance, and followed out to the letter. The afternoons are devoted entirely to study. We witnessed the exercises in English grammar and geography, and like their methods of instruction. To teachers who are “waiting to see how it will turn out,” we would say, come immediately, enroll your name, get down to square work, and you will be well paid for your trouble.

Winfield Courier, August 26, 1875.


There will be a Teachers Examination held at Winfield Friday and Saturday, Sept. 3rd and 4th, 1875. A Teachers Normal Insti­tute is now in session, and all teachers are requested to attend the last week of said Institute, which closes Thursday, September 2nd. There will be no other examination this fall, except for teachers absent from the county or sick when said examination is held. T. A. WILKINSON, County Superintendent.

Excerpt from long article...


Winfield Courier, September 16, 1875.


Educational interests in Cowley County are far in advance of those in much older counties in the State. There are 105 school districts in the county, and seventy-five good schoolhouses. A stone building in this city costing $6,000, and a brick building in Arkansas City costing $10,000.

Of so much importance are the schools of this county, that a Normal Institute was established in this city, to perfect the teachers of the several schools for the coming year. The Insti­tute closed its labors yesterday, after the end of three weeks term distinguished by its able faculty, and highly successful results. It was conducted by Prof. A. B. Lemmon, Principal of the Winfield school, whose educational acquirements have already procured him the tender of a professorship in Washburn College; Prof. E. W. Hulse, Principal of the Arkansas City school, a refined scholar and gentleman; Prof. T. A. Wilkinson, the able Superintendent of Cowley County; and Miss L. A. Norton, principle assistant of Prof. Hulse, in the Arkansas City school. Of Miss Norton and Miss Jennie Greenlee, principle assistant of Prof. Lemmon, I must take the liberty to draw a contrast, effected here within a very recent period.

Six years is a brief space of time, connected with the advance of civilization. Six years ago Cowley County was the theatre of barbarism untinctured with a drop of civilization. The sweet, benign, civilizing influences of the female sex, found its representative in the ground-colored, metallic-scented, squatty, unctuous person of the Indian squaw. Today the county is distinguished for its numerous families, whose female compo­nents ornament the arch of refined and social structure, while the charming graces of beauty, wit, polish, and the various scientific accomplishments are typified, to a remarkable degree, in the two lady teachers I have named. It must be confessed that these great social changes, so suddenly effected are truly wonderful. It gives me pleasure to depict them, for the subject contains lessons of great value and interest to every philanthropist. . . .

                                   J. M. A. [Leavenworth Times Correspondent.]

Winfield Courier, November 11, 1875.    


There will be a Teachers’ Examination held at Winfield, Kansas, Saturday, November 20th, 1875. All applicants failing to avail themselves of said examination will have to wait until the time of holding the County Institute, in the spring of 1876.

                                             T. A. WILKINSON, County Supt.


Winfield Courier, January 6, 1876.

About the last day of December, 1869, Judge W. R. Brown, H. B. Norton, T. A. Wilkinson, H. D. Kellogg, John Brown, Moore, and G. H. Norton drove into camp near Wood’s residence as members and representatives of the Walnut City town company.

A few leading citizens of Emporia, among the number, C. V. Eskridge, P. B. Plumb, J. Stotler, L. B. Kellogg, H. B. Norton, and Judge Brown and H. L. Hunt, of Cottonwood Falls, had orga­nized a town company and sent the party mentioned down into the Walnut Valley to locate a town at the junction of the Walnut River with the Arkansas River. The map of Kansas at that time showed that the junction was about the center of Cowley County. After some conference with the settlers, the newcomers took five claims adjoining Manning’s claim, east, southeast, and south, with the intention of making this the location of the proposed town. In a day or two upon an examination of the country below, the party decided to locate their town at the present town site of Arkansas City.

On January 1st, 1870, T. A. Wilkinson, John Brown, G. H. Norton, and John Strain staked out and claimed the four claims upon which Arkansas City now stands, as the location of the new town. H. B. Norton took a claim adjoining the town site on the north, H. D. Kellogg took a claim south of the town site. When this party arrived at the mouth of the Walnut, they found the bottom and timber claims taken by H. Endicott and his son, Pad, and G. Harmon, Ed. Chapin, Pat Summers [Somers], Mr. Carr, Mr. Hughes, and one or two others.

The Walnut City town company consisted of fifteen members, and the four claim holders mentioned were of the number, and were to hold the claims and enter them for the company. On their way down the valley the party discovered a Walnut City in Butler County, and concluded to change the name of their company to Delphi. On their return to Emporia the name was again changed to Creswell, and by this name the town was known for some months. On applying for a post office, the Post Office department in­formed Senator Ross, who made the application, that there was a Creswell in Labette County, Kansas, and that no two offices of the same name would be located in the State, and at Ross’ sugges­tion, it was called Arkansas City. When the commission came to G. H. Norton, who was the postmaster named, the town was named Arkansas City. This was in April 1870.

On the 9th day of January, 1870, a party of fifteen men under the lead of Thomas Coats took claims along the Grouse Valley. Their names were John Coats, Wm. Coats, Joseph Reynolds, Gilbert Branson, Henry Branson, Newton Phenis, I. H. Phenis, H. Hayworth, L. B. Bullington, J. T. Raybell, D. T. Walters, S. S. Severson, John Nicholls, and C. J. Phenis.

The Winfield enterprise took form in January of 1870, as did that of Arkansas City. From the start the parties interested in the two prospective towns were shaping events to secure the county seat of Cowley County whenever it should be organized. In February of 1870 a bill was introduced in the Senate of Kansas entitled, “An act to organize the county of Cowley,” and making Creswell the county seat. As soon as the news arrived at Winfield, James H. Land, A. A. Jackson, and C. M. Wood traversed the county in three days and took the census of over six hundred population, and reported at Douglass, in Butler County (the nearest place where an officer could be found to administer an oath), on the 23d of February. At that time the necessary papers were made out and E. C. Manning took them to Topeka and presented them to the Governor, who, thereupon issued the order organizing Cowley County and designat­ing Winfield as the temporary county seat. The bill organizing the county got through the Senate but failed in the House.

As specimens of “literature” of that day we produce the following circulars which were issued a short time previous to the first election held in the county, to-wit:  May 2nd, 1870.


To the voters of Cowley County:

The Creswell Town Company ask leave to present to you the claims of Creswell as a location for the county seat.

This town is situated on the Arkansas River, twelve miles above its intersection by the State line; said intersection being two and three-fourth miles below the mouth of the Grouse. The Walnut enters the Arkansas at Creswell, and the valleys of other streams on the south side of the Arkansas converge at this point, making it the natural centre of business and population for Cowley County.

Creswell is named as a point upon four chartered lines of railroad, viz: The Walnut Valley Branch of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe road; the Preston, Salina & Denver road; the Emporia & Holden road; and the Arkansas Valley, or Fort Smith & Hays City road. It is also confidently expected that this will be the point of crossing for the Fort Scott & Santa Fe road. The Legislature at its recent session, ordered the immediate survey of a State road, by the most direct route, from Emporia to Creswell.

The company have determined to spare no expense or effort to make Creswell the metropolis of the Arkansas Valley. The follow­ing are among the enterprises already inaugurated:

Sleeth & Co., of Eldorado, have contracted to put up their steam saw-mill and a shingle-machine in operation at Creswell by the 15th of May.

Daniel Beedy, now a resident at Emporia, has contracted to build a grist-mill, saw-mill, and planing-mill upon the Creswell water-power; to commence by July 1st, 1870.

G. H. Norton & Co. have opened a general stock of groceries, dry goods, boots and shoes, which they pledge themselves to sell at Eldorado prices.

Betts & Fraser, of Eldorado, will at once open a stock of groceries, provisions, and campers’ supplies.

C. R. Sipes, of Emporia, has purchased an interest in the town, and is preparing to open at Creswell the largest stock of hardware, tinware, and agricultural implements ever offered south or west of Emporia.

A stock of drugs and medicines has been ordered by responsi­ble parties, and a well provided drug-store will be speedily established.

We are also happy to announce that the best job and newspa­per office south of the Neosho will commence the publication of a newspaper at Creswell within the next ninety days.

Max Fawcett, recently of the Neosho Valley (Emporia) Nurs­ery, has transferred his entire interest to Creswell, and is arranging to establish there the largest fruit and nursery concern in Kansas.

L. F. Goodrich, of Emporia, is now at work erecting a feed and livery stable.

A ferry has been chartered, and will be running upon the Arkansas by July 1st.

We, the Town Company of Creswell, furthermore pledge our­selves to erect a first-class stone or frame building not less than thirty feet square and two stories high, suitably arranged for a court-room and county offices; and to deed the same, with one entire block of not less than fourteen lots, centrally located, to the county, to be its property so long as the county-seat remains at Creswell; the building to be completed within six months after Creswell is chosen permanent county seat.

The question of taxation is one of great importance to the people of a young and undeveloped country. It is only at the cost of heavy taxes that the county will be able to erect a courthouse and other county buildings. This expense the Creswell town company propose to wholly assume.

The immediate vicinity of the Arkansas River is the natural location for the cities and towns which are to one day adorn this great valley. The natural centers of population and business will be there. Let us choose wisely, and make a choice which will not speedily be reversed.

We commend these facts and offers to the thoughtful consid­eration of the voters of Cowley County.

                   H. B. NORTON, Associate Principal State Normal School, President.

                                C. V. ESKRIDGE, Lieut. Governor, Vice President.

                               W. R. BROWN, Judge 9th Judicial District, Secretary.

                          L. B. KELLOGG, Principal State Normal School, Treasurer.

                                                      J. STOTLER, Director.

                                                COL. P. B. PLUMB, Director.

                                             CAPT. G. H. NORTON, Director.

                                                       H. L. HUNT, Director.

                                             H. D. KELLOGG, M. D., Director.

                                                   J. S. DANFORD, Director.

Cowley County Democrat, March 6, 1876.

The Winfield public schools will reopen September 6, 1876. During the tall term a normal class will be sustained which will offer Superior Advantages to all who wish to fit themselves for the Teacher’s work.

Non-resident students will be received by paying tuition fee as follows:

Normal and High School department, per month $2.00

Intermediate department, per month $1.25

Primary department, per month $1.00

Good boarding can secured at from $3.50 to $5.00 per week; or by students renting rooms and boarding themselves, the expense can be reduced to $1.50 per week.

For further information apply to Allen B. Lemmon, Principal, or G. S. Manser, District Clerk.

Winfield Courier, June 8, 1876.

                                              Cowley County Normal School.

The second annual session of the school will be held at Winfield, commencing July 17th, and continuing four weeks.

In addition to daily exercises in all the branches of study required by the new school law, there will be a series of lec­tures on School Management and Theory and Practice of Teaching.

Several of the ablest educators in the State will be present to conduct class exercises and deliver evening lectures.

Under the new school law all the third grade teachers in the county will be compelled to raise their grade of scholarship or fail to get certificates. This will create a demand for well qualified teachers at increased wages.

To defray the expenses of the school a tuition fee of $3.00 per scholar will be charged. Good board can be secured at about $3 per week.

The teachers who desire to attend the Normal School should apply soon to

                                                   A. B. LEMMON, Principal,

                                                           Winfield, Kansas.

Winfield Courier, June 22, 1876.

A normal school, conducted by Prof. Shively, commences at Douglass on the 17th of July and will hold four weeks.

Winfield Courier, June 29, 1876.

WANTED. Board and lodging, or rooms furnished, for fifty teachers during the session of the Normal Institute. Apply at once to A. B. LEMMON.

Cowley County Democrat, July 13, 1876.

A failure to secure accommodations for teachers has caused the postponement of the Normal School till Aug. 21st. The school will be in session four weeks, closing with an examination September 15th and 16th.

Arkansas City Traveler, July 19, 1876.

THE COWLEY COUNTY NORMAL SCHOOL is postponed until August 21, in consequence of the failure to secure accommodations for teachers. Prof. Lemmon is doing his utmost to make it comfort­able for the teachers during the term.

Winfield Courier, August 24, 1876.

The Normal Institute now in session is in a very flourishing condition. Forty teachers are now in attendance and more are dropping in every day, with the prospect that the number will be run up to sixty. Prof. Lemmon, assisted by Geo. Robinson, has charge. R. C. Story is expected this week to help in conducting the institute.

Winfield Courier, September 7, 1876.

Prof. Bacon, of Arkansas City, is taking notes at the Teachers’ Institute.

Winfield Courier, September 7, 1876.

                                                           Normal School.

The following are the names of teachers attending the Normal School at this place.

From Cedarvale: Oscar J. Holroyd; Lizzie Conklin.

From Winfield: Wm. J. McClellan; J. K. Beckner; Rachel Nawman; Kate Gilleland; Maggie Stansbury; Sallie E. Rea; M. J. Huff; C. A. Winslow; Amy Robertson; Mary E. Lynn; Lusetta Pyburn; Mrs. Bell Seibert; Nannie McGee; Sarah E. Davis; O. S. Record; Byron A. Fouch; Mary A. Bryant; Mina C. Johnson; Mattie Roberts; Emma Saint.

From Arkansas City: Xina Cowley; Anna O. Wright; Kate Hawkins; Stella Burnett; Adelia DeMott; Georgiana Christian; Laura E. Turner; Lizzie Landis; Jefferson Bowen.

From Lazette: George Lee; M. L. Smith; Lucy Bedell; Kate Fitzgerald.

From Tisdale: Ella Wickersham; Gertie Davis.

From Canola: Mary E. Buck; Anna Buck.

From New Salem: Belle Wren.

From Little Dutch: Helen Wright.

From Dexter: Mary J. Byard.

From Polo: Mrs. Sarah Hollingsworth.

Winfield Courier, September 7, 1876.

A COUNTY TEACHERS’ INSTITUTE will begin at the schoolhouse in Winfield, Monday, September 11, 1876, and continue four days, followed by a teachers’ examination, Friday and Saturday, Sept. 15th and 16th. The examination will be principally written.

                                      T. A. WILKINSON, County Superintendent.

Winfield Courier, September 14, 1876.

Miss Veva Walton, of Oxford, is attending the Teachers’ Institute.

Winfield Courier, September 21, 1876.

The teacher’s social at the courthouse last Friday night was a very pleasant affair. Duets, quartettes, promenades, and a general effort on the part of everybody, to try to get acquainted with everybody else, seemed to be the order of the evening. The institute’s reporter writes it up in better shape than we can, so we “respectfully refer” you to her column.

Winfield Courier, September 21, 1876.

                              Minutes of the Cowley County Teachers’ Institute.

Agreeable to the call of the County Superintendent of Public Instruction, the teachers of Cowley County met in annual insti­tute on Monday, Sept. 11th, at 9 o’clock a.m. On account of sickness in his family, Mr. Wilkinson was unable to attend, and the duty of conducting the Institute devolved on Prof. A. B. Lemmon.

The Institute organized by electing the following officers: President, Mr. D. M. Snow; Vice President, Mr. H. M. Bacon; Secretary, Miss M. A. Bryant. Messrs. Robinson, Bacon, and Millard, and Misses Cowles and Roberts were chosen a committee on query box.

The summary of the work done by the Institute during the four days session is as follows: Prof. Lemmon delivered a series of lectures on school management, taking up and developing plans for the organization and government of schools. In connection with these lectures, the teachers were led to take a part in the discussion of the theories and plans advocated by the lecturer. This exercise was heartily appreciated by all, and it is hoped it will lead our teachers to a more careful and thorough study of their work.

Mr. Robinson led the teachers in three interesting lessons in geography. A complete outline was made of the location of the valuable minerals of the globe, and another of the government of the different countries of the globe. Such lessons, in which the entire subject is spread upon the black-board at a single exer­cise, afford the most complete and thorough review of the topic that can be given in a short time. Cannot all our teachers make such lessons valuable in their schools? They are the best possible general reviews that can be made. At a single glance the entire subject is brought to the eyes and mind of the student.

Valuable reviews in arithmetic, English grammar, and United States history were conducted by different members of the school. Most of the exercises in U. S. History were conducted by Mr. Bacon, of Arkansas City. The leading topics in our country’s history were assigned to different members of the Institute, and each took his place on the floor and elucidated the point that had been assigned to him, using the map and locating the place at which the events named occurred. In this manner everyone present had his own specified work to do, and at the same time got the benefit of studying that had been done by all the others.

The class in mental arithmetic was led by Mr. E. A. Millard in an interesting study of different plans for the analysis of problems.

Topics and problems in written arithmetic were suggested by Mr. Lemmon to different members of the institute, and in that manner all the leading principles of arithmetic were brought up in review. A short and practical rule for computing interest was developed and thoroughly analyzed.

Wirt W. Walton led the institute in an excellent exercise on the “surveyed divisions of public lands.” He showed the differ­ent methods of survey that had been adopted at different times, and then proceeded to illustrate the simple and excellent plan in use in our country. By means of diagrams and maps placed upon the board, the meaning and use of base and meridian lines, the manner of numbering townships and the sections of the township, and many other points valuable to all.

An interesting lecture on the “science of government” was delivered by F. S. Jennings, Esq., of Winfield. After comparing our government with others and showing the excellencies of our own, he proceeded to examine the different departments of our government and to make a cursory, but very satisfactory analysis of the same.

Of the exercises in English grammar we note the treatment of the agreement of the pronoun with its antecedent, by Mr. H. W. Holloway, as being quite worthy of mention.

Miss Mall Roberts, late of Oskaloosa, Iowa, illustrated her manner of teaching primary reading by introducing a class of little folks and leading them step by step through the lesson. For a half hour she held the attention of the members of her class riveted to their work. Observing members of the Institute learned a lesson from her plans that will be of value to them in their school rooms.

A part of the last afternoon was spent in discussing the necessity of having literary exercises in schools, and methods employed to make them successful. Many of the teachers had a bit of experience to relate; some had succeeded, many had failed, but, at the conclusion, all determined to make a greater effort than ever before to make this work as thorough and useful as any of the class exercises.

Before the adjournment on Thursday, the following resolu­tions were adopted.

Resolved, That we, the members of the Teachers’ Institute, held in Winfield, Kansas, from Sept. 11th to 14th, in token of our hearty appreciation of the untiring efforts of Profs. Lemmon and Robinson, in our behalf, hereby tender to them our hearty thanks, and extend to them our warmest congratulations for the marked success which has attended their efforts. The members of the Institute are further indebted to Messrs. Jennings and Walton for valuable assistance rendered.

Resolved, That a copy of the above be published in the papers of Cowley County.

In behalf of the Institute, E. WICKERSHAM, W. E. KETCHAM, H. M. BACON.

Friday evening at 8 o’clock the teachers and many of their friends in the city met at the courthouse for a social reunion. Every person present seemed a self-constituted committee of one to have a good time. Teachers, forgetting the times they endured during the last term of school, or the anxiety they feel over where they shall work next time, rubbed the wrinkles out of their foreheads and wreathed their faces in smiles; young attorneys put away all thoughts of injunctions, appeals, and bills of particu­lars, and went zealously in search of attachments; they came without demurrers or stays of proceedings; young merchants dropped the yard stick and scissors, forgot the price of a “new suit,” quinine, spelling books and paregoric, and sought “bargains” of a different kind; young bankers and money-lenders quit thinking about checks, drafts, and mortgages, and their hilarity would lead one to think their consciences are not troubled by reflections on thirty-six percents, but that quite likely “they loaned out money gratis;” editors and politicians laid aside the “care of State,” and took part in the general enjoyment. Thus closed a very successful session of the Cowley County Teachers’ Institute. It was emphatically a session for work. Everyone had something to do and did it to the best of his ability. The influence of the Institute will be felt on the schools of the county during the coming year. MARY A. BRYANT, Secretary.

Winfield Courier, October 5, 1876.

The following is a list of the teachers attending the Normal Institute, who secured certificates at the examination: Second grade certificates being valid six months, first grade one year, “A” grade two years.

SECOND GRADE: Emery J. Johnson, J. H. Edwards, Wm. E. Ketcham, J. C. Armstrong, Oscar J. Holroyd, O. J. Record, T. B. Kidney, Porter Wilson, R. R. Corson, M. L. Smith, J. T. Tarbet, Charles H. Eagin, E. W. Snow, M. D. Snow, Byron A. Snow, C. W. Dover, George Lee, J. K. Beckner, Frank A. Chapin, J. M. Hawthorn, T. P. Stevenson, W. E. Meredith, Mrs. Belle Seibert, Mrs. A. R. Hauser, Miss Fannie Skinner, Miss Sarah E. Davis, Miss Stella Burnett, Miss Laura Turner, Miss Anna O. Wright, Mis Veva Walton, Miss Georgia Christian, Miss Gertrude Davis, Miss Adelia DeMott, Miss Lizzie Conklin, Miss Sallie Rea, Miss M. J. Huff, Miss M. E. Lynn, Miss C. A. Winslow, Miss Lusetta Pyburn, Miss Helen Wright, Miss Anna Buck, Miss Mary E. Buck, Miss Kate L. Ward, Miss Emma Saint, Miss Mina C. Johnson, Miss Maggie Stansbury, Miss Kate Gilleland, Miss Rachel E. Nawman, Miss Kate Fitzgerald, Miss Mary I. Byard, Miss Jos. Roberts, Miss Lizzie Landis, Miss Amy Robertson, Miss Kate T. Hawkins, Miss Anna Mark, Miss Lucy Pedell, Miss Sarah Hollingsworth.

FIRST GRADE: H. M. Bacon, H. W. Holloway, Miss Mall Roberts.

“A” GRADE: Miss Xina Cowles, Miss Mary A. Bryant, Ella Wickersham, George Robinson.

Of the seventy teachers applying for certificates fifty-seven received second grade, three first grade, four “A” grade, and six failed.


Winfield Courier, February 8, 1877.

                                                           A GOOD LAW.

Senator Brown, of Marshal County, has introduced a Normal school bill, partially agreed upon by our very best educators, and one that meets with the hearty approval of our State Superin­tendent of Public Instruction, Prof. Lemmon.

It provides for the establishment of a system of county normal institutes, very similar to those so successfully conduct­ed for the past few years by the teachers and local superinten­dents of the various counties in the Southwest.

Under the present system of normal instruction, the taxpay­ers of the whole State are supporting three high schools, which are purely local in their influence and character and never can be made to benefit the average country teacher. A three week’s practical normal school, properly conducted at Winfield under this new system, would be worth more to the teachers of Cowley County than a nine years’ reflection upon the naked fact that the State normal buildings at Emporia and Leavenworth are models of beauty and architectural workmanship.

Winfield Courier, March 15, 1877. Editorial Page.

The Kansas Legislature appropriated for the State Peniten­tiary $243,881.97; for normal schools, $000,000.00. Comment is unnecessary.

Winfield Courier, July 19, 1877.

The Normal Institute for this county will begin work August 1. Prof. L. B. Kellogg, formerly of the Emporia Normal School, will have charge of the Institute. He will be assisted by Geo. W. Robinson, of Winfield, Miss Ella Wickersham, of Tisdale, and R. C. Story, County Superintendent.

Winfield Courier, July 19, 1877.

