From: Mary Ann Wortman
1400 North 3rd Street
Arkansas City, KS 67005
April 13, 1997

To: Dr. William W. Bottorff
P. O. Box 161522
Austin, TX 78716

Dear Dr. Bottorff:

Started out early this morning trying to find information relative to prominent citizens getting caught hunting in Indian Territory. I suspect that the Winfield businessmen caught by the soldiers made the trip during the period I have not reached as yet....finished all of 1884 Courier and Traveler and Republican in the 1886s just before they merged.

When I got to the 1885 Republican...Wow! All sorts of things happened and I was told that I had a virus...lost it and lost all my notes collected thus far for you. Finally retrieved it. Kay put into effect the Norton antivirus program after he found out his equipment was affected by a virus...Unfortunately he had never corrected file Repub.8. That man was always using disks sent to him. Warned him about it constantly, but he was stubborn!

Am starting with items taken from various papers in 1884, 1885, and 1886. Hope this will give you some idea how there were many illegal hunters who went to Indian Territory. They were constantly in trouble for stealing wood, game, etc. Only when Uncle Samuel began to listen to some of the Indians and warned the public did matters get better. Items contain more stories re Indians than hunters, but I thought you might find them interesting.

Some of the dates may be a little goofy.

Winfield Courier, January 24, 1884.

Sad, If True.

A sad and touching story comes to us from Kaw Agency. A guileless red son of the forest whose early education in the intricate sciences seems to have been somewhat neglected, found a nytro-glycerine cartridge, and of course thought it was something to eat. One of the peculiarities of the noble Indian is that when he finds a thing and does not know what to do with it, he invariably classifies it with his alphabetical list of foods, and entombs it in his always hungry midst. This Indian made a fair average lunch from the tenderest end of the cartridge, smacked his lips in satisfaction, and returned to his tepee and retired to rest. During the night his wife yelled to him to Alie over,@ and at the same time dug her elbow into his abdomen with wifely vigor. He obeyed. He laid over a considerable portion of the adjacent real estate, while here and there portions of his once proud frame could be seen dangling from the limbs of trees in the soft moonlight. His wife hasn=t been heard of since. The story is a sad one, and should teach the untutored red children to always investigate before they bite into a substance with which they are not personally acquainted.

Winfield Courier, February 28, 1884.

Mr. M. A. Smalley, of Carey, Ohio, an old friend and school teacher of James McLain, was in the city Tuesday. Mr. Smalley passed through Winfield fourteen years ago on a buffalo hunt, when only one or two houses were here. The only thing he now recognized was the old ford near the Tunnel mill, which he remembered as the place where one of the hunting party of 1870 was drowned. Buffalo were not far from this point in those days.

Arkansas City Republican, February 16, 1884.



The Lawless Indian.

A recent decision of the supreme court of the United States has been accorded short paragraphs in obscure corners with little thought of its bearing on the welfare of a quarter of a million of people. Two years ago last August the well-known Sioux chief, Spotted Tail, held a council and feast with his people on their reservation in Dakota, and at its close in the afternoon mounted his horse and started home. Coming from the opposite direction, in a wagon, were Crow Dog and his wife. The former got out of his wagon, stooping toward the ground, and as the chief rode along, suddenly rose up and shot him through the breast. Spotted Tail fell from his horse, regained his feet, tried to draw his pistol, reeled and fell back dead. Crow Dog jumped into his wagon and rode at full speed to his camp, nine miles distant. Intense excitement prevailed among the Indians, but no outbreak occurred. It appeared that an old feud had existed between the two men, but that the immediate cause of the assassination was political, Spotted Tail having been put out of the way to make room for an aspirant to his position as head chief. The facts being known, an Indian policeman was instructed to capture Crow Dog. This being done next day, the assassin was turned over to the civil authorities of Dakota, and 20,000 Sioux awaited the results of the Awhite man=s way.@ Upon trial in the district court of the judicial district of Dakota, Crow Dog was found guilty and condemned to death. On appeal the case came before the Supreme Court, the counsel for the prisoner claiming that the district court of Dakota had no jurisdiction in the case, and therefor its finding and sentence were void, and, praying for the issuance of a writ of habeas corpus.

The law makers of a nation which boasts of the supremacy of law over the land have allowed to remain on their statute book until the year of our Lord 1884, the following:

Section 2145. The general laws of the United States as to punishment of crimes committed in any place within the sole and exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, except the district of Columbia, shall except the Indian country.