Addresses, upon topics of special and general interest, will be given by Rev. Rushbridge, Fleming, Platter, Wingar, and by D. A. Millington on the 13th of August. Doctor C. E. Pomeroy, President of the Emporia Normal School, will address the teachers and citizens. An examination of teachers on the 30th and 31st will close the labors of the Normal.


Arkansas City Traveler, July 25, 1877.

The Normal Institute for Cowley County will open Wednesday, August 1st, in Winfield. Prof. L. B. Kellogg, of Emporia, will conduct the exercises, assisted by Bro. W. Robinson, of Winfield, Miss Ella Wickersham, of Tisdale, and R. C. Story, County Super­intendent. G. H. Buckman, of Winfield, will give special in­struction in vocal music.

The following gentlemen will address the teachers and citizens upon subjects of interest: Rev. Mr. Fleming, August 3; Rev. Mr. Rushbridge, August 10; Dr. C. E. Pomeroy, August 13; Rev. Mr. Platter, August 17; Mr. D. A. Millington, August 25.

An address is expected from Rev. J. J. Wingar, should he return from the west before the close of the month.

Parties attending the normal will be charged a tuition fee of one dollar. Applicants for certificates will be examined August 30 and 31, fee one dollar.

Winfield Courier, August 2, 1877.

Fifty teachers were enrolled at the Normal Institute yesterday, the first day, and still they come.

Winfield Courier, August 9, 1877.

The following are the teachers attending the Cowley County Normal.

Winfield. Misses Ella C. Davis, Mary Pontious, Fannie Pontious, Miss C. Johnson, Alice Pyburn, Lusetta Pyburn, Mattie E. Minnihan, Lissie Summers, Mattie E. Walters, Rachel E. Nawman, Alie Klingman, Alice A. Aldrich, Genie Holmes, Ella E. Scott, Ella Hunt, Ella Wickersham, Emma Saint, Mollie Bryant, Ella Freeland, Maggie Stansbury, Amy Robertson, Lizzie Kinne, Sarah Hodges, Jennie Hare, Sallie Levering, Effie Randall, Sarah E. Davis, Ina Daniels; Messrs. O. S. Record, Frank Starwalt, M. H. Marcum, J. D. Hunt, J. A. Rupp, C. C. Holland, J. B. Freeland, N. N. Winton, A. B. Taylor.

Arkansas City. Misses Lizzie Landis, Mattie F. Mitchell, Ella Grimes, Albertine Maxwell, Belle Birdzell, Flora Finley, Kate Hawkins, Stella Barnett, Mary A. Pickett, Tillie Kennedy, Anna O. Wright; Messrs. B. F. Marich, E. R. Thompson, J. F. Hess.

Dexter. Misses Alpha Hardin, Viola Hardin, Sarah J. Hoyt, Rettie Landis; Mr. T. J. Rood.

Tisdale. Misses Gertrude Davis, Sarah Davis.

Cedarvale. Miss Martha J. Thompson; Mr. S. T. Hockett.

Oxford. Miss Veva Walton.

New Salem. Miss Sallie Bovee.

Red Bud. Mrs. Belle Seibert; Mr. H. S. Bush.

Lazette. Miss Kate Fitzgerald.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 15, 1877.

The Normal Institute at Winfield will close on Wednesday, the 29th inst. An examination of applicants for teacher’s certificates will be held on Thursday and Friday, Aug. 30th and 31st. Prof. Kellogg, of Emporia, R. C. Story, George W. Robin­son, Miss Ela Wickersham are conducting the Normal, assisted by G. H. Buckman in instructions in vocal music.



Arkansas City Traveler, August 15, 1877.

Next in order is the Normal School, which convened Aug. 1st, with Prof. L. B. Kellogg, of Emporia, as Principal, you know. The school is composed of seventy-one students, fifty-four of which are ladies and seventeen gentlemen. Prof. Kellogg is assisted by Prof. Geo. H. Robinson, who conducts the grammar class, G. W. Buckman, who conducts the class in vocal music, Miss Wickersham, who conducts the geography recitation, and Superintendent Story. The managers of the school have shown unequaled skill in their respective branches and have gained the confidence and good wishes of every member of the school. Mr. Kellogg and Mr. Robinson deserve especial commendation for their services rendered the school. Mr. Buckman is also doing a good work in vocal music. Mr. Buckman is a thorough musician, and will undoubtedly advance the cause of music in our district schools.

I would suggest District Officers, who desire to employ teachers, to visit the Normal and select from the whole school such teachers as they think would best suit their respective schools. More anon. C. C. H.


Arkansas City Traveler, August 15, 1877.

The following are the teachers attending the Cowley County Normal.

Winfield. Misses Ella C. Davis, Mary Pontious, Fannie Pontious, Mina C. Johnson, Alice Pyburn, Lusetta Pyburn, Mattie E. Minnihan, Lissie Summers, Mattie E. Walters, Rachel E. Nawman, Allie Klingman, Alice A. Aldrich, Genie Holmes, Ella E. Scott, Ella Hunt, Ella Wickersham, Emma Saint, Molly Bryant, Ella Freeland, Maggie Stansbury, Amy Robertson, Lizzie Kinne, Sarah Hodges, Jennie Hane, Sallie Leavering, Effie Randall, Sarah E. Davis, Ina Daniels; Messrs. O. S. Record, Frank Starwalt, M. H. Markcum, J. D. Hunt, J. A. Rupp, C. C. Holland, J. B. Freeland, N. N. Winton, A. B. Taylor.

Arkansas City. Misses Lizzie Landis, Mattie F. Mitchell, Ella Grimes, Albertine Maxwell, Belle Birdzell, Flora Finley, Kate Hawkins, Stella Burnett, Mary A. Pickett, Tillie Kennedy, Anna O. Wright; Messrs. B. F. Maricle, E. R. Thompson, J. F. Hess.

Dexter. Misses Alpha Hardin, Viola Hardin, Sarah J. Hoyt; Rettie Landis; Mr. T. J. Boyd.

Tisdale. Misses Gertrude Davis, Sarah Davis.

Cedarvale. Miss Martha Thompson; Mr. S. T. Beckett.

Oxford. Miss Veva Walton.

New Salem. Miss Sallie Bovee.

Red Bud. Mrs. Belle Seibert; Mr. H. S. Bash.

Lazette. Miss Kate Fitzgerald.

Winfield Courier, August 16, 1877.

The County Normal has seventy teachers as pupils.

Winfield Courier, August 23, 1877.

The Normal Institute still increases in interest and in the number of teachers in attendance. An accession of five has been made this week, and the total number in attendance reaches seventy-five. It is really exhilarating to meet fifty neatly dressed, bright looking, jolly schoolmarms on the narrow sidewalk every time one goes to dinner.



Arkansas City Traveler, August 29, 1877. Front Page.

                                     WINFIELD, KANSAS, AUGUST 20, 1877.

There are upwards of seventy teachers attending the Teachers Institute. Of all the steps that have been taken for the benefit of our school system, none have done so much good to awaken a general interest in the schools, as the Teacher’s Normal Insti­tute, now an established thing in every county of the State. A union—at these institutes—of all the teachers of the county, takes place; an interchange of ideas, a knowledge of the system by which different teachers govern the school over which they preside, is obtained by each member of the Institute. . . . J. O. WILKINSON.

Winfield Courier, September 13, 1877.

                                                      The Normal Institute.

MR. EDITOR: It will certainly be gratifying to your readers, who have the best interests of our county at heart, to learn that with all her other achievements, in the way of development, Cowley County is not behind in the matter of education. With sterling and enterprising men to manage the rapid improvement, we have attained a success of which every citizen can be justly proud, and today our county stands almost a prodigy in wealth and prosperity. It might be supposed that, with all the incidents and vicissitudes naturally attendant upon the new settlement and development of a new county, the educational interests would be neglected, but it is certainly not so in this county, and nothing can be more indicative of the enterprise and determination of our people in this direction than the well attended and eminently successful normal that has just been held.

Mr. Story, our county superintendent, spared no efforts to induce a full attendance and secure good and efficient instructors, and was certainly very successful in both. Prof. Kellogg, formerly president of the State Normal, assisted by R. C. Story, Prof. G. W. Robinson of the Winfield schools, Miss Wickersham, also of the Winfield schools, and Mr. Geo. H. Buckman, conducted the various branches of study pursued.

The attendance from the first was equal to the most sanguine expectations of those interested, there being on the first day over sixty enrolled. This number was steadily augmented until it reached almost a hundred earnest hard-working teachers. The interest throughout was unabating, and every branch in which applicants for teachers’ certificates are required to be examined was thoroughly and systematically discussed.

In addition to the regular exercises, a course of lectures was given by some of the most eminent men of the State and county on moral, educational, and scientific subjects. These lectures were well attended and very highly appreciated. Dr. Pomeroy, Prof. Kellogg, D. A. Millington, Esq., Rev. J. E. Platter, Rev. J. L. Rushbridge, and Rev. C. J. Adams filled the different appointments in this course.

The immediate effects of the normal were very perceptible in the teachers’ examination held at the close; out of nearly eighty applicants, only seven failed, while twelve got first grade and six “A” grade certificates although the rate of marking was higher than at any time during the past year, and we think it safe to predict that our schools will be conducted with greater efficiency during the coming year than ever before.

The following is a list of teachers who received certificates at the examination.

Winfield. Grade “A”. Misses Mina C. Johnson, Alice A. Aldrich, Emma Saint, Sarah Hodges.

Winfield. Grade 1. Misses Ella Freeland, Ella Scott, Allie Klingman, Sarah E. Davis, Jennie Hane, Mr. O. S. Record.

Winfield. Grade 2. Misses Maggie Stansbury, Amy Robertson, R. E. Nawman, Fannie Pontious, Mary Pontious, Lissie Summers, Mattie Minnihan, Effie Randall, Alice Pyburn, Lusetta Pyburn, Mattie Walters, Mrs. B. Seibert, Messrs. J. D. Hunt, John Bower, A. B. Taylor, B. F. Starwalt, E. M. Snow, M. H. Markcum.

Arkansas City. Grade “A”. Miss Lizzie Landis.

Arkansas City. Grade 1. E. R. Thompson, J. O. Wilkinson, Mrs. R. Stauffer, Miss Ella Grimes.

Arkansas City. Grade 2. Misses Annie O. Wright, Albertine Maxwell, Lillie Kennedy, Dora Winslow, Kate Hawkins, Mary Pickett, Messrs. C. C. Holland, B. F. Maricle, J. F. Hess, C. L. Swarts, N. N. Winton.

Oxford. Grade “A”. Miss Veva Walton.

Lazette. Grade 1. H. T. Albert, M. Hemenway, Miles J. Smith.

Lazette. Grade 2. Miss Kate Fitzgerald, Mr. J. F. Tucker.

Dexter. Grade 1. Miss Kate L. Ward.

Dexter. Grade 2. Misses Alpha Harden, Celia Taplin, Belle Byard, Messrs. T. J. Rude, J. C. Armstrong.

New Salem. Grade 2. Mrs. I. E. Brown, Misses Sarah Bovee, Ella E. Davis.

Cedarvale. Grade 2. Misses N. P. Seacord, Martha Thompson, Mr. Geo. W. Seacord, S. T. Hockett.

Red Bud. Grade 1. Porter Wilson.

Red Bud. Grade 2. C. H. Eagin, R. T. Tarbet, J. M. Crawford.

Polo. Grade 2. Mrs. S. Hollingsworth.

Winfield Courier, October 25, 1877.

                                                              THE STATE.

Sixty counties have held normal institutes under the law enacted last winter.

Winfield Courier, November 22, 1877.

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, Emporia, Kansas. The winter term will commence Dec. 12th. Unsurpassed facilities are offered for a thorough professional or general education.

For circulars address the President, C. R. POMEROY.


Winfield Courier, January 24, 1878.


                                                            By R. C. Story.

                                          MONTHLY REPORT - DECEMBER.

Note: I am going to name district and enrollment only.


4, 26; 6, 21; 7, 30; 10, 38; 15, 28; 18, 29; 21, 46; 25, 41; 26, 44; 30, 44; 31, 27; 87, 88; 38, 21; 89, 41; 40, 33; 41, 30; 42, 24; 45, 35; 46, 45; 47, 50; 48, 20; 50, 43; 54, 36; 61, 22; 62, 56; 65, 23; 69, 31; 78, 42; 81, 27; 85, 31; 91, 25; 94, 40; 97, 20; 107, 23.

The above figures are taken from reports sent in by about one third of the teachers in the county. Why do not all of them make reports of their schools and forward them promptly? Blanks were gotten up by the state superintendent and have been distributed among the teachers of the state. Who is to be benefitted by such labor? There is no statutory law making it obligatory upon a teacher to fill out these monthly banks; but that individual who waits to be compelled to do an act which will result in good to his school is unworthy to be called a teacher or to occupy the position of a teacher.

These reports enable the public to examine the schools, give district boards the basis on which to compare their respective districts with others; put into the hands of the teacher a strong argument by which to appeal to the pride of his pupils, and furnish the people a generous and healthy stimulus in the discharge of their duties and in the promotion of habits of promptness, good deportment, and self control.

Teachers, you who neglect to use this means to aid you in your work are refusing to take advantage of opportunities which can result only in the advancement of your respective schools. Let your pupils feel that their conduct, their tardiness, their promptness, their regularity in attendance, their deportment, their standing in studies will each month go before the eyes of the public and become a source of pride and honor or a cause of shame and sorrow, and you will then begin to see the end sought for in these reports.

Winfield Courier, January 24, 1878.

A state examination can probably be held in this county during the coming summer, should the number of applicants justify the state board in taking such a step. All who are interested in this matter should correspond with this office. Full particulars of requirements will be published soon.

Winfield Courier, January 24, 1878.

To the School Boards of Cowley County:

GENTLEMEN: The law makes it one of your duties to visit your respective schools; your interests as tax-payers ask you to do the same; your relations as patrons of your respective schools demand this work of you. As school officers, as citizens, as parents, do you feel the obligations resting on you in this matter? You can stimulate the scholars in their labors by calling on them while in school; you can see the methods of your teachers; you can judge of their merits and their defects in no other way so well as by visiting, and you can give the teachers the full benefit of your moral, personal, and official help in the discharge of their important duties. If your teacher needs your help in bringing unruly and lawless pupils into subjection, you should be willing and prompt to meet the demand. You should impress the pupils who may be inclined to insubordination with the fact that you are in full accord with the teacher and that you will allow no disobedience, no rudeness, no disorder to go unpunished. The moral obligations of your position demand this of you, and your interests as parents should compel you to assume and maintain such a stand.

Winfield Courier, January 24, 1878.

                                                      NORMAL SCHOOLS.

No relations of a public nature can be more intimate than those of a teacher to his pupils, and none can be more important than those which he sustains to the agencies and influences that prepare him for his work. Hence, no relations ought to be more cordial than those between the normal schools and every part of that common school system whose mission and purpose are “to secure competent instruction to every child that shall be born.” In the absence of such relations, the normal school as a public institution has no justification for its existence, or if they be merely nominal, if they exist only in theory, then will both the teachers’ seminary and the common school system be shorn of their strength. Said the eminent French statesman, Guizot, in speaking upon this identical subject, “The prosperity of the teachers’ seminary will be the measure of the success of the people’s schools.” He further declares that “without ample provision for the training of teachers, nothing can be done to improve elementary instruction.” Educational Weekly.

Winfield Courier, January 31, 1878.

                                             Treasurer’s Quarterly Statement for

                                                 Quarter Ending Dec. 31, 1877.


                                                 Normal Institute fund $37,550

Winfield Courier, March 7, 1878. Editorial Page.

                                                         Bancroft Bounced!

                                 An Emporia Real Estate Agent in a Tight Place.

  The State Normal School Loses $15,000 to $20,000, and “Still we have no Railroad.”

About eight years ago E. P. Bancroft, at that time a member of the board of regents of the Emporia state normal school, was appointed agent for the sale of the lands belonging to the institution. He continued to serve in this capacity until June last, not reporting during all this time the sale of an acre of land. Soon after his removal he reported land sales during the time of his agency amounting to about four thousand dollars, and paid the sum reported into the state treasury. Until quite recently no suspicion of dishonesty attached to Mr. Bancroft. He was regarded as an energetic, honorable businessman and no one doubted the correctness of his report. About a month ago a man living in western Kansas wrote to the state auditor for the deed to a certain tract of normal school land that he had purchased from Mr. Bancroft, and for the price of which he held Bancroft’s receipts. An examination of the auditor’s books revealed the fact that no report of the sale of this tract of land had been made. A meeting of the board of regents of the normal school was called at once, and ex-Senator Creighton of Labette County, a member of the board, was appointed to investigate the matter. He went first to Saline County, a considerable amount of these lands being located there, and by going from tract to tract found that much of the land had been sold and that the purchasers held Bancroft’s receipts for payments thereto. Some of these lands were sold months after Bancroft’s appointment had been revoked. Also it was discovered that Bancroft had sold and undertaken to convey, without any authority whatever, certain “salt lands” belonging to the state, some of these lands having changed hands several times. Nearly all of these lands are occupied by settlers, and on some of them valuable improvements have been placed.

The normal school lands that were sold during Bancroft’s agency are lost to the state. Those sold since his discharge, and the “salt lands” will be secured to the state, but the loss will fall heavily on the unfortunate purchasers.

The entire amount of the defalcation is not yet known. It is not less than $15,000 and may prove to be twice that sum. As his bond has not been renewed since it was made eight years ago, it is believed to be worthless.

The investigation was conducted so quietly that all the evidence necessary to convict the defaulter was secured before he suspected what was being done. Since he was first suspicioned, escape has been impossible, for the police have watched him constantly. What has been done with the money that has thus been stolen has not yet been determined. As he was the moving spirit in the K. C., E. & S. W. R. R. Co., it is believed by many that he has used it to pay for the grading that has been done on that road. If so, the enterprise will rest for the present.

It seems strange that an enterprising businessman would thus throw himself away. For years he has occupied responsible positions and has had the confidence of the public. Doubtless when he began his peculations he expected to account for every dollar that should come into his hands. He had considered it merely “borrowing.” One downward step leads to another, and today a useful member of society, one who has long been an honored citizen of the state, is ruined because he was not strictly honest.

Winfield Courier, March 14, 1878.

                                                   MAJ. E. P. BANCROFT.

It is asserted by the friends of Mr. Bancroft that he has concealed nothing; that the members of the Normal Board of Regents have long known from the voluntary statements of Maj. Bancroft himself all that they now find of his use of the funds, and that the entire board, with one exception, were opposed to the criminal prosecution. The total amount of money he received, according to the present account, was $15,816.10, of which he paid into the treasury at different times $5,943.46, leaving a little less than $10,000 in his hands, which the fund will probably lose. Maj. Bancroft is represented as having told the board that he would be able to pay the interest of that sum yearly and the principal probably in two or three years. The governor insisted that criminal prosecution should be commenced at once. Maj. Bancroft was held to bail in $10,000, and in default of which was committed to jail.

Winfield Courier, March 28, 1878.

                                                  MAJOR E. P. BANCROFT.

It is asserted by the friends of Mr. Bancroft that he has concealed nothing; that the members of the board of regents have long known from the voluntary statements of Major Bancroft himself what they now know of the use of the funds, and that the entire board with one exception were opposed to the criminal prosecution. Winfield Courier.

Bancroft friends may, or may not, make such assertions. We have no hesitancy in asserting, however, that whoever does make any such assertion is either a fool or a wilful falsifier. It is a lie also that the board, or any member of it, was opposed to prosecution. Neither the present state officers, nor the present board of regents, are in any way blameable for the defalcation or a want of a knowledge of it sooner. If anyone other than Bancroft is to be blamed, it is the old board of regents of which he was a member, who were only cognizant of the fact of the sale of lands, and whose records fail not only to show the fact, but fail to show the fact of Bancroft’s appointment as agent, which records were the only source of information of the past transactions of the officers of that institution. Wichita Eagle.

We merely repeated the story as we received it and are glad that it is emphatically denied by such good authority at the Eagle, Emporia News, and other papers that have come to the relief of the members of the board of regents of the Normal School. Mr. Bancroft’s trial is now in progress at Emporia. We hope and expect that even handed justice, nothing more, will be done both him and the State.

Winfield Courier, April 4, 1878.

The course of study for county normals for 1878 has been issued. It is a good document, and will go into the hands of every teacher in the state.

Winfield Courier, April 18, 1878.

                                                  Commissioners’ Proceedings.

An appropriation of $100 was made for the purpose of holding a Normal Institute.

Arkansas City Traveler, May 22, 1878.

                                                        Notice to Teachers.

The Normal Institute of Cowley County will be held in Winfield, beginning on Wednesday, the 3rd day of July, and closing Wednesday, the 31st day of July, 1878.

Prof. John B. Holbrook, of Ripley Normal School, Tennessee, will act as conductor.

Prof. George W. Robinson, principal of the city schools of Winfield, will assist in the management of the Institute.

Other able and efficient instructors will be engaged, that our Normal may be all that the most zealous can desire.

A series of professional lectures will be given during the term.

Teachers are requested to note the following requirements for certificates.

Grade “A,” two years, calls for a standing in every branch of not less than 90 percent, and an average of 95 percent, in all.

Grade 1, one year, calls for a standing below 85 percent, in no one study, and an average of 90 percent, in all.

Grade 2, six months, calls for an average of 75 percent, in all branches, and not less than 70 percent, in any one study.

An examination for county certificates will be held, begin­ning on the 1st day of August, at 8 o’clock, a.m. R. C. STORY, County Superintendent.

N. B. An examination for State certificates will be held in Winfield, beginning August 26, 8 o’clock a.m., and continuing through the 27th and 28th.

All parties desiring to attend said examination are requested to write to me at an early day for further particulars. R. C. S.

Arkansas City Traveler, May 22, 1878.

E. P. Bancroft has been released from the Emporia jail, on bail. He acknowledges that he owes the Normal school fund, and intends to pay it when he is able.

Winfield Courier, May 23, 1878.


                                                            By R. C. Story.

                                                      Monthly Report—April.

The Normal Institute of Cowley County will be held in Winfield beginning on Wednesday, the 3rd day of July, and closing Wednesday, the 31st day of July, 1878.

Prof. John B. Holbrook, of Ripley Normal School, Tennessee, will act as conductor. Prof. Holbrook is highly endorsed by leading educators in the State as one eminently qualified to make our Normal a complete success.

Prof. George W. Robinson, principal of the city schools of Winfield, will assist in the management of the Institute. Professor Robinson’s success as an instructor in normals and high schools is too well known to call for further praise. . . .

Teachers are requested to note the following requirements for certificates.

Grade “A,” two years, calls for a standing in every branch of not less than 90 percent, and an average of 95 percent, in all.

Grade 1, one year, calls for a standing of not less than 90 percent in all.

Grade 2, six months, calls for an average of 75 percent in all branches, and not less than 70 percent in any one study.

An examination for county certificates will be held, beginning on the 1st day of August  at 8 o’clock a.m.

An examination for state certificates will be held in Winfield, beginning August 26, at 8 o’clock a.m., and continuing through the 27th and 28th.

All parties desiring to attend said examination are requested to write to me at an early day for further particulars.

Winfield Courier, July 4, 1878.

Prof. John H. Holbrook, conductor of our County Normal, arrived Friday last. He is a son of the well and widely known Alfred Holbrook, of the National Normal, Lebanon, Ohio. Professor Holbrook has spent several years in Kansas in school work, and by his education, experience, and natural qualifications is well prepared to give our teachers thorough and practical work in methods of teaching.

Winfield Courier, July 11, 1878.

Indications are that the present session of the Normal will be largely attended and will be, in every particular, most successful. School boards will have an excellent opportunity to select teachers for fall and winter schools, and should certainly make good use of the opportunity.

Arkansas City Traveler, July 17, 1878.

PROF. STORY has favored us with a list of the teachers in attendance at the opening of the Institute at Winfield, July 10th. They number sixty-eight, and more are expected. The following are from Arkansas City: L. E. Norton, C. M. Swarts, Dora Winslow, Mrs. Theaker, Mrs. T. B. Marshall, Anna O. Wright, Mattie F. Mitchell, Albertine Maxwell, A. E. Hon, Flora Finley, Harvey Blount, Ella Grimes

Winfield Courier, August 1, 1878.

Cowley County’s share of the $163,002.70 semi-annual dividend of the school fund, which the state apportions out to the school districts for July, is $3,276. Cowley also receives $50 apportioned out for the support of normal institutes.

Winfield Courier, August 1, 1878.

Miss Nellie Aldrich has contracted to teach one year with Professor Holbrook in his normal school in Ripley, Tennessee. This is very complimentary to Cowley County, and Professor Holbrook secures the services of a first-class teacher.

Winfield Courier, August 1, 1878.

Professor G. W. Robinson has won golden opinions from our teachers by his earnest and anxious labors in connection with the normal institute. His work is first-class in every particular. An invitation was given him to go to Labette County to assist Professor Holbrook in normal work there, the coming month.

Winfield Courier, September 19, 1878.

E. P. Bancroft, who was tried last week at Emporia charged with embezzling the Normal School land moneys, was found guilty on two counts.

Winfield Courier, October 31, 1878. Editorial Page.

                                                          SAD DISASTER.

The beautiful State Normal School building at Emporia was destroyed by fire last Saturday morning. The loss is a heavy one, the building being worth about $100,000. The fire was caused by spontaneous combustion of coal stored in the basement of the building. We have not learned whether the building was insured or not.

About this time they changed name from Normal School to Normal Institute and at other times it was referred to as “Cowley County Normal” or “Normal.” MAW



Winfield Courier, May 15, 1879.

The Cowley County Normal will open Monday, August 4, and will close the first week in September. William A. Wheeler, of Ottawa, Geo. W. Robinson, of Winfield, Miss Lillian F. Hoxie, of Fort Scott, and Superintendent Story will have charge of the classes. Three grades will be formed, and work adapted to each grade will be given. The aim of conductor and instructors will be to make the labors of this session fruitful in the practical work of the school-room.

At the close of the Institute proper a county organization of the teachers will be effected, and two or three days will be given to discussion of the needs of country schools and to consideration of matters of general and special interest to the teachers. Can not every teacher in Cowley county attend this session and start in at the beginning? Teachers must realize the fact that they must either keep abreast of their professional work and progress or else fall behind and out of the ranks.

Arkansas City Traveler, July 16, 1879.

Prof. Story has secured Prof. Wheeler, of Ottawa, Miss Hoxie of Ft. Scott, and Mr. Trimble, principal of the Winfield schools, to assist him in the next normal institute.

Arkansas City Traveler, July 16, 1879.

                                                   The Cowley County Normal

will begin work Monday, August 4th, at Winfield. Superintendent Story has secured an able corps of instructors, and good, faith­ful, practical work is promised. All teachers in the county should give their support to these schools of instruction. . . .


Winfield Courier, July 31, 1879.

On the first Monday in August the county institute will open. Classes in physiology, mental arithmetic, algebra, and bookkeeping will be organized for those who wish these studies, but who do not want the full “A” grade course. The examination will begin September 3, and teachers would do well to keep in mind the fact that penmanship, the metric system, mental arithme­tic, and theory and practice form distinct features of this examination. The Spencerian copy book No. 3 will be used as a basis for work in writing. The studies for grade “A” certifi­cates, and the oral work will occupy the second day, Sept. 4. H. C. Story, Co. Supt.

Winfield Courier, July 31, 1879.

The Normal Institute opened up with an enrollment of 107, and it is expected that fully 125 will be in attendance by next week. We expect next week to give the names of the teachers attending and an account of the progress of the Institute.


Winfield Courier, August 14, 1879.

The Normal is now in fair running order, and the teachers are getting down to hard, solid work. Profs. Wheeler, Story, and Trimble, with their corps of assistants, are working like bea­vers, and there is a united feeling among teachers and pupils to make the time count. The teachers in attendance number 117, and seem as intelligent and as capable of training the young ideas as can be found anywhere.

Below we append a corrected list of those in attendance.

Lorenzo Harris, S. P. Bailey, C. W. Crank, Sarah Bovee, Lou A. Bedell, T. B. Hall, Mina C. Johnson, Mollie L. Rouzee, C. L. Swarts, Martha Thompson, Mary Buck, John L. Ward, John W. Jones, W. E. Ketcham, Squire Humble, C. C. Overman, R. B. Over­man, P. S. Martin, Carrie Morris, Mattie L. West, R. S. White, Jonathan Hunt, Henrietta King, Florence Wood, Effie Randall, Jerry Adams, Ella E. Davis, Mattie E. Minnihan, Allie Wheeler, A. B. Taylor, Ray E. Newman, John Bower, Adam L. Weber, R. A. O’Neil, John C. Rowland, Jennie Davy, Rosa Frederick, Flora Ware, Mattie Mitchell, J. J. Harden, Jennie R. Lowry, Mary Cochran, Alice Bullock, Maggie Stansbury, Ella Hittle, George Wright, Minna May Patten, Mrs. J. E. Brown, Electa Strong, Mary Tucker, Mrs. E. T. Trimble, A. Limerick, E. A. Millard, E. I. Johnson, R. B. Corson, Celina Bliss, Fannie Pontious, Ella A. Kirkpatrick, Ella Kelly, Mrs. S. Hollingsworth, Lizzie Landis, Fannie McKinley, Mrs. L. M. Theaker, Mary S. Theaker, Alice Pyburn, L. C. Brown, T. J. Floyd, Alvin E. Hon, Nettie D. Handy, Alfred Cochran, J. P. Hosmer, Floretta Shields, Ella Akers, Ella Sandford, Lusetta Pyburn, Mrs. Southard, Allie Klingman, Amy Robertson, Annie Hunt, Sarah Hodges, H. G. Blount, Grant Stafford, Risdon Gilstrap, James Lorton, James E. Perisho, Nannie M. McGee, Ella Z. Stuart, Anna O. Wright, T. J. Rude, Nellie R. Waggin, Alice E. Dickie, Inez L. Patten, Ella Freeland, Sarah E. Davis, Mollie Davis, Mattie Walters, Nannie Andrew, Albertine Maxwell, Ella Grimes, H. C. Holcomb, Hattie Warnock, D. S. Armstrong, S. A. Smith, J. F. Hess, Tirzie B. Marshall, C. Hutchins, Arvilla Elliot, Ella Bosley, L. McKinley, James Warren, A. J. Denton, Fannie Skinner, Hattie McKinley, Estella Cronk, Jessie Sankey, Anna Bartlett, Anna L. Norton.

Winfield Courier, August 21, 1879.

We extract the following from a letter in the Ft. Scott Monitor, signed “L. H.” and supposed to have been written by Miss Hoxie, assistant conductor of the Normal Institute.

                                                  “WINFIELD, Aug. 4, 1879.

“That branch of the Santa Fe which is to be extended through Sedgwick and on into Cowley County is rapidly approaching comple­tion. They expect to reach Winfield about the 1st of September. Twenty-four miles of the track are finished, but not in opera­tion. The benefit of the terms upon which the land of old Osage Reservation was settled are plainly visible here. One notices the difference immediately. . . . Cowley County is one of the best in the southern part of the State, and is well developed, being settled by thrifty and intelligent people. While patroniz­ing an old-fashioned stage-coach—whose only advantage consists in allowing a good view of the country—I counted sixty-two wheat stacks in riding a distance of half a mile. In one wheat field there were three sulky plows, each drawn by three mules, employed turning stubble.

“Winfield is a fine town. It contains upwards of 3,000 inhabitants, and is the center of trade for a magnificent farming section. It will soon be a railroad terminus for two lines, and will gain a large amount of Territory trade, which now goes to Wichita.

“It was an interesting sight to see one hundred Indians ride into the latter place last week to trade. They are cash buyers.”

Winfield Courier, August 21, 1879.

Prof. A. B. Lemmon, state superintendent of public instruc­tion, was in attendance at the teachers’ institute last Thurs­day, and lectured at the Baptist church in the evening. It was a magnificent lecture.—Junction City Union.

Winfield Courier, September 4, 1879.

The normal institute closed last week, there having been one hundred and thirty-two teachers in attendance. Prof. Story has won high praises by his efficient and untiring efforts to make the institute a success. The examination of teachers closes today.



For three years my labors have been earnestly put forth to advance the cause of education in Cowley county. Thro’ the columns of the county papers, in visits made to a large part of the schools and districts of the county, and in addresses in many neighborhoods this work has been untiringly pushed. The territo­ry is so large, the district so numerous, the interests so vast and so varied that the question of meeting the demands made upon me compels me to seek new and additional forces with which to carry on successfully the duties of my office. In the hope of meeting these demands and duties, and in the broader hope of reaching more widely and more deeply all who are concerned in the welfare of our common schools, this new venture is undertaken. There will be much labor and little money in it. The means to meet the expenses of publishing and editing this paper come from the generous businessmen who advertise in its columns. The full tax however may not be met this way, but the balance will be gladly met should the paper prove to be serviceable in promoting the cause for which it appears.

Its constant aim will be to reach and benefit the pupils and teachers in the public schools, the families from which come teachers and pupils, and the district officers, who are the educational guardians of their people. R. C. STORY, Co. Supt.

Cowley County Teacher, October 8, 1879.

                                                          THE NORMAL.

The attendance at the late Normal Institute was all that could be wished by anyone. For the first time the number of teachers enrolled exceeded the number of districts in the county.         SKIPPED THE REST.

Cowley County Teacher, October 8, 1879.

                                                     TEACHER’S WAGES.

The question is often asked by parties living in the east, what wages do you pay teachers in Kansas?  In this county wages for female teachers, in 1877 and 1878 averaged $25.99; for male teachers, $31.52 per month. The average number of weeks of school was 18.08. The returns for last year are not all in, and no exact estimate can be given. Probably the wages will range about as they were the year before.

The length of terms and the quality of teaching are increas­ing, while districts are growing stronger in value of property and in the number of children. These are the causes that determine the wages of teaching. As districts get out of debt; and grown in school population and in resources, it is natural to infer that better wages will be paid.

Occasionally one hears that teachers have formed a combina­tion to put up wages; or that the examining board advises teach­ers to demand higher wages; or that the county superintendent is seeking to raise the pay of teachers. How or why these silly rumors begin no one can tell. The pay of teachers, like the wages of all working classes, depends on laws which are above the control of superintendents, examining boards, and teachers. The factors that make the wages given teachers are three:  the financial resources of the districts, their freedom from indebt­edness, and the quality of teaching. Only one of these factors can be affected by any influence from teachers or school offi­cials, and that is the quality of the teaching. Who can exert the greatest influence on this factor?  Who would be benefitted most, financially, by its increase in worth?  Those who labor in the school-room in the position of teachers. In this county, as elsewhere, good teachers are sought for, and are paid good wages for their labors. When teachers cry out for better wages, they should be told to increase the worth of their wares, and their pay will increase proportionally.

Cowley County Teacher, October 8, 1879.

FIRST PARAGRAPH PARTIALLY TORN...ENDS UP WITH THE FOLLOWING WORDS...”and organized a permanent association.”


The work of the general institute was practical and success­ful, and was summed up in the following resolutions.

Resolved, That monthly reports should be made by teachers strictly in accordance with the blank reports sent out by the county superintendent, and that such reports should be made promptly at the close of each calendar month.

Resolved, That both written and oral class examinations should be held as often as once a month, and that oral reviews should be had at least once a week.

Resolved, That county schools should be divided into prima­ry, intermediate, and grammar grades, and that the teacher should grade his school according to its needs and advancement.

Resolved, That written work in schools should consist (1) of written preparation for recitations; (2) of written work at recitation; and (3) of written work at monthly examinations.

Resolved, That this work should be prepared frequently, and kept by the teacher for the inspection of parents, officers, and visitors.

Resolved, That while we, as teachers, do not condemn the judicious attendance of pupils and teachers at socials and lyceums, yet we recommend that such meetings be held only on Friday or Saturday night.

Resolved, That no class of entertainments should continue in session later than 10 o’clock, p.m.

Resolved, That such entertainments should not be held oftener than once in two weeks.

Resolved, That the teachers of Cowley county hereby tender Hon. Allen B. Lemmon their sincere thanks for his recent visit, and for his hearty words uttered in behalf of education. We deeply appreciate the worth of his devoted and untiring efforts in the cause of common schools, and we trust that all true friends of education will recognize in him a worthy and conscien­tious co-laborer.

Resolved, That our thanks are due, and are hereby tendered, to all who have been engaged in working with us in our normal, in the capacity of instructors.

Cowley County Teacher, October 8, 1879.

                                                    Cowley County Teachers.

                                                    WINFIELD—A GRADE.

Prof. E. T. Trimble

Mrs. E. E. Trimble

Miss Kate L. Meech

Miss Sarah Hodges

Miss Mina C. Johnson

Miss Allie Klingman

Miss Sarah E. Davis

P. S. Martin

T. Jay Floyd

                                                    WINFIELD—B GRADE.

Miss Nellie Aldrich

Miss Lena Bartlett

Miss Celina Bliss

Miss Hattie McKinley

Miss Ella Freeland

E. P. Hickok

R. A. O’Neil

A. B. Taylor

Lincoln McKinley

John Bower

                                                    WINFIELD—C GRADE.

Miss Mollie Davis

Miss Lusetta Pyburn

Miss Amy Robertson

Miss Rose Frederick

Miss F. M. McKinley

Miss Henrietta King

Miss Mattie Minnihan

Miss Ray E. Nawman

Miss F. E. Pontious

Miss Alice E. Pyburn

Miss Maggie Stansbury

Miss Effie Randall

Miss Mattie E. Walters

Mrs. P. B. Seibert

Mrs. Alice Bullock

John C. Rowland

A. E. Hon

Samuel E. Davis

Grant Stafford

Reuben S. White

                                              ARKANSAS CITY—A GRADE.

C. H. Sylvester

Miss Lizzie Landis

Miss Fannie Skinner

Miss Al Maxwell

                                              ARKANSAS CITY—B GRADE.

T. B. Hall

Mrs. L. M. Theaker

Miss Mattie Mitchell

C. L. Swarts

H. G. Blount

Risdon Gilstrap

                                              ARKANSAS CITY—C GRADE.

Miss Jessie Sankey

Miss Mary L. Theaker

Miss A. O. Wright

D. P. Marshall

J. F. Hess

Charles Hutchins


W. D. Noble (State certificate).

R. B. Hunter, (A)

S. A. Smith, (B)

Mrs. Ida C. Brown, (C)

T. J. Johnson, (C)

A. E. Millard, (B)

Miss Gertie Davis, (C)

Miss Sada Davis, (C)

Miss Mattie West (C)


Miss Mary Tucker, (A)

M. Hemenway, (C)

H. F. Albert, (C)

H. T. Albert, (C)

Miss Lu A. Bedell, (C)

Miss Arvilla Elliott, (C)


S. F. Overman, (A)

T. J. Rude, (C)

R. B. Overman, (B)

O. Phelps, (B)

                                                         NEW SALEM—C.

Miss Ella E. Davis

Miss Mary E. Buck

                                                            MAPLE CITY.

W. E. Ketcham, (B)

G. F. Gilliland, (C)

Jas. E. Perisho, (C)


Squire Humble

Lorenzo Harris


Miss Allie E. Dickie, (B)

J. P. Hosmer, (C)

Miss Martha Thompson, (C)


Simeon Martin

Alex. Limerick


D. S. Armstrong

Miss Electa Strong


Mrs. S. E. Sitton

Miss Mollie Rouzee


Mrs. E. Gard


Henry Waters

                                                          LITTLE DUTCH.

R. B. Corson, (A)

Adam L. Weber, (C)


Jennie Scott


Mrs. S. Hollingsworth

                                                            RED BUD—B.

Porter Wilson


P. W. Smith

                                                           SALT CITY—C.

Libbie M. Conrad

S. J. Gilbert


E. W. Woolsey


Winfield Courier, October 16, 1879 - Front Page.

                                             From the Cowley County Teacher.

The question is often asked by parties living in the east, what wages do you pay teachers in Kansas. In this county wages for female teachers, in 1877 and 1878, averaged $25.00; the male teachers, $31.52 per month. The average number of weeks of school was 18.08. The returns for last year are not all in, and no exact estimate can be given. Probably the wages will range about as they were the year before. The length of terms and the quality of teaching are increasing, while districts are growing stronger in value of property and in the number of children. These are the causes that determine the wages of teaching. As districts get out of debt, and grow in school population and in resources, it is natural to infer that better wages will be paid.

Occasionally one hears that teachers have formed a combina­tion to put up wages; or that the examining board advises teach­ers to demand higher wages; or that the county superintendent is seeking to raise the pay of teachers. How or why these silly rumors begin, no one can tell. The pay of teachers, like the wages of all working classes, depends on laws which are above the control of superintendents, examining boards, and teachers.

The factors that make the wages given teachers are three: the financial resources of the districts, their freedom from indebt­edness, and the quality of teaching. Only one of these factors can be affected by any influence from teachers or school offi­cials, and that is the quality of teaching. Who can exert the greatest influence on this factor? Who would be benefitted most, financially, by its increase in worth? Those who labor in the school-room in the position of teachers. In this county, as elsewhere, good teachers are sought for, and are paid good wages for their labors. When teachers cry out for better wages, they should be told to increase the worth of their wares, and their pay will increase proportionally.


Winfield Courier, October 16, 1879.

The State Superintendent, A. B. Lemmon, states that in the event school district boards have not completed the work of adoption and introduction of school books by the 16th Sept., 1879, the date of the expiration of the new school law, it is their duty and right to proceed until the work is completed.

Winfield Courier, October 30, 1879.

All teachers who want monthly report cards should at once notify the County Superintendent, as he is at work getting up a form for use in the county. The cost will be about fifty cents a hundred.

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

                                                      COUNTY NORMAL.

Enrollment: 131

Average attendance: 101

Amount on hand at close of last year’s Normal: $11.00

Amount from examination fees: $177.00

Amount from registration fees: $125.00

Amount from State: $50.00

Amount from county: $70.40

                                                           TOTAL: $433.40

Amount paid instructors: $356.60

Amount for current expenses: $76.80

                                                      Total paid out: $433.40

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

                                               ASSOCIATION DISTRICTS.

For the purpose of holding teachers’ associations in the different parts of the county, the following division of town­ships has been made.

District No. 1. Ninnescah, Maple, and western portion of Rock.

District No. 2. Eastern portion of Rock, Richland, and Omnia.

District No. 3. Harvey, Windsor, Silver Creek.

District No. 4. Walnut, Vernon, Beaver, Pleasant Valley, Tisdale, Liberty, and city of Winfield.

District No. 5. Creswell, Bolton, Silverdale.

District No. 6. Spring Creek, Cedar.

District No. 7. Dexter, Liberty, Otter.

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

                                              THE LATE EXAMINATIONS.

The examinations held in September and October disclosed two serious defects in the education of a majority of our teachers. The lack of accurate knowledge of general literature and of general information is indeed lamentable. What shall be said of applicants who class Shakespeare, Tennyson, Cowper, Dryden, Byron, Milton, among American poets?  Of what use has the study of history been to those who locate Bunker Hill, Lexington, and Yorktown in New Jersey, and who make Franklin and Hamilton generals in the Black Hawk war?  What does that teacher know of current events who says that the Isthmus of Darien is the “body of water” that connects the Red Sea and the Mediterranean?  Why should so many applicants say that John Brown’s raid was one of the most important events in Kansas history?

One other serious defect in the education of our teachers is shown in the bad spelling, bad composition, and erroneous use of capitals and punctuation marks. Many papers were given in which contained not a single mark of punctuation. Others were found in which capitals seemed to have been scattered broad-cast, in the old manner of sowing wheat.

Such ignorance and such errors must be eradicated. It will take time, labor, and perseverance, but it must be done. Appli­cants for certificates must show an ability to use correct English. They must know something of the present generation and of the current events of national importance.

To secure these two ends follow this course:  Take Swinton’s or Pinneo’s Composition, and study it, making it a basis for much original work in writing. Read a selection, or memorize one--then write it out on paper, and compare this work with the original in regard to capitals, punctuation, spelling, and language. Subscribe for some leading paper of national reputa­tion, and read and study its contents, using atlas, dictionary, and note-book constantly.

To those whose standing has been running low, let a word of warning be given. Make such use of the fall and winter months as will find you next spring able to pass a thorough examination in every subject in which your standing is low. A hint to the wise is sufficient.

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

                            Educational Summary of Cowley County for the Year

                                                      Ending July 31, 1879.

No. of districts organized:  122

No. of districts reported:   122

Total school population:  6,779

No. of pupils enrolled in school:  4,485

Average daily attendance:  2,580

Percentage enrolled:  .66

Percentage in daily attendance:  .38

Percentage not in daily attendance:  .62

No. of persons between 8 and 14  not attending school 3 months:  192

No. of teachers required:  117

Grade “A”:  10

Grade “B”:  76

Grade “C”:  58

Total No. of different teachers employed: 137

Average salary—males:            $30.34

Average salary—females:          $22.10

Average No. of weeks of school session: 21.3

No. of rooms used for schools: 116

No. of private schools: 9

Teachers in private schools: 9

Pupils in private schools: 176

Average weeks of private schools: 10

Reported No. of persons over 16  who cannot read or write: 60

Estimated value of buildings and grounds: $52,251

Estimated value of furniture: $6,966

Estimated value of apparatus: $1,208

Amount of bonds issued this year: $2,590

Present bonded indebtedness: $36,738

Assessed valuation of personal property: $370,043

Assessed valuation of real property: $1,443,942

No. of districts furnished with record books: 89

No. of districts furnished with unabridged dictionaries: 16

No. of districts that have uniform text-books: 89

No. of persons examined: 177

Average age of applicants: 23

No. of applications rejected: 36

No. of certificates granted: 141

No. of districts visited by county superintendent: 64

No. of visits made by Co. Supt.: 134

No. of new districts organized: 6

No. of districts having 3 months school: 108

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

                                                     FINANCIAL EXHIBIT.