Section 2146. The preceding section, shall not be construed to extend to crimes committed by one Indian against the person or property of another Indian, or to any Indian committing an offense in the Indian country who has been punished by the local laws of the tribe.

This means that over a territory aggregating 225,000 square miles, and among 250,000 people, United States laws shall be inoperative. Fighting, stealing, gambling, polygamy, murder, and every crime which savage passion may breed, shall go on unchecked save by such restraints as the barbarians themselves may devise, while a Christian government calmly looks on and lets them alone. With such a statute before him, Justice Mathews decided that the Indians have a right to try and punish the criminal after their own laws and customs, without interference from the United States, and that the district court of Dakota had no jurisdiction, and Crow Dog=s imprisonment was illegal. He is, therefore, to be remanded to the Alaws and customs@ of retaliation and revenge, injury and reprisal, and his countrymen will be confirmed in their opinion that the white man=s ways are good only for the white man.

Better than comment is another instance of the practical working of this legal Areservation@ for Indians, to which the Commissioner of Indian affairs refers in his annual report just published.

A year ago last September, an Arapaho half-breed, named Robert Poisal, returning from a trip in the Indian Territory, in which he had just placed his children, was shot dead by Johnson Foster, a Creek Indian, no motive but plunder being assignable. The murderer was arrested by mounted police of the Seminole nation; and to prevent Athe carrying out of tribunal laws and customs,@ in the way of summary vengeance, he was turned over for safekeeping to the military authorities at Fort Reno. On request of the Interior Department, the attorney general ordered the trial of the prisoner before the United States court at Fort Smith, Arkansas, but on further consideration and correspondence, he decided that there was too much doubt as to jurisiction of the United States in the matter to justify incurring the expense of removing the prisoner and trying the case.

The war department wearied of the custody of Foster and asked to be relieved; the Interior department urged that a dismissal [?] should be made, and reluctantly the attorney general consented. Meantime since it had appeared that complaints of horse stealing and other offenses were pending against Foster in the United States court at Fort Smith, the United States deputy marshal, with a strong guard of troops, undertook to remove him from Fort Reno thither. Within the first fifteen miles, a party of Arapahoes nearly succeeded in capturing him, and before half the journey was completed, Foster had murdered the Marshal=s assistant and made his escape. He is now at large. Now that he has murdered a white man, the majesty of the law can be manifested provided he is recaptured.

How much longer will congress turn a deaf ear to the entreaties of government officials, teachers, missionaries, and other philanthropists, religious societies, and institutions, even the Aguards@ themselves, that Indians be made amenable to law? Apparently hopeless of adequate legislation in his day, Commissioner Price suggests a partial remedy for the evil, which, like Captain Seller=s window sash Awill keep out the coarsest of cold.@ He recommends that, when new states are admitted into the union, their constitutions shall extend over Indian reservations the jurisdiction of territorial courts. This is a wise suggestion, which should be borne in mind by legislators who can spend days on revision of rules, but cannot give an hour to the erasure of one blot from our statutes. The following indignant protest, made by Bishop Hare in 1866, has added weight and force each year.

ACivilization has loosened in some places, broken the bonds which regulate and hold together Indian society in its wild state, and has failed to give the people laws and officers of justice in their place. This evil still continues unabated. Women are brutally beaten and outraged; men are murdered in cold blood; the Indians who are friendly to schools and churches are intimidated and preyed upon by the evil disposed; children are molested on their way to school, and schools are dispersed by bands of vagabonds; but there is no redress. This accursed condition of things is an outrage upon the One Lawgiver. It is a disgrace to our land. It should make every man who sits in the national halls of legislators blush. And wish well to the Indians as we may, and do for them what we will, the efforts of civil agents, teachers, and missionaries are like the struggles of drowning men weighed with lead, as long as, by the absence of law, Indian society is left without a base. Independent.@

Arkansas City Republican, March 1, 1884.

A False Alarm.