Balance in hands of district treasurers July 31, 1878: $3,328.82

Amount received for teachers’ wages: $15,144.42

Amount received from State Fund: $5,420.95

Amount received site & building fund: $1,844.41

Amount received library fund: $121.80

Amount received sale of bonds: $2,360.00

Amount received all other sources: $1,753.27

Amount received from all sources: $29,973.41

Amount paid for teachers’ wages: $17,420.89

Amount paid for rents, fuel, etc.: $4,285.36

Amount paid for text books: $440.92

Amount paid for books for library: $51.50

Amount paid for maps and apparatus: $289.33

Amount paid for sites, buildings: $3,126.47

Total amount paid out: $35,614.47

Amount in hands of district treasurers Aug. 1, 1879: $4,359.10

                                         TEXT-BOOKS USED IN DISTRICTS.

Reading and Orthography.

McGuffey: 17

Harvey: 19

Monroe: 14

Edward: 16

Independent: 43


Ray: 36

Felter: 7

Hagar: 10

Peck: 17

White: 39


Spencerian: 53

Eclectic: 40

Feltor’s Book-Keeping: 5

Swinton’s Language Series: 15


Mitchell: 2

Warren: 9

Eclectic: 26

Monteith: 33

Harper: 29


Harvey: 46

Greene: 14

Swinton: 6

Clark: 27


Barnes: 45

Ridpath: 3

Goodrich: 6

Anderson: 8

Venable: 5

Beard: 5

Swinton: 10

Unabridged Dictionaries: 16

                                                      COUNTY NORMAL.

Enrollment: 131

Average attendance: 101

Amount on hand at close of last year’s Normal: $11.00

Amount from examination fees: $177.00

Amount from registration fees: $125.00

Amount from State: $50.00

Amount from county: $70.40

                                                           TOTAL: $433.40

Amount paid instructors: $356.60

Amount for current expenses: $76.80

                                                      Total paid out: $433.40

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

Five teachers sent in reports for September, districts 29, 42, 48, 77, and 99.

The Winfield teachers are over-worked, and two of them think of going out of the service.

Miss Fannie McKinley is seriously ill. Hopes of her recov­ery have been given up by her friends.

Sixty-seven teachers have reported contracts made for teaching school, while only 39 have sent in reports for work done in October.

A supply of the new edition of the School law has been received, and district clerks can get copies by calling at the Superintendent’s office.

Six hundred copies of the first and seven hundred copies of this number of the TEACHER have been sent out. This paper goes into the hands of every teacher and school official in the county.

Cowley County Teacher, November, 1879.

A Teachers’ Directory was given in this issue.

The Districts for Teachers Listed was given.

“This list is made from postal cards sent in by teachers. Those whose names are not in this list will please report prompt­ly on making contracts with district boards.”

Winfield Courier, November 13, 1879.

Two of the most efficient of the Winfield teachers, Miss Johnson and Miss Meech, have tendered their resignations, to take place at the close of the present term. The crowded condition of our schools makes it almost impossible for a teacher to keep up with the work. The grammar department, over which Miss Meech presides, had an average attendance for the month of October of 52, when 40 is as many as one person can possibly teach and do justice to the pupils. Some step should be taken in this matter.

Cowley County Teacher, December, 1879.

Miss Fanny McKinley has recovered from her late serious illness.

The problem given in the November TEACHER was solved by Miss Fannie Skinner, Miss Henrietta King, Jerry Adams, and Harry C. Shaw, the last named being a pupil of Miss Lizzie Landis and aged thirteen years.

Winfield Courier, December 4, 1879.

The school examinations for the present term will occur in the High school on Wednesday and Thursday and in the other rooms on Thursday and Friday. The examinations will be both oral and written, and by attending parents can judge of the advancement of their children. The teachers will be pleased to have parents and friends of the schools present at the examinations.


Winfield Courier, December 4, 1879.

ED. COURIER: Is Winfield a first class city? And does it propose to keep that rank among the cities of Kansas? If such are its pretensions and aspirations, would it not be well to stir up the school board to a proper realization of the educational demands from towns that plume themselves on being first class?

If the glory of our county lies in its system of free schools, does not our share of that glory grow beautifully less when our schools are run on a basis that was demanded for them when the city was half its present size? When there were less than four hundred children in the district, six rooms and six teachers were considered necessary. Now, when there are nearly eight hundred children, six teachers and six rooms are still deemed suffi­cient! Granting that only half the children of school age attend regu­larly, that would give more than sixty pupils to a room. And what are the facts? In the COURIER of a few weeks ago a state­ment of the enrollment was given by rooms or departments, and it is seen that the total enrollment was 378 and the average atten­dance 329, thus giving an average of over fifty to each teacher. But the case is still worse if we look at the schools separately. The primary schools had an average attendance during October of 69 and 63; the intermediate, 54 and 60; the grammar, 52; and the high school, 31. Here we find our rooms overcrowded, three in a seat, and many of them scattered promiscuously around the ros­trums, or hanging on the corners of teachers’ desks. But to cap the climax, our children below seven are forced out of school because there is not room for them! Then to make matters even worse, those who do go to the primary school can drink at the fountain of learning only half a day at a time. Truly somebody needs punching up, and if it isn’t the board, who in the world is it? Why don’t they rent rooms, and employ three or four more teachers? A couple of temporary frame buildings could be erected at an expense of two or three thousand dollars, and our children could then be allowed to go to school. I for one don’t like the way things run in the school line. A FATHER.


Winfield Courier, December 11, 1879.


In presenting to the School Board and citizens the above report, I wish to call attention to a few facts regarding the term’s work in the different departments of the public schools.

According to the school census taken last fall, there were in the school district 132 persons of school age. Since that time some territory has been admitted into the school district, and the number has been still further increased by families moving into the city. Owing to the fact that we have but six rooms, it was necessary to keep all under seven years of age out of the schools.

During the present term there has been enrolled in all the departments 550 pupils; 113 of these have for various reasons withdrawn, leaving an actual attendance of 437. Could this number be equally divided, it would give 73 pupils to each room. But this cannot be done, as the greater number are in the Primary and Intermediate departments. In the First Primary there is at present an attendance of 107, with a daily average of 70 for the term. The last week of the present term the daily average was 86. In the Second Primary there are 86 pupils in attendance, with an average of the last week of the term of 74.

In the First Primary it became necessary to divide the school into two divisions, and have one division attend in the forenoon and the other in the afternoon, as there are not seats to accommodate over one half the pupils.

In some of the other rooms, pupils are compelled to sit three in a seat, and should there be an increase in attendance during the coming term, there will be no alternative but to divide the other departments as has already been done in the First Primary.

The work of the term, while as good as could be expected under the circumstances, cannot but be unsatisfactory to both parents and teachers, for no teacher can do thorough work under such unfavorable circumstances.

By an examination of the above report, it will be seen that the average attendance is not so large as it should be, and yet it is really larger than could be expected, as it is not surprising that children should prefer to remain away from school when they are obliged to sit on the rostrum while there.

If we are to have prosperous and pleasant schools, some steps should immediately be taken to provide better facilities. With the present enrollment we should have at least two more teachers, and were we to admit children between 5 and 7 years, we would need at least four more teachers.

It certainly is a wise policy for any community to furnish the best of facilities in the way of public schools, as no other ever does so much toward raising a people to that plain of knowledge and enlightenment upon which every American citizen should stand.

In a state having a compulsory school law, every community should have the power to provide schools for all its children, and it is unjust that people should be compelled to pay school tax and yet be obliged to send their children to private schools.

                                             Yours respectfully, E. T. TRIMBLE.


Cowley County Teacher, January, 1880.

T. J. Floyd has gotten married, and of course will make no school reports during the next few months.

Foster Tucker came home from the State University to spend the holidays. He likes his school well, and reports all inter­ests flourishing.

George Thompson, of Baltimore, now a student in the Agricul­tural College, Manhattan, writes us a pleasant letter about that institution. He seems well pleased with the school, and is making good progress.

Cowley County Teacher, February, 1880.

                                                    Teachers’ Examination.

An examination of applicants for teachers’ certificates will  be held March 19 at Winfield. The work will begin at 9 a.m. precisely.

Certificates will be issued as follows: Grade B to every applicant whose average standing is 90, and who falls below 80 in no one subject. Grade C to every applicant whose average stand­ing is 80, and who falls below 70 in no one branch. Answers to questions will be carefully examined and rigidly graded. Candi­dates must show good scholarship in the papers submitted to entitle them to certificates. The standard herein mentioned will be insisted upon invariably.

The subjects on which examinations will be made are Orthog­raphy, Orthoepy, Reading, Penmanship, Geography, Arithmetic, Grammar, U. S. History, U. S. Constitution, and Theory and Practice. R. C. STORY, County Superintendent.


Winfield Courier, February 26, 1880

The State fund for 1880 and 1881 will  be about one-half what it has been in years past. Instead of 70 cents per capita of school population the apportionment will be 30 or 35 cents. This will make considerable difference in the teacher’s fund in many districts. This is attributable to the wise (!) spirit of economy that the last legislature manifested. Teacher.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880. [Vol. I, No. 6.]

                                                      DEXTER SCHOOLS.

My school is running delightfully, not a single case of tardiness this month; the concentration of mind to business is excellent, the daily results very gratifying. We have a young class in bookkeeping, full of promise, one in physiology, one in botany, and rigid and exacting reviews. The work in defining words and using them has grown fascinating, and the buying of dictionaries is becoming lively. I am much encouraged by the enthusiasm that has arisen to dig to the bottom, to the very root. The large boys have left for work, but I am surprised and pleased that our best classes go on climbing, with plenty of good scholars.

                                                              O. PHELPS.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

                                                        Duties of Teachers.

ART. VI., SEC. 1, School Law:  It shall be the duty of the teachers of every district or graded school to keep, in a regis­ter for this purpose, a daily record of the attendance, and the deportment of each pupil, and of the recitation of each pupil in the several branches pursued in such school, and to make out and file with the district clerk, at the expiration of each term of the school, a full report of the whole number of scholars admit­ted to school during such term, distinguishing between male and female, the text books used, the branches taught, and the number of pupils engaged in the study of said branches, and any other information the district board or county superintendent may require. Teachers:  how many of you kept the records required in the foregoing law?  How many of you made such a record of the standing of each pupil in your schools that your successors can follow you without any loss of time, or trouble in organizing their schools?

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

District 124 was organized last week.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

One hundred and seventeen schools were in session in Cowley county during the last fall and winter.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

About fifty percent of the applicants at the February and March examinations failed to get certificates.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

District 116 had an arbor day this spring and put out 81 forest trees about the school-house. Good! Who else can say as much?

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

C. C. Holland, formerly a teacher in this county, returned recently from Ann Arbor, Michigan. He comes back with a sheep­skin marked LL. B.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

Arrangements have been partly made for the Normal of the coming summer. It will come off in July. Miss Hoxie will again be with us and assist in work.

Cowley County Teacher, April, 1880.

NOTE:  There was a breakdown of taxes and state fund [1873 to 1879]. The figures showed money drawn by district treasurers from taxes, State and county fund from August 1872 to August 1879. Only dollars were given.


District 1:

1878-1879  $5,910

1877-1878  $3,069

1876-1877  $2,358

1875-1876  $   853

1874-1875  $1,540

1873-1874  $   867


Winfield Courier, April 15, 1880.

The fatality attending the teachers’ profession is truly alarming. There were Miss Buck, Miss Johnson, Miss King, Scott, who bravely began work last fall! Now where and who are they? Go ask Judge Gans. “And still there’s more to follow.”

Winfield Courier, April 15, 1880.

In the statement of moneys drawn from the county treasury by school district treasurers, made in the Teacher for April and printed in the COURIER of last week, the first line of figures given with each district shows the taxes, the second line the State fund drawn each school year since 1872. Supt. R. C. STORY.


Winfield Courier, April 29, 1880.

                                                     OTTO, Ks., 4, 15, 1880.

We are determined you should know that the good people of Cedar still live, prosper, and enjoy life, notwithstanding their remoteness from the railroad city, Winfield.

Elder Hunt, of Wellington, Sumner county, the noted Adventist revivalist, having recently held a series of meetings at Virgil school-house, seems to have made a profound impression. Some ten or twelve of the best citizens joined with him in looking for the near coming of our Savior.

I have not noticed the name of Prof. Story among the names of eligible citizens for county and state officers. It may, in some cases, be well enough to object to the third term, but it would surely be doing ourselves a great injustice to drop Mr. Story at this time. He has certainly labored with indefatigable industry in every department of his office which has required his attention. The sleet, the mud, and the coldest weather has found him in remote parts of the county, patiently visiting schools and inquiring into their wants and needs. His experience in the great law school at Ann Arbor, Michigan, makes him master of all the law required. One term is needed to acquaint him with the duties of his office; a second to acquire a thorough knowledge of his 130 districts, their various wants, their citizens, and school officers, the teachers of the county, etc. Verily we say Mr. Story is just now prepared to make an efficient Superinten­dent. We are informed by one who doubtless knows that Mr. Story, so far from making anything, has actually sunk money since his induction into office. Cedar township will go solid for him, and my acquaintance with Dexter, Spring Creek, and Otter townships confirms me in the belief that they both look for and expect Mr. Story to be their next County Superintendent.

The above remarks will apply in large degree to the Hon. A. B. Lemmon. We, in southeastern Cowley, expect nothing else, and will accept nothing short of Mr. Lemmon as our next State Super­intendent, but as the entire State is of the same mind, few words will suffice. Tediously, but earnestly, I. KNOW.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

The Normal Institute will open the first Monday in July.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

Miss Lillian F. Hoxie, Orlin Phelps, E. T. Trimble, and R. C. Story will be the teaching force in the July Normal.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

Purchasers of school lands should carefully comply with the provisions of the law regarding these lands. Several purchasers in the county have forfeited their lands by failure to pay interest when due.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

Miss Carrie Morris and Miss Ella Davis, determined not to be behind Misses Strong, King, Buck, Johnson, and Scott, and Messrs. Floyd and Robinson, have taken life certificates. A few other teachers are quietly moving in the same direction, but we won’t mention their names at this time. Send us some of the cake.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

The course of study will be sent to anyone who wishes to attend the Normal.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

Several young men went from this county to Newton to attend the examination for West Point.

Cowley County Teacher, May, 1880.

An examination of applicants for teachers’ certificates will take place the first week in August.

Winfield Courier, May 13, 1880.

Prof. Trimble will conduct the Normal Institute in Labette County this year.

Winfield Courier, May 20, 1880.

Mr. A. J. Worden, of Vernon township, is talked of as a candidate for Superintendent of Public Instruction. Mr. Worden is an early resident of this county, a bright young man, and a fine scholar. He has had experience in some of the best Ohio schools and in this state, and is a graduate of the New York State Normal School at Buffalo. He would no doubt make an excellent officer in that capacity.

Winfield Courier, May 27, 1880.

The Cowley County Normal meets July 5th. It promises to be the most successful one yet held here.

Winfield Courier, July 8, 1880.

The Normal opened Monday with a large attendance. Prof. Story is making the Cowley County Normal one of the best in the state, and his success should be as gratifying to himself as it is edifying to the teachers.

Winfield Courier, July 8, 1880.

The Shawnee County institute opened with forty-five teach­ers. The Cowley County session began work with fifty-seven teachers.


Winfield Courier, July 8, 1880.

Miss Lillian Hoxie, who will assist in the Normal Institute, arrived last Friday evening. She is stopping at the Olds House with her brother, S. E. Hoxie, who has been here some weeks. Miss Hoxie made many friends while here last summer, who will gladly welcome her return on account of her pleasant companion­ship as well as her able assistance rendered in the Normal Institute.


Winfield Courier, July 15, 1880.

The Normal Institute for 1880 has opened with a large attendance of teachers. Four instructors have charge of the divisions, and the aim of all is to make this summer’s work especially practical. The morning exercises begin at 7:30, in the courtroom, and the recitations end at 1 p.m. There are at present enrolled 79 teachers as follows.

Arkansas City: Susie L. Hunt, Mrs. F. E. Phelps, Ella Grimes, Chas. W. Grimes, R. C. Gaily, Mattie F. Mitchell, Flora L. Finley, Linnie Peed, Blanche Marshall, Sadie E. Pickering, Elva Pickering, Rose Sample, Chas. Hutchings, Mary S. Theaker, Durwin Hunter, Jessie Sankey, Thirza Dobyns, Chas. W. Finney, Mrs. L. M. Theaker, Alice M. Warren, Alto Maxwell, S. C. Murphy, Will M. Henderson, Jerry L. Adams, Frank Chapin, and Nellie Swarts.

Winfield: Ella Freeland, Mrs. W. B. Caton, A. E. Hon, Nannie McGee, Estella M. Cronk, Iowa Roberts, Maggie Stansbury, Ella Hittle, Fannie A. Pontious, Ray E. Newman, Amy Robertson, Mary J. Melville, Rosa Frederic, Lincoln McKinley, Mattie Gibson, E. L. Cook, Anna F. Cuppage, James Lorton, Alice Aldrich, Lena Bart­lett, Nellie Aldrich, Ida G. Trezise, Nettie B. Porter, Sarah Hodges, Grace Scovill, Lou Lee, Lutie Newman, W. B. Dickerson, J. J. Stevens, Lena McNeil, Alice Bullock, Mary Randall, Hattie Andrews, A. B. Taylor, Ed Farringer, Ella Kelly, Mrs. A. M. Gillespie.

Burden: Arvilla Elliott, Richard L. Winn, Shadrach Chan­dler, Nannie A. Crum, E. A. Millard.

Dexter: Ada Overman, J. M. Merry, R. B. Overman.

Cambridge: R. C. Stearns.

Tisdale: Rosa A. Rounds and Mattie West.

Milton: Nellie D. Handy.

Silver Cliff, Colorado: C. C. Holland.

Grenola: Alice E. Dickie.

New Salem: L. C. Brown.

Winfield Courier, July 29, 1880.

Mr. A. B. Lemmon arrived in this city Wednesday morning. He cannot be here Friday evening on account of a previous engagement to address the Teachers Institute at Howard.

Winfield Courier, August 5, 1880.

Mr. Lemmon addressed the Teachers Institute at Sedan Monday, at Independence Tuesday, at Chanute Wednesday, and is expected to be at Paola today.

Winfield Courier, August 5, 1880.

Prof. E. T. Trimble has gone to take charge of the Teachers Institute at Columbus and will be gone four or five weeks.

Winfield Courier, August 5, 1880.

Miss Lillian Hoxie has finished her labors here in the Institute and has returned to Fort Scott with the high respect and kindest wishes of all who know her. Would it not be a nice thing for Winfield if she could be made the head teacher of our new west schoolhouse.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 11, 1880.

The Normal has closed, and our city once more looks natural, now that the young ladies are among us again. They report a jolly time at the county seat.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 11, 1880.

C. C. Holland, after a two months’ visit in Cowley County for the purpose of attending the Normal, left for Silver Cliff, Colorado, this week. There is no doubt but Chris. will secure his certificate.

Winfield Courier, August 19, 1880.

Supt. Lemmon has gone to the northwestern part of the state on his final trip visiting normal institutes. The remainder of his official term will be largely devoted to the preparation of his forthcoming biennial report. Most of this work will be done here. When down last week he rented the residence of L. J. Webb, Esq., east of the city and will occupy the same until his own house on Ninth Avenue is vacated, enlarged, and repaired.


Arkansas City Traveler, September 1, 1880. Front Page.

                                              TEACHERS’ RESOLUTIONS.

At the close of the recent Normal Institute the teachers of Cowley County met in their annual association. Two days were spent in the consideration of topics of interest to teachers, to schools, to school boards, and to the public generally. It is probable that at no association in the state have questions of wider or deeper significance been discussed by teachers. This fact shows the advanced standing held by the teachers of Cowley County. Their resolutions were as follows.

Resolved, That it is unwise to admit children under seven years of age to our public schools, as they are too young for anything but the kindergarten work, which cannot be given in our ordinary schools, and when they are thus admitted, three hours a day should be the utmost limit of their stay, lest they be injured in health and stupefied and dwarfed in mind.

Resolved, That, in addition to the indispensable studies of reading, writing accounts, and language, including orthography, orthoepy, correspondency, business forms—we should carefully and zealously cultivate the aesthetic nature of the young, by the studies of man, literature, poetry, plants, insects, and all that is beautiful around us, as an essential condition or happi­ness, and a shield from vice.

Resolved, That district clerks be paid a reasonable compen­sation for their services.

Resolved, That the power of changing district boundaries should be transferred from the county superintendent to some other persons.

Resolved, That the law of the state should require school boards to furnish at least fifteen square yards of black board for each school room.

Resolved, That true economy would justify, and a just pride in our schools should encourage the surrounding of our schoolhouse with grateful shade, both for protection and ornament.

Resolved, That experience has proved in other states the great superiority of the township system of schools, and we ask its adoption throughout our state, including the appointment of county superintendent by the township trustees, since it has been shown to be thus less fluctuating than when an elective office, and the best men are thus retained longer in the places in which they excel.

Resolved, That successful work in the school room should entitle the teachers to a certificate recognizing such work, and that certificates of high grade should become permanent after thorough examination in the school room and before the examining board.

Resolved, That the holding of low grade certificates for two successive years should render the holder ineligible to the office of teaching.

Resolved, That general information should take prominent place in the studies and in the examination of teachers.

Resolved, That this association meet monthly, holding its sessions in Winfield, Arkansas City, and Burden.

Resolved, That monthly reports should be made by the teacher promptly at the end of each calendar month and that the same should be at once sent to the county superintendent.

Resolved, That we would rebuke and condemn as unworthy of our profession any persons, who so far disregards a decent respect for an obedience to the school law of the State as to teach in our public schools without a certificate, or after it has expired, and believe a school board deserves prosecution that is so disorderly as to expend school money for such lawless teaching.

The officers for the following year are:

President, R. C. Story.

Vice President, E. A. Millard.

Secretary, J. R. L. Adams.

Assistant Secretary, Linnie Peed.

Executive committee—Orlin Phelps, Ella Freeland, M. J. Melville, W. E. Ketcham, A. Limerick. Commonwealth.

Winfield Courier, September 2, 1880.

Prof. E. T. Trimble has concluded his labors in conducting the Normal at Columbus, and returned home.


Winfield Courier, January 27, 1881.

President Welch, of the Emporia Normal School, will lecture on Friday evening, Feb. 4th, at Manning’s Hall. The proceeds of the lecture will be given to the public schools of Winfield for the purchase of apparatus.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 30, 1881.

                                                          TO TEACHERS!

The Cowley County Normal will be held in August; and Prof. P. J. Williams, of Ottawa, Kansas, will act as conductor. R. C. STORY, County Superintendent.


Arkansas City Traveler, May 4, 1881.

                                                   COURIER CLIPPINGS.

The county superintendent is considering the propriety of holding Normal during July and August. The new law adds much to the teachers’ labors, and a Normal for eight weeks would aid many to prepare for the examination and drill them in methods far more successfully than a four weeks’ term.

Arkansas City Traveler, May 11, 1881.

                                                          THE NORMAL.

We understand that an eight week’s session is to be called this summer. This will take the work through July and August.

In view of the effort made by the legislature to advance the requirements of teachers in the public schools, and especially in view of the fact that no person can teach more than one term under a third grade certificate, we deem the calling of an eight weeks term a wise step. From the character of work heretofore done, and from the character of the instructors to be employed, promises of good fruit may be made.

Now let every teacher in the county, who can afford the expense, attend the entire term. Let school boards make known the fact that normal teachers shall get the preference, and that wages will depend on the grade of certificate.

It is the opinion of many that there will be a dearth of teachers this fall and winter. Wise school boards should act accordingly. Telegram.

Winfield Courier, August 4, 1881.

Mr. Jas. Reuben, a Nez Perces Indian, is attending the Normal. Mr. Reuben is a well educated, gentlemanly person, and is employed by the government as a teacher and interpreter at the Agency.



Cowley County Courant, March 16, 1882.

The last election of the Lyceum Society resulted in the selection of the following named officers: President, W. P. Beaumont, Winfield; V. P., J. N. Stout, Neosho Falls; Secretary, Miss Lida Davis, Junction City; Treasurer, C. A. Bishop, Emporia; Chairman Board of Directors, E. B. Van Ness, Mound City.

The Lyceum is the substantial society of the Normal, having been organized under a state charter in 1873. Most of the graduates who have gone out from the Normal are indebted to the old Lyceum for much of their literary culture. The membership now consists of a majority of the advanced students. Consider­able excitement has existed during the past week in regard to the societies. Some time ago the faculty commanded each society to incorporate in their constitution measures excluding those not in attendance at school from active membership.


Winfield Courier, March 16, 1882. Front Page.

                                                 TEACHERS’ INSTITUTE.

The design of teachers’ meetings and institutes is general improvement of teachers and making them feel a lively concern in the welfare of their profession; also to show the public (parents and guardians especially) what the teacher’s opposition is, to enlist their sympathy and cooperation with him and to engage every influence that will promote the success and respectability of the work of education. This is to be accomplished by lectures, essays, discussions, and such other exercises as the ingenuity of true and live education may conjecture.

Such persons always regard it as a labor of love to engage in any enterprise that looks to the accomplishment of this design.

From the report of the Fifth Northwestern teachers’ meeting, the writer gleaned the following: “The mistress of the Udall school had, as usual, left for parts unknown. President Wilson failed to put in an appearance, leaving the teachers like sheep without a shepherd. A part of the teachers had not seen the program in time to prepare the work assigned them.”

Now then, just such failures on the part of the managers of teachers’ meetings as set forth in the above report, are some of the main causes that hinder the success of teachers’ meetings and institutes are the following.

1. Dry and prosy addresses and other exercises that often amount to but little more than a play upon words, even when they come from persons who have great reputation as scholars and teachers.

2. The indiscretion of committees of arrangement in making business for the meeting, failing to provide in time a program of exercises that will afford matter for thought, that will be both interesting and edifying.

3. Persons attending such meetings merely to take some of the honors and to solicit fame for some kind of performances that will not interest teachers in this work, nor show to parents and school boards their duty to teachers and schools.

4. Lack of professional courtesy among teachers; some feeling as if they had attained the acme of proficiency in the business, and then being too proud to aid in elevating others to the same standard.

5. Not naturally considering what benefit may arise from such assemblies, and that when a teacher strives to promote a higher standard in his profession, and aid his fellow laborers, he greatly benefits himself, and sometimes gains a greater advantage than those for whom he labors.

All topics presented at teachers’ meetings should come from practical educators, and they should have a direct bearing on the policy needed in common schools. Displays of sublime oratory and flowery composition are much less appropriate than pertinent and common-sense disquisitions on that kind of school management which will answer the wants of the coming generation.

Some of the most appropriate subjects, men of extensive learning may deem trite and commonplace; but those who would be instructors of the young must condescend to their capacity, take them as they find them, and lead them onward and upward. Young learners need a kind of intellectual food that is not known to men of profound erudition; and young teachers may be much benefitted by the knowledge and experience of veterans in the profession. When teachers’ meetings are wisely conducted, and appropriate and edifying exercises therein held, teachers will go from them nerved anew for their work, as well as better informed; and their influence may easily be made to reach parents and guardians, and show them what are their duties to the young, and their duties toward teachers and schools.

                                               Vernon Township. J. S. BAKER.

                                  [Yes, the paper had “nerved anew for their work.”]

Winfield Courier, March 23, 1882.

The indications now point toward an eight week’s normal institute this summer.

Winfield Courier, March 23, 1882.

Prof. Cooper, of Lawrence, will conduct the Cowley County Normal this summer. Miss Lillian F. Hoxie, of the State Normal at Emporia, will be with our teachers this summer.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 29, 1882.

We are glad to learn that Miss Lillian F. Hoxie, of the Emporia Normal, will be with our teachers this summer. The Institute will open in July, but Miss Hoxie will be present in August.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 29, 1882.

The County Normal will run eight weeks this summer.


Cowley County Courant, April 27, 1882.

This week completes the second of the remaining half term of ten weeks, leaving seven weeks more of actual work.

The literary societies have long since settled their diffi­culty with the faculty, and are now working with renewed energy.

Miss Hoxie’s class in drawing have been occupied for some time past in drawing plans for school houses. A prize is to be given for the best conceived and executed plan.

Only till the middle of June, and the Normal will graduate a class of over thirty, who will undertake to instruct the youth of the state according to the most scientific principles.

President Welch and wife started Saturday for a week’s trip to New Mexico. The Professor did not like to leave his class for so long, but they took the matter in hand and courteously voted him a leave of absence.

We met Mr. Frank Finch of Winfield perambulating the streets of Emporia one afternoon  of last week. We gently took him in charge and conducted him through the Normal building. We were surprised that he did not seem impressed with the beauty of the profession­al class girls, who were present that afternoon. But come again, Frank, our girls are not all professionals.

At the last meeting of the Regents of the State Normal School, the selection of a successor to President Welch was brought forward. A number of the educators of Kansas have been mentioned in connection with the presidency, prominent among them the county superintendent of Cowley County, Prof. R. C. Story, one of those who is more ably fitted to assume control of this institution. But it seems the claims of all Kansas men were ignored by the Regents, for the third ballot resulted in the election of Prof. A. B. Taylor, of Lincoln University, Illinois. For a number of years Professor Taylor has been a prominent educator in that state. Being in the city he visited the school and left a very favorable impression upon the students. He moves here and takes control before the next school year. . . .


Arkansas City Traveler, May 10, 1882.

                                                           County Normal.

The Cowley County Normal will open July 5th, and will close August 25, 1882. It will be under the management of Prof. J. W. Cooper, of Lawrence, Miss Lillian F. Hoxie, of Emporia, Professor E. T. Trimble, of Winfield, and R. C. Story, County Superinten­dent, of Winfield, Kansas. The July session will be charge of Professor Trimble and R. C. Story; and will be devoted to thor­ough, practical work in Language, Arithmetic, Reading, and Didactics.

The August session be under the charge of Prof. J. W. Cooper, assisted by Miss Lillian F. Hoxie, Prof. E. T. Trimble, and R. C. Story. The course of study will be closely followed in August, and will not be distributed before July.

Bring any late standard text-books. Buy new ones only after entering the Normal. Board can be obtained at prices varying from $2.50 to $3.50 a week. By renting rooms and clubbing together, students can greatly reduce expenses.

A County Association will be held in Winfield, Monday and Tuesday, August 28 and 29, at which every teacher in the county is expected to be present. An examination will be held Wednesday morning, August 30, and will continue three days. The exercises will occupy only the forenoon of each day.

Winfield Courier, May 25, 1882.

The examination of teachers ordered by the Board of Education has been postponed until after the normal.


Winfield Courier, June 1, 1882.

The Cowley County Normal will open July 5th, closing August 25th. In July classes will be formed in Orthography, Reading, Languages, Arithmetic, Geography, and Didactics. Also in Algebra and Bookkeeping, if desired. Fees: One dollar per month. County Association of teachers, August 28 and 29. Teachers’ examination Aug. 30 and 31. Exercises in Winfield High School building. R. C. STORY, County Superintendent.

Winfield Courier, June 22, 1882.

Persons desiring boarders during the Normal should confer with Superintendent Story.

Winfield Courier, June 22, 1882.

Miss Hoxie’s Normal class in drawing competed today for prizes for plan, elevation, and perspective for a country schoolhouse. The first prize, the “Cyclopedia of Education,” was won by Miss Mary Tucker, of Winfield. The second, an educational work, title not given, by Miss Lillian Dudley, Marion Center. The Judges were Dr. Cordley, George Gallaher, and Miss S. E. Crichton. Emporia News.

Cowley County Courant, July 6, 1882.

The Cowley County normal opened Wednesday, Superintendent Story and Professor E. T. Trimble in charge of the classes.

The following teachers have enrolled.

Miss Kate A. Martin, Udall.

Philena M. Leach, Burden.

Clara Green, Akron.

Fannie Harden, Winfield.

Maggie C. Seabridge, Winfield.

Rora Frederick, Winfield.

Rora Rounds, Winfield.

Mary E. Curfman, Winfield.

Emma L. McKee, Winfield.

Maggie Stansbury, Winfield.

Anna Kuhn, Winfield.

Mary Orr, Winfield.

Mary Berkey, Winfield.

Ella S. Kelley, Winfield.

Lydia L. Hornor, Winfield.

L. M. Page, Winfield.

Will Tremor, Winfield.

Harry B. Bullene, Winfield.

George C. Whitson, Winfield.

Anson Gridley, Jr., Winfield.

Porter Wilson, Udall.

George Wright, Burden.

Grant Wilkins, Cambridge.

Mrs. Ella Kephart, Tisdale.

Arkansas City Traveler, July 5, 1882.

The Cowley County Normal opens today and will close August 25th, 1882. In July classes will be formed in Orthography, Reading, Languages, Arithmetic, Geography, and Didactics. Also in Algebra and Book Keeping, if desired. Fee: One dollar per month. County Association of teachers, August 28 and 29. Teachers’ examination Aug. 30 and 31. Exercises in Winfield High school building.

Winfield Courier, July 6, 1882.

The County Normal Institute opened Wednesday with between twenty and thirty teachers in attendance. We will give a full list of those present next week.

Arkansas City Traveler, July 12, 1882.

The Cowley County Normal opened last Wednesday with about thirty teachers in attendance.

Winfield Courier, July 13, 1882.

Dr. P. S. Williams, who conducted our normal last summer, will be in Winfield Tuesday, August 1. He will visit the normal and will probably give a public lecture.


Arkansas City Traveler, July 19, 1882.

                                                       The County Normal.

The attendance at the County Normal is excellent. About sixty teachers have enrolled, with others still coming in. Three counties in the State are having eight-weeks’ normals, Clay, Cowley, and Ottawa. Superintendent Story and Professor Trimble have the classes this month. In August, when the enrollment will reach one hundred, Professor J. W. Cooper, of Lawrence, and Miss Lillian H. Hoxie, of this State Normal, will take part in the work.

We give a list of the teachers enrolled.


Misses Rosa Fredrick, [?] Rose Pounds, Maggie C. Seabridge, Fannie Harden, Lydia L. Hornor, [?] Ella S. Kelly, Mary Beiker, L. M. Page, Mary Orr, Anna Kuhn, Lizzie Gridley, Emma Gridley, Emma McKee, Maggie Stansbury, Mary Curfman, Leota Gary, Alice Dunham, Fannie E. Pontious, Hattie Pontious, Jennie Lowry, Clara E. Goodrich, Anna Vaught, Mattie F. McMails.

Messrs. Harry Bullen, George Whitson, A. Gridley, Berkley Harlett, Ed. Harden, Frank Robinson, Will Tremor.

Udall:   Misses Kate A. Martin, Minnie Hartley. Mr. Porter Wilson.

Arkansas City: Miss Emma Rhodes. Mr. W. E. Gilbert.

Oxford: Misses Lou Morris, Ida Burst. Messrs. M. J. Pennington, W. M. Jackson.

Burden: Misses Lizzie Burden, Hattie Mabee, Fannie Mabee. Mr. P. M. Leach.

Seeley: Misses Fannie McKinley, Gertrude McKinley, Clara V. Pierce, Lillie Perrin.

Grenola: Miss Elizabeth Young.

New Salem: Miss Ora Irvin.

Akron: Miss Clara Green.

Tisdale: Mrs. Ella Kephart.

Rock: Mrs. A. H. Limerick.

Cambridge: Mr. Grant Wilkins.

Dexter: Mr. J. R. Smith.

Floral: Mr. Michael Maher.

Winfield Courier, July 27, 1882.

Doctor P. J. Williams, the conductor of the Normal in 1881, will visit Winfield, Tuesday of next week. He would be glad to see any who think of going to the State University, with which institution he is now connected.

Winfield Courier, August 3, 1882.

Mr. I. N. Selby, of Fort Scott, is in the city and made us a pleasant call Tuesday. He is connected with the Kansas Normal College at that place and is attending our county normal in its interest. The Fort Scott school is managed somewhat after the manner proposed by us  a few weeks ago for such a school here. The building, worth about $8,000, was built by a stock company and is leased to Prof. Sanders rent free. Otherwise, the institution is self-supporting.

Winfield Courier, August 3, 1882.

Miss Hoxie arrived Saturday and commenced work in the Normal Monday morning. Miss Hoxie is one of the most successful and efficient Normal teachers we have ever known.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 9, 1882.

E. W. Hulse and family left for McPherson, Thursday, where he immediate­ly enters upon the duties of conductor of the county Institute there. McPherson will hereafter be his home and he will be principle of the schools there. El Dorado has lost and McPherson gained a good citizen in Mr. Hulse. W. F. Times.

Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.

E. A. Millard, of Burden, is attending Normal.

Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.

The normal booms. One hundred and fifteen enrolled.

Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.

Teachers from several of the surrounding counties are attending our County Normal.

Winfield Courier, August 10, 1882.

                                                          OUR NORMAL.

                                   Notes About Our Teachers and Their Work.

The first month of the County Normal closed Friday week. The enrollment was 68 and the average attendance for the month was 62. The B class took a careful study of the U. S. Constitution, thorough work in bookkeeping, language, and arithmetic. The C class had daily drills in elocution and reading, arithmetic, geography, and practical language. The work of July was pleasant, deliberate, and fruitful. Those who attended the first month are in excellent condition for the work of the present month. Prof. J. W. Cooper, of Lawrence, and Miss Lillian F. Hoxie, of Emporia, have arrived, and the work of August starts off with flattering prospects. The opening exercises are held in the Court Room, from 7:45 till 8:30 a.m. The recitations then take place in the High School building upstairs. Friends and school officers are invited to visit the Normal at any time.

                                          NORMAL TEACHERS—GRADE A.

Of Winfield: Misses Florence Goodwin, Ella S. Kelly, Rose A. Rounds, Alpha Harden, Annie L. Hunt, Josie Bard, E. L. Cook, Alice E. Dickie, Mary Bryant, Alice Dunham, Floretta Shields, Mrs. E. T. Trimble, Mrs. R. M. Story.

Of Arkansas City: Misses S. E. Pickering, Jessie Sankey, Jennie F. Peterson; and W. M. Henderson.

Udall: Porter Wilson.

New Salem: W. M. Christopher.

Burden: Geo. Wright; E. A. Millard.

                                           NORMAL TEACHERS—GRADE B.

Of Winfield: Jennie Lowry, Rose Frederick, Emma Gridley, Villa Combs, Fannie Harden, Jennie E. Davy, Maggie Stansbury, Fannie Pontious, Maggie Seabridge, Amy Robertson, Etta B. Robinson, D. J. Brothers, Frank Robinson, Ansel Gridley, Samuel Aldrich, Charles Ware.

Seeley: Fannie McKinley.

Oxford: Anna D. Martin.

Burden: Hattie Mabee.

Torrance: Jennie Hicks.

Of Arkansas City: Misses Flora Finley, Anna L. Morton, Rose Sample, Maggie Sample, Linda Christian; J. W. Warren.

Akron: Clara Green.

New Salem: Mrs. A. M. Gillespie.

Rock: Mrs. A. G. Limerick; J. C. Martindale.

Cambridge:  James Hutchinson; Lizzie Palmer.

Burden: R. O. Stearns.

Grenola: J. H. Crotsley.

Lawrence: S. L. Herriott.

Maple City: W. E. Ketcham.

                                          NORMAL TEACHERS—GRADE C.

Of Winfield: Anna Kuhn, Mary E. Curfman, Emma L. McKee, L. M. Page, Mary A. Orr, Ida Bard, Hattie E. Andrews, Lou M. Morris, Leota Gary, Lydia L. Horner, Anna McClung, Haidee A. Trezise, Ida G. Trezise, Hattie Pontious, Mary Berkey, Maggie Kinne, B. B. Bartlett, Will Tremor, Harry Bullen, Miss Fannie Headrick.

Udall: Kate A. Martin; Lizzie Burden; P. M. Leach.

New Salem: Ora Irvin.

Oxford: Ida Hurst; M. J. Bennington; W. M. Jackson.

Seeley: Gertrude McKinley; Clara V. Pierce; Lilly Perrin.

Grenola: Lizzie Young.

Cloverdale: Bertha Hempy.

Arkansas City: Emma Rhodes, Dido Carlisle, Wm. E. Gilbert.

Tisdale: Mrs. Ella Kephart.

Burden: Charles Walch; M. M. Stearns.

Chetopa: Bert Dersham.

Dexter: J. R. Smith.

Rock: Jno. C. Bradshaw.

Cambridge: Grant Wilkins.

Baltimore: Chas. M. Messenger.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 30, 1882.

                                                           County Normal.

We have here a full list of our teachers now enrolled in our County Normal, with grade and post office.



Misses L. M. Goodwin, Ella [?] S. Kelly, Rose A. Rounds, Alpha Harden, Anna Harden, Anna L. Hunt, Joie Bard. E. L. Cook, Mollie Bryant, Allie E. Dickie, Alice Dunham, Anna Vant.

Mrs. E. T. Trimble and Mrs. W. R. Caton.


Jennie Lowry, Rose A. Frederick, Emma L. Gridley, Villa M. Combs, Fannie Harden, Jennie Davy, Maggie Stansbury, Fannie Pontious, Maggie C. Seabridge, Etta B. Robinson, Amy Robertson, Mr. D. J. Brothers, Frank Robinson, A. Gridley, Samuel Aldrich, Charles Ware, P. Beaumont, C. W. Stewart.


Anna Kuhn, Mary E. Curfman, Emma L. McKee, L. M. Page, Mary A. Orr, Ida Bard, Pattie Andrews, Leoti Gary, Lydia L. Horner, Anna McClung, Haidee Trezise, Ida G. Trezise, Hattie Pontious, Mary Berkey, Maggie Kinne, Fannie Headrick, Mr. M. M. Stearns, R. B. Bartlett, Harry Bullen, Will Tremor.


GRADE A.: Porter Wilson.

GRADE B.: Clara Green.



H. T. Albert.


Jas. Hutchinson

D. W. Ramage.

Lizzie Palmer.

Maud Lesly.

Allie Wheeler.


Grant Wilkins [?].



E. A. Millard.

Geo. Wright.


R. O. Stearns.

B. F. Alderman.

Hattie Mabee.


Charles Walch.

P. M. Leach.

Lizzie Burden.

Fannie Mabee.

                                                        ARKANSAS CITY.


Linnie Peed.

Jennie Peterson.

Sadie E. Pickering.

Jessie Sankey.

W. M. Henderson.


J. W. Warren.

C. F. Cunningham.

Annie Norton.

Flora Finley.

Rose Sample.

Linda Christian.


Wm. E. Gilbert.

Minnie Turner.

Dido Carlisle.

Emma Rhodes.

                                                            NEW SALEM.

GRADE A.: W. M. Christopher.

GRADE B.: Mrs. A. M. Gillespie.

GRADE C.: Miss Ord Irvin.



J. H. Cratsley.

L. D. Maddux.


Lizzie Young.


GRADE B.: S. L. Herriott.

                                                            MAPLE CITY.

GRADE B.: W. E. Ketcham.



C. Martindale.

Mrs. A. H. Limerick.


John C. Bradshaw.


GRADE B.: R. B. Overman.


GRADE B.: Jennie Hicks.

                    T. J. Rude.


GRADE B.: Emma Elliott.

GRADE C.: J. R. Smith.


GRADE B.: Ida Hamilton.



Anna D. Martin.


Gertrude E. McKinley.

Clara V. Pierce.

Lillie Perrin.


GRADE C.: C. Messenger.


GRADE C.: Bert Dersham.



Minnie Heartle [?].

Kate A. Martin.


GRADE C.: Miss Bertha Hempy.


GRADE C.: Mrs. E. Kephart.

Winfield Courier, August 31, 1882.

                                                              Our Schools.

The revision of the course of study of the Winfield schools has been completed and printed. Our schools are now in a prosperous condition and offer good opportunities for any who may desire a good education. There are now three distinct courses of study in the High School: a High School, Latin, and Normal course. The latter offers inducements to teachers and to those who desire to become teachers. In addition to the study of methods, students in this course will have an opportunity to observe the teaching in the various grades, and if desired, can have practice in teaching. With our substantial and comfortable school buildings and the improvements now in progress, there is no reason why the schools of Winfield may not rival any of the state.

Winfield Courier, November 9, 1882.

Teachers’ Association. The Burden Division of the Teachers’ Association met at Burden, Oct. 28, 1882, and agreed upon the following organization.

President, E. A. Millard.

Vice president, R. O. Stearns.

Secretary, J. H. Hutchison.

Assistant Secretary, T. J. Rude.

Treasurer, C. I. Walch.

It was decreed that the present corps of officers should constitute the executive commit-tee and that said committee should meet at Burden on Saturday, Nov. 18, 1882, at 6 o’clock p.m., to arrange matters and assign topics for next meeting. But few teachers were present, however the meeting was spirited and enthusiastic, and a determination was shown on the part of those present to make the Association a success. The meeting adjourned to meet Nov. 18, 1882. The teachers of this division are respectfully invited to attend. Remember “those resolutions” passed at the Normal. JAMES H. HUTCHISON, Secretary.

Winfield Courier, November 9, 1882.

Teachers’ Meeting. The next meeting of the Winfield division of Teachers’ Association will be held Saturday, Nov. 18th, promptly at 10 o’clock a.m., in the High School building at Winfield. The committee on program has assigned the following topic to the several teachers herein mentioned.

                                              MORNING SESSION, 10 A.M.

1st subject. The organization of a school, including gradation, classification, seating, program, branches of study, and extent of term’s work for each pupil—R. C. Story.

2nd subject. Model lesson in practical language—Miss E. L. Cook, Miss A. E. Dickie, and Mr. A. Staggers.

3rd subject. How to prepare a reading lesson—Miss Emma Gridley, Miss S. J. Clute, and Mr. J. H. Crotsley.

                                           AFTERNOON SESSION, 1:30 P.M.

1st subject. A lesson on the use of the globe and maps of the world—Prof. Trimble, Miss Sadie Pickering, and Mr. T. H. Burton.

2nd subject. The best method of teaching notation—Miss Lizzie Gridley, Mrs. W. B. Caton, and Mr. R. S. White.