Last Friday evening, a flying messenger rode hastily into Silverdale and with bated breath, related the story that his companions had been killed by the Indians. The men within the military age, quickly collected, and armed themselves with knives, swords, halberds, tomahawks, muskets, scythes, and pitchforks. A company of twelve was hastily formed of as brave men as ever carried a deadly weapon. P. F. Haynes was chosen captain, and O. S. Gibson high corporal. Mounting their gallant steeds, the flying cavalcade started for the territory and vengeance. Arriving at the scene of the massacre, they found the murdered boy as serene as a summer=s morning. It seems that the two boy herders had had a slight quarrel with an Indian, who threatened to kill them if they intruded upon his sacred domain. Boy-like they intruded, and seeing another Indian, one of the boys started to run. The other boy called to him not to flee, but the harder he called the faster the other boy ran. It was a woeful disappointment. The citizen soldiers had expected some fun. They had ground their knives to a razor=s edge, rammed their guns and cannon to the muzzle, with grape and canister, and had supposed they would take many scalps. Slowy and sadly the boys faced about; high private Gibson sounded the recall; Captain Haynes gave the order, and like the boys who charged upon the mullen stalks, returned without the loss of a single man. As soon as Gov. Glick was informed of the ubiquity of the company=s movements, he telegraphed that he would be pleased to attach the whole command to his staff.

Arkansas City Republican, March 29, 1884.

[AT FIRST NEXT ITEM DID NOT MAKE MUCH SENSE...UNTIL THE WORD AOIL@ BEGAN TO sure it refers to the ASinclair Oil People@...Roberts, if I recall rightly, was a son-in-law of the big cheese in company.]

A wood hauler would like to know by what right or authority the oil company or any company can cut timber on an Indian reservation and convert it to their own use in any way, and then forbid the honest granter from hauling off the dead tops for fire wood? THE REPUBLICAN has this to say: One man=s right in the territory is as good as another=s, unless he is an officer of the law, a citizen of the Nation, or licensed by the government, as trader, mail carrier, etc. The Department Arecognizes@ the lease to cattle men for grazing purposes, but there is no law for it.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 9, 1884.

On last Wednesday night some parties at present unknown cut about two miles of wire fence belonging to Windsor & Roberts, in the Indian Territory, at the same time sawing off many of the posts. Not satisfied with this work of destruction, the parties set fire to a car load of barbed wire belonging to the above gentlemen, and destroyed the entire lot--over 20,000 pounds. The wire was in the state on Pettit=s place, we believe, and was purely the work of deviltry. If the perpetrators can be found, they should be most summarily dealt with for such an outrage. The penitentiary is too good for men who thus wantonly destroy private property. Whatever grievance, fancied or real, they may have against a man or corporation, it furnishes no excuse for burning up the property of such corporation.

[Windsor/Roberts...Sinclair Oil people...had AO I L@ brand on their cattle.]




[Note how Winfield Courier generally knocked the Indians. Traveler/Republican were very careful not to do so.]

Winfield Courier, May 29, 1884.


Mr. Plumb has introduced a bill forfeiting unearned lands granted the Atlantic & Pacific railroad to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the States of Missouri and Arkansas to the Pacific coast, and restore the same to settlement.

Secretary Teller=s plan of educating the Indian through the agency of his stomach, rather than by the high grade text book, appears to strike the popular mind as being a very sensible proposition. The Indian is more easily reached through his mouth than through his brain. The mouth is usually the larger of the two.

Winfield Courier, June 12, 1884.


El Dorado contained 3,030 population on the first day of March, and is growing rapidly.

It is reported from Washington that the Kansas City, Fort Scott & Gulf railroad is to be granted the right-of-way through the Indian Territory.

From March 1st up to last Saturday, there had been slaughtered and packed in Chicago 380,000 hogs, against 372,000 for the corresponding period a year ago.

A party of horse thieves and whiskey peddlers were overtaken in the Indian Territory a few days ago by several officers, and in the attempt to arrest them, Geo. Briggs, one of the thieves, was instantly killed, and another one mortally, and the third slightly wounded. Two officers were also slightly wounded.

John M. Simpson, a prominent cattleman of Texas, who has just made an extensive tour of the cattle region and some Northern markets, says the outlook for beeves is very fine. He reports that some advanced herds from Texas have already arrived at Dodge City, Kansas, and says this season=s drive from Texas will be larger than for ten years, and will probably reach half a million head.

Winfield Courier, June 26, 1884.

Mr. and Mrs. W. B. Dickie, of the Central Hotel, accompanied by her brother-in-law and sister, Mr. and Mrs. F. H. Smith, of Shelby, Ohio, who are visiting them, spent several days of last week in the wilds of the Indian Territory, returning Sunday.

[Paper sometimes added that such parties went down to hunt. In this case, with ladies going along, I doubt it.]

[About this time the ABoomers@ were really getting bad...did you know that Arkansas City at one time was headquarters for their newspaper, the Oklahoma War Chief?]

Winfield Courier, July 3, 1884.


The associate dispatches of last week announced that General Hatch had made a report covering the entire situation in the Territory. Monday night the paper was informed that General Hatch received his orders touching the settlers. The general went through this city yesterday morning. From U. S. Deputy Marshal Williams, who accompanied the General down to Caldwell, and who, in company with United States Commissioner Shearman, returned last evening, we learn the following facts. Mr. Williams says that Gen. Hatch said that his orders were positive and mandatory. He will proceed with such force as he may deem necessary to remove every man now within the Territory who is without a permit to remain, after which no one will be permitted to cross the line except such as are armed with a proper passport. Camps are to be established at Caldwell, Hunnewell, Arkansas City, and Coffeyville, and a full company of soldiers stationed at each. The general further said in case there was any armed or other forcible resistance, it would not be well for those concerned, as such an attitude would be attended with the gravest results, even though not a single shot was fired upon either side. So far as Marshal Williams could learn, it is the intention of the department to absolutely prohibit any further attempt to settle the Territory until congress shall have taken some definite action, either sanctioning the settlement or prohibiting it all together. General Hatch was asked what would be done with reference to the Texas border. He replied that there was no danger from that quarter; the settlers down there lacked the enterprise or were wanting in that spirit of adventure which characterized the boomers.

If there is any mistake in the facts as set forth above, then Mr. Williams failed to understand the import of the general=s conversation, for it is just as given to us.

Wichita Eagle, 2nd ult.

Winfield Courier, July 3, 1884.

The civilized tribes of the Indian Territory are exceedingly hostile to the allotment of lands in severalty among the savages, on the ground that it would demoralize the tribal organizations. Bushyhead, the principal chief of the Cherokees, has filed at Washington a protest against the bill. The Pawnees have leased 128,000 acres to cattle-raisers for five years at three cents per acre.

Winfield Courier, July 3, 1884.


There is great consternation at Chetopa, this state, among those having ranches in the

Indian Territory. The sheriff of the Cherokee Nation, with a squad of Indians, has been taking down all the wire fencing that enclosed larger tracts than fifty acres, that being the limit allowed by the act of the Cherokee council. The sheriff confiscates all the wire he takes down. The sheriff began work south of Coffeyville, and is taking it down as he goes east. Thousands of miles of fencing have been removed. The Indians seem to mean business, and evidently mean to eject all intruders.

Winfield Courier, July 10, 1884.


The secretary of the interior, last week, received a telegram from the cattle men at Dodge City, Kansas, complaining that the Cherokee Stock Association, who have leased a strip of land in the Indian Territory, traveled by the established cattle trails between Texas and Kansas, have closed the trail with wire fences and offered armed resistance to the progress of cattle droves. The secretary instructed Inspector Benedict to go at once to the region of disturbance and take active measures to open and keep open all established trails found closed.

Winfield Courier, July 10, 1884.

Under date of June 27, General Hatch issued the following general order: It has become the duty of the troops of this district under the authority of the general commanding the department of the mission to enforce the proclamation of the president issued Feb. 12, 1880. This proclamation requires the removal of all unauthorized persons who have intruded upon the Indian Territory and the prevention of such intrusions by others. The commanding officers of troops in the field in this district are charged with the above duty. Capt. Henry Carroll, 9th cavalry, now in camp on the Cimarron River is assigned the territory south of the boundary line of the old Cherokee strip and between the 96 and 98 meridians. Capt. Frank P. Bennett, 9th cavalry, whose camp will be on Thompson Creek, is assigned the territory included between the Kansas state line and the southern boundary of the Cherokee strip and west of the 96 meridian. All unauthorized persons will be removed at once. Persons resisting removal will be arrested and turned over with as little delay as possible to the United States commissioner at Caldwell, Kansas, or to the United States Marshal. In the performance of this duty, commanding officers of troops in the field will be guided by the provisions of sections 2150 and 2151. Revised statutes of the United States. [Boomer file]

Winfield Courier, July 10, 1884.

The cattle men, who are driving their herds up from Texas to Kansas and Nebraska, complain loudly of the treatment received at the hands of bands of Kiowa and Comanche Indians in the Territory. They are constantly demanding pay of the drivers, and there is no putting them off, so the blackmailing operation has to be submitted to. The cattle men think the government should warn the Indians off the trail and punish them for their depredations.