3rd subject. Longfellow and Tennyson—Miss Rose Frederick, Miss Mattie Gibson, and Mr. D. G. Brothers.

4th subject. Miscellaneous business.

We hope that every teacher in the Winfield Division will feel an interest in this work and will come prepared to discuss any and all topics that are brought up. COMMITTEE.

Winfield Courier, November 30, 1882.

                                      Public Schools of Cowley County, 1881-82.

The annual report of the County Superintendent shows the following statistics for the school year closing July 31.

No. of districts organized: 135.

No. of districts reporting: 135.

School population: 7,474.

Pupils enrolled: 6,192.

Average attendance: 3,870.

Different teachers employed: 169.

Average No. of weeks of school: 19.56.

Average salary, male: $36.27.

Average salary, female: $30.55.

School bonds issued: $36,912

Av. No. Mills levied for school purposes: 9.3.

Estimated value of school property: $79,756.

No. of school buildings: 121.

No. of persons examined: 191.

No. of applicants rejected: 55.

Certificates granted, first grade: 16.

Certificates granted, second grade: 44.

Certificates granted, third grade: 82.

No. of schools visited by County Superintendent: 137.

No. of visits made by County Superintendent: 203.

No. of districts having school: 125.

No. of districts not having school: 10.

                                                     MONEYS RECEIVED.

Balance in hands of district treasuries August 1, 1881: $5,924.62.

District taxes: $31,108.03.

State and County school fund: $$7,208.84.

Sale of bonds: $6,272.

All other sources: $1,797.29

                                              TOTAL RECEIVED: $52,314.69.

                                                     MONEYS EXPENDED.

Teachers’ Wages: $27,041.25.

Incidentals: $6,767.98.

Library and apparatus: $448.99.

Sites, buildings, furniture, etc.: $7,008.98.

All other purposes: $1,899.54.

                                                        TOTAL: $43,157.74.

                                       BALANCE AUGUST 1, 1882: $9,156.95.

Normal opened July 6th, closed Aug. 26th.

Enrollment in July, 41; in August, 114.



Winfield Courier, April 19, 1883.

Fifty dollars were appropriated to the County Normal.


Winfield Courier, May 17, 1883.

                                           KANSAS STATE INSTITUTIONS.

There are nine State institutions as follows:

University at Lawrence.

Normal school at Emporia.

Agricultural school at Manhattan.

Deaf and dumb asylum at Olathe.

Blind asylum at Wyandotte.

Insane asylum at Topeka.

Penitentiary at Leavenworth.

Reform school at Topeka.

Insane asylum at Osawatomie.

A brief description will be given of these institutions in the order named.

The University, situated at Lawrence, is a large stone building 246 feet in length, 68 feet wide, with wings 62 feet wide, and 65 feet high. In the building are 54 rooms, including main hall, which is nearly a hundred feet long and over 50 feet wide.

In the university are six departments: collegiate, preparatory, normal, musical, law, and preparatory medical. Each department is provided with a suite for its especial convenience.

The University at Lawrence was established in 1859 by the Presbyterians. In 1861 it passed to the control of the Protestant Episcopal Church. The building and grounds were afterwards secured by the city of Lawrence, and given to the state for the purpose of establishing a state University. In 1871 a new building was erected, $100,000 being given for that purpose by the city of Lawrence. The institution is now in a flourishing condition, having an able corps of 17 professors, and an attendance of 1,000 pupils.

The State Normal school at Emporia is a fine building. It is supplied with water from the city water-works, heated by steam, and ventilated in the most perfect manner.

Established in 1845 with a liberal endowment of land, it has been in successful operation ever since. The building, costing $35,000, was in 1878 entirely destroyed by fire, but has been replaced by another superior to the first. Pupils of the school receive State certificates upon graduation.

The Agricultural College, another State educational institution of prominence, was established in 1863. It provides for the technical education of both young men and women.

The oldest college building, and about one hundred acres of land, were donated to the State for this purpose by the Bluemont Central College Association. Manhattan Township gave $12,000 toward purchasing the remaining farm.

The United States government endowed it with 90,000 acres of land, the most of which has been sold and invested in bonds, the income of which is upwards of $30,000. Appropriations are made by the legislature to meet its expenditures. The college has an annual attendance of about 200 pupils.

The various asylums at Olathe, Wyandotte, Topeka, and Osawatomie are managed in a scientific and practical manner, and the unfortunates in their charge are well cared for.

Winfield Courier, May 17, 1883.

The Cowley County Normal Institute will open at Winfield, Monday, June 25th, 1883, and continue five weeks. Conductor: Prof. Buel T. Davis, State Normal School, Emporia. Instructors: Prof. A. Gridley, Jr., Chanute; Prof. E. T. Trimble, Winfield. For particulars address A. H. Limerick, Supt., Public Instruction.

Arkansas City Traveler, May 30, 1883.

From an elegantly engraved card by us received, we learn that class day at the Kansas State Normal School will fall on Monday, June 11th, 1883.

Arkansas City Traveler, May 30, 1883.

                                                             Courier Clips.

The Cowley County Normal Institute will open at Winfield, Monday, June 25th, 1883, and continue five weeks. Conductor Prof. Buel T. Davis, State Normal School, Emporia. Instructors: Prof. A. Gridley, Jr., Chanute; Prof. E. T. Trimble, Winfield. For particulars address A. H. Limerick, Supt., Public Instruction.

Arkansas City Traveler, June 6, 1883.

TEACHERS: It is hoped that all Cowley County school teachers will endeavor to attend the Normal this year.

Arkansas City Traveler, June 6, 1883.

                                                          Normal Institute.

Cowley County Normal Institute will open at Winfield, June 25th, 1883, and continue in session five weeks. Conductor, Buel T. Davis, State Normal school; assistants, A. Gridley, Jr., of Chanute, and E. T. Trimble, of Winfield. For further particulars address A. H. Limerick, Winfield.

Winfield Courier, June 21, 1883.

                                               Cowley County Normal Institute.

Opens Monday, June 25th, 1883, at the Public School building in Winfield.

Director: Prof. Bud T. Davis, State Normal School.

Assistants: Prof. A. Gridley, Jr., Chanute; Prof. E. T. Trimble, Winfield.

For particulars and course of study, address A. H. Limerick, Winfield, Kansas.

Winfield Courier, June 28, 1883.

                                                               The Normal.

The County Normal Institute opened Monday with about sixty-five teachers in attendance. Prof. Davis, of the State Normal School, acts as Conductor, and Profs. Gridley and Trimble as instructors. The work starts off nicely and promises a most prosperous session. The following is a list of those in attendance at present and their grades.


Alice A. Aldrich, Mattie Berry, Leander C. Brown, Will C. Barnes, Frank A. Chapin, Laura Elliott, Rosa Frederick, Anna L. Hunt, D. W. Ramage, Lida Strong, Mary E. Hamill, Silas Overman, Allie Klingman, Fannie M. McKinlay.


Anna Barnes, C. B. Bradshaw, May Christopher, Clara Davenport, Oliver Fuller, Anna Foults, Leota Gary, Zella Hutchison, Maggie Herpich, Bertha Hempy, Ella Kephart, Anna Kuhn, Lewis King, Lizzie Lawson, May Rief, Etta Robinson, Ella Rounds, Maggie Seabridge, Lou Strong, Lizzie Burden, May Carlisle, Geo. Crawford, Estella Cronk, Fannie Gramman, Ida Hamilton, James Hutchinson, Clara Pierce, Chas. Wing, Horace Norton.


Carrie B. Andrews, Hattie E. Andrews, Mary E. Curfman, Emma Darling, Lydia E. Gardner, Meddie Hamilton, Lucy F. Hite, Rose E. B. Hooker, Lyda Howard, Ella Kempton, Maggie Kenney, Ida Kuhn, Mary E. Miller, Clara B. Page, Ella Pierce, Laura Phelps, Carrie Plunkett, Caddie Ridgeway, Claudius Rinker, Charlie Roberts, Eddy Roberts, Anna Robertson, Nettie Stewart, Minnie Stewart, James Stockdale, Minnie Sumpter, Eliza Taylor, Louella Wilson, Lillie Wilson, Kate Wimer, Etta King, Ida Grove, Ora Irvin, Emma McKee, Hannah Gilbert, Lizzie Gilbert, Mary Berkey, C. A. Daugherty, Mary Rice, Elfreida White.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, July 4, 1883.

                                                              The Normal.

The County Normal Institute opened last week with about sixty-five teachers in attendance. Prof. Davis, of the State Normal school, acts as conductor, and Profs. Gridley and Trimble as instructors. The work starts off nicely and promises a most prosperous session. The following is a list of those in attendance at present and their grades.

Grade A. Alice A. Aldrich, Mattie Berry, Leander C. Brown, Will C. Barnes, Frank A. Chapin, Laura Elliott, Rosa Frederick, Anna L. Hunt, D. W. Ramage, Lula Strong, Mary E. Hamill, Silas Overman, Allie Klingman, Fannie M. McKinley.

Grade B. Annie Barnes, C. B. Bradshaw, May Christopher, Clara Davenport, Oliver Fuller, Anna Foults, Leota Gary, Zella Hutchison, Maggie Herpich, Bertha Hempy, Ella Kephart, Anna Kuhn, Lewis King, Lizzie Lawson, May Rief, Etta Robinson, Ella Rounds, Maggie Seabridge, Lou Strong, Lizzie Burden, May Carlisle, Geo. Crawford, Estella Cronk, Fannie Gramman, Ida Hamilton, James Hutchinson, Clara Pierce, Chas. Wing, Horace Norton.

Grade C. Carrie B. Andrews, Hattie E. Andrews, Mary E. Curfman, Emma Darling, Lydia E. Gardner, Meddie Hamilton, Lucy F. Hite, Rose E. B. Hooker, Lyda Howard, Ella Kempton, Maggie Kenney, Ida Kuhn, Mary E. Miller, Clara B. Page, Ella Pierce, Laura Phelps, Carrie Plunkett, Caddie Ridgeway, Claudius Rinker, Charles Roberts, Eddy Roberts, Anna Robertson, Nettie Stewart, Minnie Stewart, James Stockdale, Minnie Sumpter, Eliza Taylor, Louella Wilson, Lillie Wilson, Kate Wimer, Ella King, Ida Grove, Ora Irvin, Emma McKee, Hannah Gilbert, Lizzie Gilbert, Mary Berkey, C. A. Daugherty, Mary Rice, Elfreida White.



Winfield Courier, July 5, 1883.

Some of Fairview’s young ladies will attend the Normal this summer.

Arkansas City Traveler, July 18, 1883.

The number of teachers attending the Normal now in session at Winfield is 127.


Winfield Courier, August 2, 1883.

Resolutions of the Cowley County Normal Institute, Adopted at the Close of the Session Ending July 25th, 1883.

Resolved, That we, the teachers of Cowley County, tender Prof. Davis our sincere thanks for the thorough, systematic, and agreeable manner in which he has conducted our Institute.

Resolved, That we recognize the good judgment, untiring energy, and ability of our County Superintendent, Profs. Trimble and Gridley, and that we offer them our thanks for the faithful manner in which they have performed their part of the work.

Resolved, That this Institute, coming as it has earlier in the season, will be remembered as one of the pleasantest we have ever attended. That while it has been a session of inestimable educational value, it has been one of pleasure and good feeling as well.

Resolved, That we will use in our schools this winter the practical Normal methods which we have been taught at this Institute.

Resolved, That a copy of the resolutions be sent to each of the city papers for publication.


                                         L. C. BROWN, Chairman of Committee.



Winfield Courier, August 2, 1883.

Mr. Lucas returned from the Normal some time ago, quite sick. I do not know whether he has recovered or not.



Winfield Courier, August 9, 1883.

Misses Lida and Lou Strong are home from the Normal.



Winfield Courier, August 16, 1883.

Miss Mollie McWilliams has returned from the Normal school and brought company home with her. MAY.

Winfield Courier, November 22, 1883.

                                                       Teachers’ Association.

The Teachers’ Association (Central Division) met in the East Ward school building Saturday, November 17th, at 10:30 a.m. S. L. Herriott presented some very valuable suggestions on course of study for our common schools. General discussion followed. Messrs. Limerick, Lucas, and Gridley were participants. Amusements for teachers and pupils was the next topic introduced by H. G. Norton, whose remarks provoked a very lively discussion, engaged in by Messrs. Limerick, Brown, Lucas, Herriott, and Gridley. At the close of this discussion, the Association adjourned to meet at 1-1/2 o’clock p.m. At the afternoon session there was a large attendance. A spirited discussion engaged in by various members of the Association, on the following topics: “Libraries” and “Defects in our School System.” President Taylor of Emporia Normal School, being present, made an address to the teachers with much wholesome advice. An evening session was held at the Courthouse, with select reading by Miss Mary Hamill, declamation by W. P. Beaumont, and an excellent lecture by President Taylor of Emporia. It is to be regretted that more teachers and school officers did not hear the above lecture. The next meeting of the Association will be held December 21 and 22, to which all the teachers of the county are cordially invited.


Winfield Courier, February 7, 1884.

Miss Ella D. Kelly, of this city, has been granted a Normal Instructor’s certificate by the State Board of Education. Miss Kelly is going way up in educational circles.

Winfield Courier, March 6, 1884.

Miss Mary Berkey left last Saturday for Emporia, where she will take a course in the State Normal school. Miss Mary is a bright young lady and we are glad to see her afforded an opportunity of advancing in educational matters.


Winfield Courier, May 22, 1884.

The County Normal Institute opens in Winfield on June 16th and continues two months. It will be conducted by Prof. B. T. Davis, assisted by Prof. A. Gridley and County Superintendent, Limerick. A new department has been added for this year called the “Model School.” The purpose of this department is to give teachers ample opportunity to see in actual operation the best of the new methods of Primary Instruction. Miss Jessie Stretch, late of the State Normal School of Indiana, a teacher of much experience in this class of work, will have the supervision of this department.

Winfield Courier, May 29, 1884.

                                                             Model School.

Those wishing to enroll pupils in the Model Department of County Normal Institute will please do so before June 1st. Application should be made to Miss Stretch or County Supt. Enrollment limited to forty, $1 per month.

Winfield Courier, June 19, 1884.

Nothing has so much influence over a susceptible young man as a pretty, intelligent school ma’am, and we are afraid the managers of the Normal Institute will find it necessary to put an embargo on the visits of young gentlemen before the two month’s siege is ended.


Winfield Courier, June 19, 1884.

The County Normal Institute opened Monday with flattering prospects for a successful session. The enrollment is unusually large, and a real, live interest manifested in the work. It is conducted by Prof. B. T. Davis of the State Normal School, one of the best educators of the State, ably assisted by Prof. A. Gridley and County Superintendent Limerick. The Model Department, under the management of Miss Stretch, is a very attractive feature of this session. The arrangement of the work was for a session of eight weeks, but should the weather become hot, and the teachers wearied, the work may close at the end of the sixth week. Following are the names of those in attendance.

GRADE A: Fannie Ballard, Rosa A. Frederick, S. J. Gilbert, Allie Harden, H. G. Norton, Ella Rounds, Emma Robins, Maggie Stansbury, Fannie Stretch, Nettie Waugh.

GRADE B: Jennie Brengle, Lucy E. Cairns, Antony B. Carroll, Amy Chapin, Clara Davenport, Lida Howard, Emma Howland, Ora Irvin, Jennie Kempton, Ella Kempton, Ella R. King, Anna Kuhn, Lizzie Lawson, Angie McCartney, Erma La McKee, Mary E. Miller, Josie Pixley, Anna Robertson, Quincy A. Robertson, Chas. W. Roberts, Ed. G. Roberts, Cora Robins, Maggie Seabridge, Hattie Wiley.

GRADE C: Thornton Baker, Belle Berthram, Thomas W. Bowles, Hettie Brown, Lena Broadbent, Cora Bullen, Lizzie Campbell, Jennie Cochran, Ira Crane, Alma Elliott, Winnie M. Emery, Lola Fogle, Delia Fogle, Lydia Gardner, Cora Goodrich, Nannie Henson, Fannie Himelic, Edith Holland, Lou Jarvis, Ella Johnston, Julia B. King, Viola Krow, Ida Kuhn, F. A. Limbocker, Mattie M. Linn, Iola Moore, Joseph M. Moore, Eva Reynolds, Fanny Saunders, Millie A. Taylor, Codie A. Waite, Leon A. Waite, George Whitson.

Arkansas City Republican, June 21, 1884.

                                                      County Normal Institute.

The County Normal Institute opened Monday with flattering prospects for a successful season. The enrollment is unusually large, and a real live interest is manifested in the work. It is conducted by Prof. B. T. Davis of the State Normal school, one of the best educators of the state, ably assisted by Prof. A. Gridley and County Superintendent Limerick. The Model Department, under the management of Miss Stretch, is a very attractive feature of this session. The arrangement of the work was for a session of eight weeks, but should the weather become hot, and the teachers wearied, the work may close at the end of the sixth week.

Following are the names of those in attendance.

                                                               GRADE A.

Fannie Ballard, S. J. Gilbert, H. G. Norton, Emma Robins, Fannie Stretch, Rosa A. Frederick, Allie Harden, Ella Rounds, Maggie Stansbury, Nettie Waugh.

                                                               GRADE B.

Jennie Brengle, Antony B. Carroll, Clara Davenport, Emma Howland, Jennie Kempton, Ella R. King, Lizzie Lawson, Erma La McKee, Josie Pixley, Quincy Robertson, Ed. G. Roberts, Maggie Seabridge, Lucy E. Cairns, Amy Chapin, Lida Howard, Ora Irvin, Ella Kempton, Anna Kuhn, Angie McCartney, Mary E. Miller, Anna Robertson, Chas. W. Roberts, Cora Robins, Hattie Wiley.

                                                               GRADE C.

Thornton Baker, Thos. W. Bowles, Lena Broadbent, Lizzie Campbell, Ira Crane, Winnie M. Emery, Delia Fogle, Cora Goodrich, Fannie Himelic, Lou Jarvis, Julia B. King, Ida Kuhn, Mattie M. Linn, Joseph M. Moore, Fanny Saunders, Codie A. Waite, Belle Berthram, Hettie Brown, Cora Bullen, Jennie Cochran, Alma Elliott, Lola Fogle, Lydia Gardner, Nannie Henson, Edith Holland, Ella Johnston, Viola Krow, F. A. Limbocker, Iola Moore, Eva Reynolds, Millie A. Taylor, Leon A. Waite, George Whitson.


Winfield Courier, June 26, 1884.

The Normal Institute is progressing finely and receiving recruits every day. The writer happened in Tuesday and was highly pleased to note the interest manifested in the different departments. . . . The Model Department is a splendid adjunct, affording teachers a keen insight into the modes of primary instruction. About fifty of the children of the city are attending this school and receiving valuable instruction under Miss Jessie Stretch. The recitations are witnessed by the Normalites in classes of six, and they are required to take notes of their observations. Thus is the vexing problem of how to interest the young in school work solved in a manner beneficial to every teacher of the county. Everything pertaining to school work is having a thorough rehearsal in the Institute.

Arkansas City Republican, June 28, 1884.

Horace Vaughan started for the Normal last Monday.


Arkansas City Republican, July 12, 1884.

                                                        The Normal Institute.

The Normal is progressing finely. There are now 29 teachers enrolled. Those who were enrolled from Arkansas City this week are Misses Emma Campbell, Mollie Coonrod, Nettie Pollock, Dido Carlisle, Messrs. Ellsworth, R. W. Harris, M. J. Scott, J. W. Warren.

Chancellor Lippincott, of the State University, lectured on Wednesday evening at the Baptist Church, for the students and citizens.

The model school, conducted by Miss Stretch, closes this week.

                                                             A TEACHER.

Arkansas City Republican, July 19, 1884.

                                                       A Visit to the Normal.

Tuesday afternoon found us aboard the train, en route for the Normal. After a pressing delay caused by the rain, we met the genial county’s superintendent, Prof. A. H. Limerick, and received the cheering intelligence that the afternoon session was changed to seven o’clock in the evening. A newspaper man has not a surplus of time, and, as we had expected to return to our home in the evening, chill disappointment took possession of our breast. A cordial invitation to spend the night with the gentleman with whom we were conversing dispelled, to some extent, the gloom of mind enveloping us, and caused us thankfully to accept. Supper with our host over, we repaired in company with him to the courthouse, where we found the excellent instructor, Prof. B. T. Davis, and about one-half the students in attendance. After listening to an entertaining lecture by Prof. Davis, in answer to queries proposed, a general social season was enjoyed, and the exercises closed. Prof. Limerick entertained us, in his genial way, during the night, and morning found us in the chapel, amid an audience of nearly one hundred and fifty members. After devotional exercises, the roll was called to ascertain the political status of the Institute. The vote resulted in eighty-four for Blaine, eighteen for Cleveland, six for Ben Butler, and three for prohibition.

There are one hundred and forty-three teachers in attendance at the present time. Of these, a large majority are young men and women, while the minority show years of service. Enthusiasm and energy pervade the whole school, and without exception this is the best session ever held in Cowley County. Unstinted praise is due Professors Davis and Gridley for their untiring zeal, and upon Superintendent Limerick too much cannot be bestowed. If unwearied effort and constant toil will place our schools in the front rank of the array of progress, the position will be won. Our only regret is that business prevents our constant attendance.

Winfield Courier, July 24, 1884.

The Normal Institute closes Friday. The enrollment for the past few weeks has been one hundred and forty-seven. A vote on the political status of the Institute was taken one day last week and resulted in eighty-four for the Plumed Knight, eighteen for Cleveland, and three for Independent Prohibition. The session has been full of energy and enthusiasm throughout and its good results will be very perceptible this winter in the public schools of Cowley.

Winfield Courier, July 31, 1884.

The Normal Institute closed its six weeks’ session Tuesday with a pleasant social under management of the “B” grade. Quincy Roberts presided, and speeches were made by Rev. J. Cairns and Prof. C. T. Atkinson, with other exercises, after which all passed the evening in social intercourse. It was one of the pleasantest gatherings we have seen in a long time. Winfield will seem deserted when the hundred and fifty teachers disperse, which will occur Saturday, after the examination for certificates which is now taking place.


Winfield Courier, August 7, 1884.

                                      NEW SALEM PENCILINGS. - “OLIVIA.”

Mr. Lucas came home from Normal quite sick one day last week, but was back to work again next day.


Winfield Courier, August 7, 1884.

                                           CAMBRIDGE CRUMS.- “CLYTIE.”

Hattie Utley and Frank Rowe, students of the Normal, returned home Thursday. Allie Hardin stayed until Friday.


                                              THE NORMAL LAND SALE.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 1, 1885.