Arkansas City Traveler, July 10, 1884.

We understand that the businessmen of that cowboy=s paradise, Caldwell, have petitioned Commissioner Price to reverse his decision that all freights for the Indian Territory should come to Arkansas City in the future instead of to Caldwell. In this petition the voracious gentlemen of the town of prostitutes and whiskey set forth that the roads to Arkansas City are in a bad condition and all fenced up; that Caldwell offers superior advantages for that class of trade; and that the Indians and Indian agents were especially desirous that this change should not be made. This would all be true if it were not for the fact that it is purely a malicious lie, prompted by jealousy. The roads to Arkansas City are as good as any from the Territory, and are not fenced up. Arkansas City is by far a better business point than Caldwell or any other town near the Territory. There are some branches of business peculiar to Caldwell, it is true, to which Arkansas City is a stranger. We have no saloons running at full blast day and night; we have no gambling halls; nor does Arkansas City boast of a class of women reveling in a life of shame. We do not turn the Sabbath day into a horse racing and Bacchanalian sport; our citizens do not get drunk and murder their wives; our city officers do not become so familiar with crime, and so imbued with a devilish spirit, that they needs must turn bank robbers and assassins. Ours is a respectable, law-abiding, intelligent, and enterprising community, with an influence for good. What is Caldwell? It is a town where the liquor interests have always been supreme; where saloons, gambling houses, and houses of ill-fame are recognized as legitimate industries, and from which the city obtains its principal revenue. We hardly think the petition from Caldwell will carry much weight with Commissioner Price. It is pretty safe to say the freight will come to Arkansas City.

Winfield Courier, July 24, 1884.

The Arkansas City Democrat gives an account of another of those horrible tragedies which are so often transpiring in the Territory: AMr. J. R. Rightwood just came in from the Oklahoma country and informs us that on last Thursday morning two men who have been camped for a week or more on the west side of the Cimarron River were discovered about eight o=clock on the morning of the above date murdered and fearfully mutilated, and their camp plundered of everything that could be carried away. One of the unfortunate victims was found one hundred yards from camp with about twenty-five bullet holes through his body, and his head chopped off and placed on a stump a few feet away. The other was found in one of the wagon boxes and evidently made a desperate struggle for life, as the box was riddled with holes, and his double barrel shot gun lay shattered to pieces by his side. He evidently received his death wound at short range, as his face was powder burnt beyond recognition, and a large gaping wound showed that the gun had been placed near his head when fired. From indications it is supposed to have been Indians, as moccasin and pony tracks were thick, and from the trail the party made as they went west, down the river, it is judged that they numbered upwards of fifty. From papers found on the bodies of the murdered men, it was found that their names were John L. Lawrence, of Oskaloosa, Jefferson County, this State, and Thomas E. Mayberry, of Boonsborro, Arkansas.

[Note: The Democrat newspaper, to my knowledge, is not on microfilm...same with the Telegram from Winfield. Lucky that Traveler and other papers picked up on stories.]

Winfield Courier, August 7, 1884.

The Indians make some curious combinations in learning the English language. For instance, a corn cob is Awood-corn,@ ground coffee is Ameal coffee,@ an alarm clock a Abuzz clock,@ lamp, Alittle fire,@ all the same as sun. Sun is a very short word in our language, but in the language of the Nez Perces, it is AWin-na-ten-a-tu-a-hah.@ A wagon seat is, wagon chair; a rubber coat, Aa rain coat.@ The North star, Acold star.@ AYoweds,@ is cold. AYekess,@ is warm. AWere-ent@ is rain. AHow-hat-guts@ is wind. So we might say:

AWinnatenatuahah is yekess today.@


Winfield Courier, August 7, 1884.

Dispute About Cattle.

Gilbert, Newman, and Hallowell contracted 1,000 head of cattle of Mackay, of Texas, to be delivered on their range on the Kaw Indian Reserve. The rivers were high all summer on the way up and the Arkansas River has been bank full for two months. Mackay got here and waited two weeks to cross the cattle and finally drove them over the bridge and through the state. In the settlement he claimed $900 for extra mileage and expenses. Hallowell refused to pay it and Mackay fired at him with a Winchester rifle. Hallowell returned the fire and 20 shots were exchanged before Mackay rode off. Mackay has been arrested. Driving the Texas cattle through the state has caused considerable alarm for fear of domestic cattle taking the Texas fever.