Referring to the reported sale of all the Normal School lands to a bank president at $3.00 per acre, Hon. Jacob Stotler in the Wellington Press says:

The Press called attention to this matter in September. The bank President referred to is undoubtedly H. C. Cross, of the First National Bank of Emporia. Early in the summer the regents sold the remainder of the Normal endowment lands, between seven and eight thousand acres, to Mr. Cross for $3.50 per acre, not $3.00 as the Eagle has it. The lands are located in Mitchell County, and are represented to us as being worth $7 or $8 per acre. Whether Mr. Cross made the purchase for himself or for the Emporia Syndicate we have never learned, and as we said in our former article the purchasers could not be blamed much by their code of morals, in jumping at a transaction in which they will pocket a cool $25,000. Whether the exchequer of the State Normal School can stand depletion at this rate is another thing, and is a matter in which the public is directly interested. We have been told that at the time the offer of $3.50 was made an offer of $4 per acre was pending. We suppose the Board of Regents was responsible for such transactions as this. The whole thing looks suspicious. The very poorest lands in the state have brought more than $3.50 per acre for the past two years. It seems hard to think that the guardians of the interests of one of our state schools would deliberately consent that its financial interests should suffer at their hands, yet it looks as if the Normal regents had either done this or had committed an unpardonable blunder. The fact that the lands were sold stealthily, instead of being thrown open to the highest bidder, is another very suspicious circumstance. We hope the boast of Governor Glick about the pure and superior manner in which the state institutions have been run under his administration will not be marred by the discovery of anything crooked in the sale of the Normal lands, but we insist the matter will bear investigation by this Legislature. If the treasury of that institution has been cheated, the blame and punishment ought to fall where they belong.

Arkansas City Republican, January 3, 1885.

Prof. Weir came home from Topeka Wednesday. He was in that city attending the state teachers’ association. It convened Monday and continued until Jan. 1. It was by far the largest and most enthusiastic gathering of teachers this association has ever had. Pres. Taylor and Dr. Horn, of Tennessee, made addresses. Dr. Horn’s address was on “Duty of the State to fine Arts.” Prof. Weir had a pleasant trip.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 7, 1885.

The State Teachers’ Association adjourned December 31, after a three days’ very successful session. Prof. Taylor, of the State Normal school, presided. Four hundred teachers were in attendance. Papers were read upon a large variety of topics relating to teaching. The meeting is regarded as the most successful ever held by the association. Prof. Jos. H. Canfield, of the State university, was elected president for the ensuing year.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

Prof. J. C. Weir was highly honored by the State Teachers Association. He was chosen secretary of the association. Score another for Arkansas City.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

Prof. Gridley of Winfield was elected president of the State Teachers Association for the ensuing year. Cowley was indeed honored.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, January 24, 1885.

The County board has made an appropriation of fifty dollars to the County Normal, to be held this coming summer for the benefit of the teachers of the county. Cowley County does not propose to be behind in educational matters, but will afford every opportunity for improvement of school and teachers. Winfield Tribune.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, January 29, 1885.

                                                   SENATE, JANUARY 20.

President appointed Senators Barker, Green, and Case a committee to investigate the penitentiary, and Senator Young and Humphrey, a committee to investigate, the Normal School land sale.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, May 20, 1885.

                                                        From Our Exchanges.

A movement is started in Topeka to establish a teachers’ reading circle, for the benefit of the county institutes. Five leading educators of the state will constitute a board of directors, who will be selected by the teachers in the public schools indicating their preference to the State Superintendent of Instruction.

Arkansas City Republican, June 27, 1885.

                                               Cowley County Normal Institute,

Will open Monday, July 6, 1885, for a term of four weeks. Conductor: J. N. Wilkinson, of the State Normal School. Instructors: A. Gridley, W. C. Barnes, and Miss E. C. Kelley.

                                                           TO TEACHERS,

Again we call your attention to the opening of the Normal Institute. There has probably not been a time since our institute law came into operation when the necessity for attendance was so potent as at present. A new plan of examination, the introduction of an additional study, and a probable change in many of our text books are matters of so vital importance that no live teacher can afford to lose so valuable an opportunity for adjusting himself to the new condition of things that in the near future must come about.

                                                             THE WORK.

Prof. Wilkinson comes to us highly endorsed as a worker, and will give special attention to Methods of Instruction and School Management.

Penmanship will be under the management of Prof. Finefrock, of Illinois.

Dr. States, of Winfield, has tendered the use of his powerful microscope to the classes in Physiology.

                                                          MODEL WORK.

Miss Stretch, of Winfield, will have charge of this department.

Miss Emily Kuhlman, of the State Normal Kindergarten, will give instructions in PRIMARY WORK in Common Schools.


The final examination for the school year will be held at close of the Institute; the second, Oct., 31.

Standings made under the County Board cannot be taken in lieu of examination under the present law.


Enrollment fee $1.00. Examination fee $1.00

                              COWLEY COUNTY TEACHERS’ ASSOCIATION

will hold its sessions at such times as can be arranged for, while the Institute is in progress.

For further information, address

                                       A. H. LIMERICK, County Superintendent.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 4, 1885.

                                                     Prof. H. B. Norton Dead.

DIED. Prof. H. B. Norton died June 22, at his Skyland home near San Jose, California. Prof. Norton was one of the founders of Arkansas City, and for a long time was president of the town company. In the winter of 1869-1870 he, in company with fifteen others, came here and laid out the town of Arkansas City. At one time Prof. Norton was the editorial writer on the Traveler.

In speaking of his death, the Emporia Republican says: “It is with profound sorrow that we are called upon to announce the death of Prof. H. B. Norton. This sad event took place at his Skyland home, in the Santa Cruz mountains, near San Jose, California, June 22nd, 1885, at 6 o’clock a.m. Professor Norton was a resident of this city for many years, during which time he was associate principal of the Kansas State Normal school with Judge Kellogg, as principal. He was also associated with Judge Kellogg as editor of the Kansas Educational Journal, then published in this city. Prof. Norton was one of the founders of Arkansas City and for two or three years was a resident of that place. Subsequently he resumed his position in the State Normal school, which position he held until a disagreement in the faculty caused him to accept a position in the State Normal school of California, whither he removed with his family in 1875. His memory will be held in grateful remembrance by all who knew him. He was an encyclopedia of knowledge and one of the most benevolent and kind-hearted men that ever lived.

The following are the particulars of his death.

“On Thursday of last week, Prof. Norton, together with Prof. C. H. Allen, principal of the Normal school, was surveying in the mountains and appeared to be quite well. That evening he was taken ill with pleurisy, and on Friday, while not deeming himself very sick, kept to his bed. At about 11 o’clock on Friday night, Prof. Norton was seized with congestion of the brain, and from that time until his death remained in an unconscious condition. It was not until congestion set in that any serious alarm was occasioned, and on Saturday morning Dr. H. C. Morey of Gilroy, an intimate friend of the professor, was telegraphed for. Meanwhile the sick man was being attended by Dr. Chas. Washburn. Dr. Morey, on arriving and making an examination, saw that the case was almost beyond hope. The patient’s constitution was almost worn out through straining and continuous labor, and a rally was almost out of the question. The remains of the deceased were interred at Skyland.”

Prof. Norton is a cousin of L. C. Norton of Arkansas City.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, September 26, 1885.

A circular has been issued by the principal of the California Normal School, Charles H. Allen, announcing that a memorial pamphlet will be published containing a portrait of the late Henry H. [B.] Norton and sketches of the memorial services held in San Jose, Emporia, and elsewhere. The pamphlet will contain about 100 pages, and will be sold, bound in paper cover with engraving, for 50 cents; bound in morocco with photograph and autograph, $5.50. The money received above the actual expenses of publishing the book will be used in establishing a fund for the education of Prof. Norton’s children.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, December 30, 1885.

                                         PROFESSOR HENRY B. NORTON.

                                  The Life and Services of a Pioneer Evangelist.

We have received an interesting little volume, entitled “Memorials of Henry Brace Norton,” who was well known to the earlier inhabitants of Arkansas City, as the editor of this journal. His life and labors in this city are thus described in the biography, which forms part of the Memorials.

“A colony town was projected on the southern border of Kansas, in Cowley County, next to the Indian Territory. The settlers were mainly from Emporia, and they urged Mr. Norton to go with them, to which he was led the more readily by the fact that his brother was one of the colonists and was beginning mercantile business with the settlers. Here, on the banks of the Arkansas River, from which the new town was finally called Arkansas City, Mr. Norton put his hand to every new effort. He and his soldier brother built the first house of logs and the first store. They surveyed roads, they planned the townsite, they started the first newspaper, with the printing press in an open shed.

“The Indians, who had suffered so much from the rascality of the Indian traders, and whom the government was trying to protect, liked to deal with Mr. Norton and his brother. As the friend of those early days, Judge Kellogg, writes: “Osage, Kaw, Cheyenne, and Arapahos were equally at home in Prof. Norton’s store and Indian ranch in the territory, and the chiefs from the neighboring tribes were not infrequent visitors at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Norton, sharing the hospitalities of Mrs. Norton’s table, and, wrapped in their blankets, spending the nights in the door-yard near the house, while Mr. and Mrs. Norton with their children slept in security, thus guarded.” After a little he began to make journeys among them, while his brother maintained the store at headquarters. Then began a series of wanderings over the plains, among the wild tribes, which was the most remarkable of Mr. Norton’s many strange experiences. Many of you have heard him refer to it. Once or twice he made it the subject of a fascinating lecture, and his friends were never tired of drawing out these reminiscences. It is a thousand pities he did not write them out so that they might have been preserved. Farther and farther he struck out into the Indian Territory, till, finally, one winter he spent alone among the Apaches, one hundred miles or more from any other white man.”

He removed to California in 1875, his family then consisting of a son and two daughters, and engaged in normal school work in San Jose. His educational labors, which seem to have extended over a good portion of the state, and work in the Congregational pulpit employed his time and taxed his energies during the remaining ten years of his life.

The style of the narrative is “too unutterably too” to suit the ordinary reader, but we gather from it that the consecration of the subject of the memoir to his evangelical and secular work made him a power for good in the communities among whom he wrought, and left his memory, as a sweet incense in the minds of his fellow laborers.

Prof. Norton’s useful labors were cut short by sickness at Gilroy, and after a week’s suffering he breathed his last. He died June 22nd last, aged 49 years. The Memorial, beside the biography above mentioned, contains a graphic account of the funeral and the addresses delivered on that occasion; extracts from his letters and pulpit discourses; and several creditable specimens of his verses. The press of California speaks in the highest terms of the character and attainments of the deceased, the following from the Alta being a fair specimen of the eulogies so unsparingly bestowed.

“The death of Professor Henry B. Norton of the Normal School removes a man of brilliant mind and high attainments. No one superior to him has yet been connected with educational work in this state. To his pupils he was known as something more than a man of original ideas and eloquent speech; he was a personal friend, and commanded the love and enthusiastic admiration of students as few teachers ever do.”

The little volume is published in the interest of this excellent man’s four children, to aid in their education, as they are left with slender means. It contains 110 handsomely printed pages, with a short portrait of the professor. The price, in paper covers, is 75 cents; bound in french morocco, $2.50. Orders for the same may be sent to Rev. C. W. Hill, care of Prof. Charles H. Allen, San Jose, California.

                                              DEATH OF PROF. NORTON.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 9, 1885.

H. B. Norton, who will be remembered by old Kansans as at one time being a Professor in the Normal school at Emporia, died a few days ago at San Jose, California, where he had lived for the past ten years, connected with the State Normal college of that state. Capital.

Prof. H. B. Norton was one of the original founders of Arkansas City, having settled there in the spring of 1869 on the raw prairie, with about a dozen other Emporians, for the purpose of locating a county seat for Cowley County and building up a city. In this work he struggled manfully, and was a power in the early history of our county. For six years the name of Prof. Norton was another name for Arkansas City and the present prosperity and importance of that town is largely due to the untiring energy and wisdom of H. B. Norton in the stages of its foundation and early growth. Prof. Norton was a man of high education and culture, a first-class educator, a noble, liberal, earnest man. It was our fortune to know him well and to be frequently, almost constantly, his opponent in the early struggles for local supremacy between our respective cities, but notwithstanding these unfavorable circumstances we learned to admire, respect, honor, and love him for his many high qualities.

                                         COWLEY’S NORMAL INSTITUTE.

                      It Opened Monday with 108 Enrolled—Flattering Prospects.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 9, 1885.

The Cowley County Normal Institute opened Monday in the High School building with a splendid outlook. One hundred and six were enrolled—almost double the first day’s enrollment of any year since the Institute’s inception. Sixty is the largest recorded for any first day up to this year. Prof. J. N. Wilkinson, of the State Normal School, is conductor, and Prof. A. Gridley, Miss Ella Kelly, and Mr. Will C. Barnes, all educators of experience and ability, are instructors. Of course, County Superintendent Limerick has general supervision. The teachers are vigorous and ambitious, exhibiting great interest in the enhancement of their vocation. The Institute is a marked contrast to that of last year, in attendance. Over half are new faces, if anything an improvement in appearance over any past Normal. Last year the Institute was held seven weeks, with one session a day. This year it will be but four weeks, with two sessions daily; morning, from 10 to 12; evening, 4 to 6. Following is Monday’s enrollment.

                                                              A. GRADE.

S. W. Norton, H. S. Wallace, H. G. Norton, J. C. Bradshaw, Oliver C. Fuller, Julia L. Caton, Chas. W. Roberts, F. E. Haughey.

                                                              B. GRADE.

Cora Beach, Mrs. Amy Chapin, Hattie Daniels, Emma S. Howland, Joe Kephart, Maggie Kinney, Mary E. Miller, Laura Phelps, John R. Smith, E. W. Stark, Jennie Brengle, Willie Coombs, Clara Davenport, Lida Howard, Anna Kuhn, Mary Manser, Carrie A. Plunket, Anna Robertson, Maggie Stansbury, Hattie Utley, Allie Wheeler.

                                                             B. 2 GRADE.

W. E. Angerman, T. J. Baker, M. A. Cronk, Lizzie Campbell, Mollie Dalgarn, W. H. Garrett, Edith Holland, Viola Krow, Emma Lycan, J. F. Rowe, John Stevenson, Minnie Turner, Hattie Brown, Iva Crane, W. F. Craddock, W. T. Clover, H. A. Ewen, E. M. Garrett, Mamie Henson, Julia King, Belle Page, Eva Reynolds, Millie Taylor, Geo. C. Whitson, Lottie Wilkinson.

                                                              C. GRADE.

Anderson, E. M.; Anderson, Nettie; Abrams, Sarepta; Bertram, Belle; Bush, Belle; Baker, Annie; Barnett, Clara; Cochran, Jennie; Doty, Willis; Frederick, C. A.; George, Estrella; Goodrich, Cora; Honold, Geo.; Hunt, Marian; Honold, Lena; Holland, W. B.; Iry, Minnie; Ireton, Jenning; Jacobus, W. V.; Johnson, Henry; Kerr, Joseph; Kyger, Edgar; Myers, Aggie; McDorman, Fannie; Merydith, Metta; Miller, Alice; Nichols, Jessie; Nichols, Belle; O’Neil, Lizzie; Plank, Nellie; Rittenhouse, Mattie; Robertson, Josie; Race, Etta; Roseberry, Carries; Rice, Ettie; Robertson, J. E.; Smith, Dora; Singleton, Joe; Stafford, M. S.; Sumpter, Flora; Stevenson, Ettie; Shephard, Julia; Taylor, Mary; Tinsley, Maud; Vanorsdol, Mattie; Victor, Mattie; Weimer, Anna; Walton, Lillie.

                                                       NORMAL SOCIAL.

                         The Pretty School Ma’ams Congregate for a Good Time.

                                           Beauty, Gallantry, and Intelligence.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 16, 1885.

The members of the Normal Institute held a social in McDougal’s Hall Thursday, for genial commingling with each other and our citizens. Depositing his heart in the safe, under a time lock, our elongated reporter hied himself to the scene, and a happy, good-looking and entertaining lot of folks he found—among the ladies. The gentlemen, as usual at every gathering, were horribly ugly, in comparison. As our reporter stood awkwardly in the corner, with no place to put his big hands and no room for his huge pedal extremities, his eyes took in several things. County Superintendent Limerick was master of ceremonies. Elder Myers, of the Christian church, gave a sparkling welcome address, responded to very happily by Prof. Wilkinson, conductor of the Institute. Mrs. O. McGuire read a pithy essay on the educational profession, and Prof. Davis gave an applicable and mirthful little talk. Then a novel scheme was carried out, that of finding from what states the teachers present had come from to Kansas. Pennsylvania had two represented in a neat little speech by Mr. Littell, who mentioned that he was delighted with Kansas, but his heart was way back east—a sad blow to the girls. West Virginia also had two, one of whom, Mr. McClellan, told of its glories and sorrows, as compared to the Garden of Eden. North Carolina stood with the preceding ones, two, with the wittiest oration of all from Bob Holland. Kentucky had three, and Elder Myers and Prof. Craddock discussed its virtues and failings. George W. Bain, who is attending the Normal, wasn’t present. Wisconsin had two to unfurl her banner, which was done very nicely by Mr. Arnett. Michigan had two, without any speechifier. Ohio had six representatives and one orator, Will C. Barnes, who thought the Sunflower state at the head of the procession. Hoosierdom came up with a boom, sixteen. The orators of the occasion were divided as to the merits of her school system. Mr. H. A. Owens thought it far inferior to that of Sunny Kansas, while Miss Fannie Stretch and Mrs. O. McGuire touched the ire of the native Kansan by going back on the Sunflower State—placing the Hoosier school system above ours. Illinois carried off the golden belt in numbers, twenty-one. Mr. S. F. Owens, H. S. Wallace, and Miss C. E. Plunket discoursed on its merits, while Mrs. Limerick was proud to have come from the state that gave us Lincoln and Grant and that had old John Brown. Iowa showed fourteen. Mr. F. E. Haughey spoke splendidly of her grand prohibition record and commended Kansas for her proud advance. The Empire State was represented by but one, Miss Celina Bliss. “Arkansaw’s” spokesman was absent. But Kansas came up smiling with thirty-three, who had first taken up the pointer within her borders. Prof. Gridley, who was one of the first graduates of the State Normal, was chosen orator. He was proud to belong to the State of baked beans, grasshoppers, and chiggers, ending with a mention of her grand record. Prof. Limerick announced three lectures during the session of the Normal: Dr. Kirkwood, “Obedience to Law as Related to the Teacher,” Prof. Jay, principal of the Wellington schools, “Our Boys,” and Prof. Cowbric, principal of the Harper schools, “The Teacher’s Place in the Nation.” During the evening the musical talent was let loose, conducted by Prof. Merriman, closing with “America.” It was a very pleasant occasion throughout. There should be more such socials during the Normal.

                                                 THE COUNTY NORMAL.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 16, 1885.

The County Normal Institute is moving along finely. Our modest reporter dropped down among those in attendance and is prepared to say that it is the best looking of any Normal Cowley has ever had. In appearance, interest, and zealous intelligence, it shows a splendid advance. Educational matters, as our county grows older, are enhancing. It isn’t everyone who can get a certificate now. Better teachers and better wages are becoming the motto of all people truly interested in education—the foundation of all that is substantial and ennobling. The attendance has now reached nearly a hundred and fifty.

                                                  OUR SCHOOL MA’AMS.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 16, 1885.

One week of the Normal Institute has passed. Words are inadequate to express the amount of good that has been accomplished. The Professors and teachers are all alive to their work. Prof. Wilkinson has evidently great faith in the logic of facts. We can only glean a few of the many valuable items with which this Normal abounds. The week’s enrollment now shows 144. There are two daily sessions—morning, 7:30 to 12; evening, 4 to 6. The morning lesson commences immediately with the exercises; afternoon, reading the scripture, singing, and prayer. The singing is conducted by Prof. Merriman, who understands his work thoroughly. A. M.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 16, 1885.

The Normal met at the Court House Friday at 2 p.m., to hear the lecture upon Kindergarten work by Miss Emily Kuhliman. The lecture was upon the primary steps in numbers, how to teach small children. The teachers received much knowledge upon this branch. Miss Kuhliman shows that she fully understands her specialty of Kindergarten work.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 16, 1885.

The Normal, this session, is the largest and most successful ever held in the county. A number of live teachers from other counties and States are in attendance, and the regular recitations give both faculty and students an opportunity to be present and participate in the exercises. The large audience room of the Christian church was well filled yesterday, with an attentive and appreciative audience. The attention and general good conduct of the students is exceedingly creditable to themselves and to the Institution. There is a great deal going on that we have not the pleasure of hearing, as we are only a visitor and do not wish to intrude; but we think if more parents would visit the schools and see the good that is being done for their children, there would be less fault finding, for the instructors are doing their duty nobly. Now, good friends, let us do ours. Let each parent turn out and see what is being done. O. M.

                                                          THE NORMAL.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 16, 1885.

The Normal numbers one hundred and seventy-five Tuesday. Still they come and more to follow.

The city is full of school marms now, with their books under their arms. It reminds us forcibly of by-gone days when we were a school marm and used the rod. The Normal is progressing exceedingly well. The conductors and instructors are doing good work. Mr. Limerick, our efficient County Superintendent, understands his business fully, and Prof. Wilkinson, the conductor, stands high as an educator.

On account of legal business at the Court House, the Normal convened at the Christian Church. A general exercise was given. Prof. Wilkinson gave a very interesting and instructive lecture on the effects of Alcohol and Narcotics, after which the members adjourned to the class rooms in the Central school building, to recite on school organization and management. The late arrivals embrace quite a large number of experienced teachers, some of whom are recent arrivals from other states, who take this opportunity to acquaint themselves with Kansas school work and school workers.

                                                  OUR SCHOOL MA’AMS.

                     A Complete List of Those in Attendance to Date—About 150.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 16, 1885.

The attendance of the County Normal Institute has reached its zenith and below we present a complete list of those in attendance.

                                                              A. GRADE.

Bradshaw, J. C.; Caton, Julia L.; Fuller, Oliver P.; Haughey, F. E.; Littell, W. B.; Norton, H. G.; Norton, S. W.; Overman, S. F.; Owen, H. A.; Roberts, Chas. W.; Wallace, H. S.; Elder, Fred S.; Bliss, Celina.

                                                              B. GRADE.

Beach, Cora; Brengle, Jennie; Chapin, Mrs. Amy; Combs, Villa; Crane, Iva; Daniels, Hattie; Davenport, Clara; Hite, Lucy F.; Howland, Emma S.; Howard, Lida; Hutchison, Libbie; Kephart, Zoe; Kinney, Maggie; Kuhn, Anna; Mark, Anna; Manser, Mary; Martin, Kate A.; McGee, Erma L.; Miller, Mary E.; Pearson, Maud M.; Phelps, Laura; Plunket, Carrie A.; Randall, Mary; Robertson, Anna; Pixley, Josie; Smith, John R.; Stansbury, Maggie; Stark, E. W.; Strong, Lida; Taylor, Lida; Utley, Hattie; Warren, J. W.; Wheeler, Allie; Wriggle, W. F.; Wing, Alfred.

                                                           B. 2ND GRADE.

Augerman, W. E.; Baker, T. J.; Brown, Hattie; Campbell, Lizzie; Clover, W. P.; Craddock, W. F.; Cronk, M. A.; Dalgarn, Mollie; Davis, Mary E.; Garrett, E. M.; Garret, W. H.; Hensen, Nannie; Holland, Edith, Ireton, Jennie; King, Julia; Krow, Viola; Lycan, Emma; Olmstead, Bertha; Page, Belle; Reynolds, Eva; Rowe, J. F.; Stevenson, John; Taylor, Millie A.; Turner, Minnie F.; Whitson, Geo. C.; Wilkins, Lottie; Bryan, Harvey; Johnston, Ella; Maddox, P. E.; Mason, J. W.; Lyle, Lillie D.; Arnett, M. R.

                                                              C. GRADE.

Abrams, Sarepta; Anderson, E. M.; Anderson, Nettie; Badley, Ellen J.; Burger, John; Bertram, Belle; Bush, Belle; Baker, Annie; Barnell, Clara; Cochran, Jennie; Doty, Willis; Frederick, C. A.; George, Estella; Goodrich, Cora; Greer, Mary; Gant, Lizzie; Gillett, S. E.; Howland, John; Honnold, Geo.; Hunt, Marian; Honnold, Lena; Holland, W. B.; Hunt, Ida; Iry, Minnie; Ireton, Jennie; Jacobus, N. V.; Johnson, Henry; Kerr, Joseph; Kyger, Edgar; Myers, Aggie; McDorman, Fannie; Maddux, J. W.; Merydith, Metta; Mabee, Rosa; Mabee, Oscar; Miller, Alice; Nichols, Jessie; Nichols, Belle; O’Neil, Lizzie; Plank, Nettie; Provine, Jno. J.; Rittenhouse, Mattie; Robertson, Josie; Race, Etta; Roseberry, Carrie; Rice, Ettie; Robertson, J. E.; Rogers, Alma; Smith, Dora; Singleton, Joe; Stafford, M. S.; Sumpter, Flora; Stevenson, Ettie; Shephard, Julia; Stewart, J. W.; Taylor, Mary; Tinsley, Maud; Vanorsdol, Mattie; Victor, Mattie; Weimer, Anna; Walton, Lillie; Young, Effie.

                                                     NORMAL LEADERS.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 23, 1885.

Prof. Wilkinson’s lecture at the Baptist church Thursday night was well attended. The theme was “Fiction,” and its effect on the mind as an educator. He spoke of the benefits to be derived from reading of different kinds, and likened books and authors to the three great schools of medicine, claiming that some authors were like the Allopathic school, as they gave large doses of unpalatable facts, while others were like the Homeopathic and gave us nothing but sugar coated fiction; then others supplied us with a diversity which he would call a wise eclecticism. After speaking of the good done by some of the solid facts as given by Bacon and others of the Old World writers, he mentioned the work done by Don Quixote in his effort to overthrow the foolish actions of chivalry and the useless shedding of blood in the settlement of feuds and gaining the esteem of some famous beauty. Dickens was a representative of the other class. He mixed facts and fiction in his war against the social and educational wrongs of his time. The Professor did not confine himself to the authors of the Old World in demonstrating this class, but paid high tribute to our own Harriet Beecher Stowe, with her “Uncle Tom’s Cabin,” and the good done by that in furnishing an incentive to Bible research in France and giving birth to the grand old party which put down the rebellion and gave freedom to American slaves. He cited the beauty of fiction as found in history, clothing the facts in a most pleasant and interesting garb. One instance of this kind was the history of the Mexican war at the time of the attack on the City of Mexico, where the author spoke of the advance, repulse, and final capture and fall, and of the beautiful twilight scenes passing before the vision of the observer, when it is a known fact that in that locality there is no twilight. On the whole the lecture was good, bringing forth the use of good language. In construction it was fine, but the Professor is not an orator and his delivery was somewhat faulty.

                                               A JOINT NORMAL PICNIC.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 23, 1885.

County Superintendent Limerick spent Friday visiting Sumner County’s Normal Institute, and arranged for a joint picnic of the Sumner and Cowley Normals at Oxford next Saturday. Oxford has a very good grove, and a grant time is anticipated. The trains run very conveniently for our folks, going over at 10 and returning at 5:30. Wellington will drive over. The Professor says Sumner has a good Normal, with 130 in attendance. Dr. Williams, of the State Normal, who conducted our Normal a few years ago, is in charge.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 23, 1885.

The Cambridge News thinks “a man who won’t fall in love with a charming school-dame is a fit subject for transportation to the cholera -infected districts of Spain,” and declares our Normal Institute capable of laying successful siege to every young masculine heart in Winfield. Correct, Brother Wilkinson. And they have done it. But the coquettish damsels only do it to go back to their more substantial gallants, the country young men, leaving the city dudes to commit suicide, or throw themselves in the path of the howling Cheyennes.

                                                    OBEDIENCE TO LAW.

                 A Grand Lecture on the Foundation Principles of Our Government.

                                        Delivered Last Night by Dr. Kirkwood

                                  Before the Normal Students and Our Citizens.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 23, 1885.

The lecture of Dr. W. R. Kirkwood, our Presbyterian pastor, before a congregation of Normal students and citizens at the Presbyterian church Tuesday night should be indelibly impressed upon every mind. It was on “Obedience to Law,” and went down to the bottom of the great principles upon which our Republic stands. Ministers speak of law, said the Doctor, meaning thereby a principle of nature, and an enunciation of a principal of moral conduct, contained in the Bible. The law is supposed to have an author, God; to have a sanction, or an evil, attached to it as a penalty for disobedience; that God, as judge, passes judgment and sees to it that the penalty is inflicted for disobedience. A great lawyer, a Christian at least in theory, lays down the principle that this law, written in nature and its features brought out distinctly in the Bible, lies at the basis of all our most advanced national statutory provisions; and, in the less advanced, that the natural principle alone is the basis of such provisions. The astronomer proclaims the existence of law governing the universe in its great combinations. The chemist proclaims the existence of law governing the universe of matter in its molecular combinations. The evolutionist proclaims law, in still higher range, bridging the chasm between the non-living and the living, between death and life, between matter and thought; and that this law, for all that he can see, is self-executing if not self-originated or eternal. At any rate, he gets back only to an eternal, immutable, immanent, persistent, everywhere present force, which he does not and cannot know. Of this class, a portion turns with scorn from the idea of a God who is the personal creator, law giver, judge, and executor of law. They mock at those who find a law of conduct in nature, which law is based on an eternal difference between right and wrong. Hence it has come to pass that, in jurisprudence, the idea of this high original source of law is excluded by many, and the whole system is based on the matter of command, without regard to the law of nature or to God. There must somewhere be an immutable standard of justice and equity. Otherwise, law may be anything that the “superior human power” may choose “to impose on the inferior human power,” and all will rest on the principle that “might makes right.” Do the people exist for the benefit of the rulers, or the rulers and government for the benefit of the people? I assume, without argument, that an American audience will accept as truth the answer which I make that rulers and governments exist for the benefit of the people. We have prescriptive laws—laws which prescribe certain duties for the people; the law requiring allegiance to the Government; the law prescribing the right and duty of the people to cast their ballots at certain times, in certain ways, for certain officers, or for the adoption of certain principles of Government; the law prescribing the right and duty of the people to pay taxes for the maintenance of the machinery of Government. Then we have a law prohibiting treason to the Government; a law prohibiting murder, another prohibiting theft in all its forms, another prohibiting arson, another prohibiting adultery and bigamy, and, in Kansas, another prohibiting the traffic in intoxicating beverages. Besides our statutory provisions for regulating affairs, we have inherited, through Great Britain, from the old Roman Government, what is known as Common Law, the principles of which prevail in our courts, when there is no statutory provision covering the case.

These laws have their origin, some in the National Government; some in the State Governments; and others in City Governments. They have their sanctions, or penalties, attached to each. And courts and executive officers are provided for the careful administration of law and justice. The injured have only to appeal to the great Caesar through the courts to have all wrongs righted, and all rights made sure. This is the theory of our Government, and, as a theory, it is immeasurably the best on earth, so far as I am able to judge. Being so good in its character, there arises the obligation to obey law, on the part of all the citizens. The people should obey the laws in letter and in spirit. They should do what the law requires them to do. They should abstain from doing what the law forbids. All the people should be thus obedient. No man is above the law. The lawmaker is bound to obey the law he helps to make, with the same docility as the private citizen. The judge upon the bench should see to it that he does not violate the law whose majesty he is exalted to the bench to uphold. The executive officer should see to it that, while he requires others to obey the law, he obeys it himself. More still, by statute the duties of the various officers are settled, fixed; and these officers are solemnly sworn to perform their duties faithfully; so that a double obligation rests upon officials to keep—to obey—the laws—all laws—in both letter and spirit. But this sworn obligation to perform the duties of his office binds the executive officer to arrest the violator of law. A common plea for neglect is that the officer is not bound to arrest until complaint is made. But now suppose a police officer sees a party of cracksmen, at midnight, working on the door or window of a store or dwelling; must he wait until complaint is made by the owner after the store is broken and the goods gone? Does he not feel bound to make the arrest at once? And if so in the case of one law, so also in the case of all laws. But suppose the law is not popular with a minority, large or small; shall, then, that law be also enforced by the officers of the law? Well, why not? Is it not in the statute book? Is it not there through the agency of the law-making power? And if so, is not the official sworn to execute it, whether he wear the policeman’s star or club, or the judge’s ermine? By the law creating his office and prescribing its duties, and by the oath he takes when he enters upon the duties of that office, each official is bound to render obedience to the law which is his master, and so obeying law to arrest and punish those who disobey, according to the letter and spirit of the law they violate. It makes no difference that the official, or some of his friends, do not like the law. It is the voice of government. It is the command of power, of authority, to the officer and to the people alike; and that officer is false to his government, false to law, false to public interest, false to himself, and false to God, who shrinks the execution of the law, because he, or his friends, do not like it.

This brings me to notice that the people who merely observe the law themselves, but who wink at violation of it by others, do not fully obey the law. The principle of obedience requires that he who sees another violating the law, shall furnish evidence to the authorities that the violation may be stopped, the disobedience punished. This principle is recognized in the case of murder, of arson, of theft. But it is not recognized in the case of certain other offenses against law. Why? Because the witness or some of his friends, or a minority of the people, dislike the law. But neither he, nor his friends, nor the minority made the law. It was legitimately made. It is on the statute book. It is the command of authority. And as a witness of a murder or a burglary is bound to report to the authorities such violations, so is he bound to report any other violations of law. Failing to do so, he makes himself a hedge to screen criminals, and so becomes a partaker of their crime.

These same principles obtain in the case of beneficent societies, of schools, colleges, and families. The laws in all these demand enforcement and obedience just as truly as in political affairs. I say political affairs, for, properly speaking, politics is the science and practice of government—the State. Of the advantages arising from obedience to the laws, I may not now speak. Besides, they are plain to everybody who will take the trouble to do even a little thinking. If all would obey the laws, the enjoyment of life, property, and character in security would be assured, and the sum total of human happiness would be greatly increased. I pass to note the evils of disobedience to law. Disobedience to law cannot be practiced without working injury, not merely to one individual, but to all the body politic. The man who commits a murder does not injure only the murdered man. Were that all, great as the injury is, it would not be of such vast import to the state. The injury is beyond the murdered man, against his family, wife, children, brothers, sisters, parents. The whole family suffers an irreparable injury. The community is injured by taking away often a valuable member. The state is injured in the same way. Besides the injury in this point of view, i. e., loss, there is another and probably a graver injury to the community and the state. When a man lifts his hand and murders his fellow, he strikes a direct blow against the law, and thereby against the state, at its very life, and thereby at the security of every life in the community and in the state. In their different lines, the same is true of many other grave crimes—confessedly true, on the part of all. But here comes another class of offenses against law, viz.: those in which a large portion of the people dislike the law. When such a law is on the statute book, it is very apt, under our government, to be an element in our election platforms and campaigns for office. In consequence, it is apt to worry the official soul very much as the devil worried Saul, or that poor fellow among the tombs. The minority who dislike the law are prone to violate it. That minority is apt to be divided between the two G. O. P.’s. It may hold the balance of power. The officials may dread to enforce the law by punishing offenders, lest they be left out in the cold at the next election. Or it may be that one party favors the law and the other opposes it, not from any particular merits or demerits in the law itself, or the principle underlying it, but because of the advantages which it seems to offer on either side, as an instrument to favor the election of the one set of candidates and the defeat of the other. Or again, both parties may heartily wish such law with its underlying principle were buried out of sight forever because it threatens evil to both. Such a case was presented in the old slavery days. Such a case is presented now, in the case of the drink traffic. We have it prohibited in Kansas. But with many it is unpopular. Many openly ridicule it, pronounce it a failure, give their influence to make it a failure. They violate it themselves, and encourage others to violate it. Bearing in mind that seven-tenths of the other crimes committed rise out of this traffic; bearing in mind that, under the license system, it has grown to gigantic proportions; and bearing in mind that three of the most powerful governments of the world are today seeking for means to destroy or mitigate its evils, to check its growing power, to destroy the political bribery and corruption to which it has so largely ministered—evils which the license theory and practice have failed to prevent or arrest—bearing all this in mind, you will see that this is not a problem to be sneered at, nor is any law which aims at a mitigation of the evils arising from such traffic to be lightly tramped under foot.

But it is on the statute book. It can work no real evil to anyone to enforce it. It is on the book, the command of power, of lawful authority. Whatever any man may think of the Kansas legislature, the law is there with the authority of the State behind it. He who smites the law smites the State a blow in the face, as truly as if he committed a murder. He who encourages another to despise and trample on this law, teaches him to despise and trample on the majesty of the State, just as truly as if the encouragement were given to commit murder. The man who wantonly violates one law, has and cherishes the spirit which will lead him, under changed circumstances, to violate another law—any other law. The case of attempted murder at Springvale, in Maine, is an illustration. The officer who fails to perform his sworn duty according to the letter of the law in such case and for such reasons is guilty of breach of his oath, and shames the State of which he is an official. He is a traitor to the State, who sells out her dignity and honor for “thirty pieces of silver.” But if one law may be condemned, despised, so may another be. If one is trampled on, so will another be. If office and money can be procured in one line, it can in another. And it comes to pass that disorder, crime, insecurity of life and property, corruption and bribery, take the places of order, obedience, safety, purity, and integrity. Government is perverted, polluted, evil runs riot, revolutions and overthrows follow, and anarchy comes after them, until out of the ruins rises an autocrat at the head of an army and makes the land his spoil. It was so with Rome. It was so with France. Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon, and wore the imperial purple. Napoleon grasped the sword, and by its means won to himself the crown, the scepter, and the throne of empire. The same principle of disobedience to law in beneficent societies, in schools, in churches, and in families works the same ruin.

You who are gathered here tonight are specially interested in the matter of schools, and school government. You hold a high and honorable position as teachers. Your calling is one of the noblest. The country owes to you and your co-laborers a debt it can never pay. But what is your work? Is it merely to teach pupils so much arithmetic, grammar, geography, and other common school or high school branches? That, to my mind, is the smallest part of your work. Behind all these studies lies the principle of persistent application, behind them lies the principle of self-control, and behind them lies the art of thinking. And behind all these lies the principle of obedience to law—and your work is to develop the pupils under your care along all these lines. That you may do so you are clothed with authority. In your work obedience is a prime necessity. You cannot do the best work unless you can enforce obedience. Enforced obedience, whether it be by one means or another, trains the pupil to self-control. By the combination of these two, you secure application, more and more complete until it becomes a fixed habit. And through the practical application of these principles, the pupil grows into the habit of study, and step by step, acquires the art of thinking, not merely for a minute or two, nor on a pleasant subject, but consecutively, earnestly, patiently, until he masters the difficulty. And so through all this varied and intricate process you train these pupils to be strong, to become conquerors—conquerors of self, and then conquerors of the difficulties which lie in their way. So trained, these pupils become fit for citizenship. They learn under your government that law is to be reverenced and obeyed. They learn that only so can order be maintained, individual rights guarded, prosperity promoted, and success, in the better sense of the word, attained. Largely on the shoulders of you, teachers, rests the character of the next generation of American citizens. You who faithfully and diligently do your work, are doing a work which will help in great measure to make that generation wise, thoughtful, earnest, noble men and women, worthy to be citizens of the great Republic, and to hand it down to posterity a nobler legacy than it was when they received it at our hands.

The lecture consumed over an hour, and was listened to with marked attention. We have given above little more than a gist of it.

                                                     PICNIC AT OXFORD.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 23, 1885.

The Sumner County Normal and the Cowley County Normal will meet Saturday at Oxford and have a big picnic. All teachers, school officers, and everyone are cordially invited to come and have a big time.

                                                THE NORMAL LECTURE.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 30, 1885.

Prof. Jay, of Wellington, delivered a lecture Friday to the Normal at McDougal’s Hall. The subject was “Our Boys.” It was in a humorous vein and full of good hits. The speaker referred to the different kinds of small boys, and their various propensities. It was plainly to be seen that the Professor knew the nature of a small boy thoroughly. The teachers’ attitude toward the small boys was shown; their proper course to pursue, and the true teacher’s kingdom, how, no matter what the surroundings were, the true teacher can bring light out of darkness. After the lecture a good time was enjoyed in a social.

                                    KEEPING CHILDREN AFTER SCHOOL.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 30, 1885.

I have been requested to put this question before the Institute: Is it right to keep children after school hours? The father and mother of a child wish to see him at home as soon as he is dismissed from the school. He is safer they think when they see him there and they know he does not loiter. But apart from this consideration there is a reason for an early dismissal found in the teacher’s own comfort. It is unjust to compel him to stay an hour in the school room after he is already weary and tired with his labor, fretful and impatient, perhaps, when the care of his pupil is, for the time, relinquished. The pupil who remains is also tired and uncomfortable. He has probably done as well as he could, considering his feelings, which are more subject to change than older peoples’. It is unjust, he thinks, to compel him to stay, and, indeed, were the teacher to act according to his better feelings, as he experienced them when he entered school in the morning, fresh and ready for labor, he might not be so severe in requiring atonement for indolence in the pupil. But both tired, both ready to relinquish labor, little after all is accomplished in the time by one in study and by the other in compelling study.

What shall be done? There is a very practical way of disposing of the matter. Observing tutors soon see that length of study is not a proportionate benefit. Let the time for the pupils remaining there be made as short as possible. For a light punishment, as for a little disorder in the behavior of a pupil, tell him to remain two minutes before departing for home. One minute will always do, if he is required to watch the clock himself and depart “on time.” For the purpose of study give him just time enough to thoroughly finish what he has left undone. A good teacher will not assign the finishing of work which requires long tasks of a pupil after school. If the time necessary be over five or ten minutes studying then let him go, if he will agree to study faithfully before he returns, a certain time, or until he finishes a certain amount of work, which the teacher in his judgment assigns him. The pupil has a right to play after work. He has a right to be busy constantly in laboring hours. He should be taught every day to finish up the work of that day, and should be made to lose and feel the loss of it, too, the result of any delay in performing his task. I have only to add that the experiment has been tried and the consequence has been that staying after school was an event of comparatively rare occurrence, and then not an unpleasant undertaking to either teacher or pupil.

                                                   MRS. OLIVER McGUIRE.

                                                   THE NORMAL PICNIC.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 30, 1885.

The joint picnic of the Cowley and Sumner County Normal Institutes, at Oxford, Saturday, was very enjoyable, affording an excellent vacation and opportunity for social acquaintance. There were 160 from Winfield, and 70 from Wellington. The artificial grove, though possibly a treat to a section unaccustomed to a charm like our Riverside Park, didn’t catch as expected, and the dinner and program were carried out in the large and airy schoolhouse. Speeches were made by Profs. Williams and Wilkinson, conductors of the Sumner and Cowley Normals, Rev. Reider, County Superintendents Limerick and Radcliff, and others, while our Institute choir, led by Prof. Merriman, furnished music. Our Institute and that of Sumner vied with each other in beauty, intelligence, and numbers, and that our walked off with the bakery all visitors conceded. And we can prove it by every young lady of our Normal.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, July 30, 1885.

Cowley’s third quarterly teacher’s examination commences next Monday. The Normal Institute closes Friday.

                                     NORMAL INSTITUTE RESOLUTIONS.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, August 6, 1885.

WHEREAS, We, the members of the Cowley County Normal Institute, being about to separate for the work of the year after a pleasant session whose good results it is impossible to estimate, and whose influence must be felt in every school district in Cowley County, do realize our indebtedness to the people of Winfield for their aid and sympathy, and to the County Superintendent, the conductor and his assistant instructors, for their unremitting labors in our behalf, and

WHEREAS, We recognize and appreciate the high value of the mental training afforded us during the past weeks, the ideal of teachers, and teaching that has been kept before us, and are grateful for the acquaintance and leadership of persons possessing that best product of modern education—a well rounded christian character, therefore be it

Resolved, That we extend to Superintendent Limerick our hearty thanks for his patient and untiring efforts to promote our welfare, secure our comfort, and disseminate a spirit of good will among us.

Resolved, That we hereby tender Prof. Wilkinson, his assistants, Profs. Gridley, Barnes, and Miss Kelly, our heartfelt thanks for the noble work they have wrought among us. We are grateful for the stimulus to higher attainments which their presence and influence has afforded us. May Heaven’s blessing attend them through life’s school, whether in the shadow of the valley of examination or on the delectable mountains of a Normal social.

Resolved, That our sincere thanks are due the Winfield churches for the use of their buildings; especially do we appreciate the kindness of the elders of the Christian church in throwing open to us the church for our afternoon sessions.

Resolved, That to Prof. Merriman for the kindness in directing the singing; to Dr. States for his work before the physiology class; to Profs. Jay and Wilkinson and Dr. Kirkwood for their interesting and valuable lectures delivered before the Normal, and to the people of Winfield for the interest manifested, the thanks of the Institute are unanimously expressed.

Resolved, That we, the teachers of Cowley County, do go from this Institute fully determined to make this year’s work the best of our lives, and to this end we ask the aid and support of every friend and patron of the common school, and,

Resolved, That these resolutions be published in the Winfield papers.

By order of the committee. H. G. Norton, chairman. A. J. McClelland, secretary.

                                                SCHOOL MA’AM SOCIAL.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, August 6, 1885.

The pretty school ma’ams held another of their lively socials in the McDougal hall Thursday. They were out in full force, with many of our citizens, arrayed in their brightest smiles and jolliest spirits. Besides the excellent music, led by Prof. Merriman, some appropriate toasts were given. “Our State Educational Institutions—Their Place and Power,” was responded to by Prof. Wilkinson in a very neat speech. The Professor has taken part in Kansas educational matters for some time, and is thoroughly conversant with them and their great civilizing power, as his talk on this occasion evidenced. The pithy toast, “Our State Normal School—Its Attractions, Its Usefulness, and Its Successful Graduates,” was thrown at Prof. Gridley. It was one nearest the Professor’s heart, and he did it full justice. He is one of the first graduates of the State Normal School, has attended nearly all of its alumni meetings, and his speech was very happy and profitable. Alfred Wing, of Arkansas City, responded to “Our Common Schools, the Headlight of the Nation”—a subject as truthful, deep, and broad as the nation itself. Mr. Craddock, of Tannehill, did justice to “The Recruits of our Educational Army.” These applicable toasts gave spice and instruction to the occasion and were happily received.