[Question: Is this our Newman? Also...article had Hollowell and Hallowell; further, article had Mackey and Mackay...??? Further, source of article not given!]

Winfield Courier, August 14, 1884.

Ousting the Oklahoma Boomers.

On Aug. 8th, Gen. Hatch, in company with Adjutant Finley and Inspector Green of the Interior department, visited Payne=s camp at Rock Falls, and after reading the president=s proclamation to him and his assembled followers, directed them to leave the Territory before the morning or they would be ejected. This took place in a small board shanty occupied by the Oklahoma War Chief newspaper. Payne at first attempted to discuss the legal aspects of the case, but soon became angry and very abusive in his language. A large crowd assembled from the tents and shanties along the river and the officers again admonished them to leave and not return. The only reply was a torrent of abusive epithets that cannot be published. The officers then returned to camp ten miles distant. Early the next morning two squadrons of the Ninth United States cavalry commanded by Capt. Moore appeared in the boomers= camp and under the direction of an Indian Agent, Rogers, arrested the whole community and took charge of the printing office. All the women, children, and men who were first offenders were escorted to the Kansas line together with their personal property.


Named as follows: D. L. Payne, J. B. Cooper, D. G. Greathouse, T. W. Ecklebarger, Jno. McGrew, and D. L. Mosely, were loaded onto a six mule team and started under escort of Lieutenant Jackson and fifteen men for Fort Smith, Arkansas, 300 miles distant. The printing office and other buildings, including two boarding houses, a drug store, cigar store, and restaurant, and some cheap dwellings were then


And the last vestige of Rock Falls had disappeared.

Payne threatened to cut the throat of the first man who attempted to arrest him, but one colored soldier marched him and raved about the camp for an hour. Payne has lost whatever prestige he may have had heretofore with the thinking class of the community. He has been on a drunken debauch for a week and was too drunk to attend a conference of the squatters after Gen. Hatch left Rock Falls. The squatters realize that they have paid him many thousands of dollars without any equivalent. The number ejected from the camp was about two hundred and fifty.

A large crowd of citizens were present from Hunnewell as spectators, and heartily approved the method adopted to rid the Territory of the intruders. It is believed this will cure the boomers of trying to force a settlement on Indian lands. Other detachments have been sent to the remaining settlements, who will in like manner arrest the ring leaders and take them to Fort Smith, Arkansas.

[Source for above article not given.]

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 6, 1884.

Oklahoma Orders.

It is anticipated that there will be very lively times in Indian Territory in a few days. For some weeks past Capt. Payne, who has led a number of invasions towards Oklahoma, has been mustering his forces in Kansas. When his party numbered about 3,000 men, a good part of whom desired to become actual settlers in the Territory, he moved south into the Cherokee Strip, from Kansas. The Cherokee Indian Agent complained to the Indian department, and orders were sent by the war department to Gen. Augur, commanding the department of the Missouri, to prepare to head them off, and to remove them. Gen. Hatch was then sent to watch the movements and stop a move on Oklahoma with a part of the Ninth cavalry from Forts Sills and Supply, in addition to the four troops now in the temporary district of Oklahoma. The balance of the command were also held in reserve. Since that time final orders have been desired and some definite instructions as to when the military should remove them from the Territory. While these were being waited for, Payne=s band has been greatly increased, and he is taking steps for an advance. The order of the interior department directing that a land agent accompany the military, which was issued on Thursday, has settled matters, and the work of removal will commence at once. It is not thought Gen. Augur will wait for the land agent to arrive, but will proceed in the matter or is even doing so now. The plan that will probably be used will be the posting of proclamations in the parts of the Territory invaded, directing the invaders to be out of its limits by a certain day, and if they are not out at that time, they will be removed by force. Payne=s party talks of resistance, and a small internal war is likely to follow. Payne=s former offenses have been so little regarded by the interior departgment heretofore, that his men think that the department is inclined to believe that Payne is in the right. Inter-Ocean, 25th.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 6, 1884.


The Colonists at Rockwell Falls to be Removed by Troops.

TOPEKA, KANSAS, August 1. It is believed that the body of Oklahoma settlers will be removed by the United States troops on Monday. Gen. Hatch, of the United States army, and A. R. Greene, of the interior department, are now at Caldwell, Kansas, in consultation concerning the orders from Washington. Gen. Hatch has 900 soldiers in his command. The first move will be made on the town of Rock Falls, a few miles south of Hunnewell, Kansas. Rock Falls is a sort of general headquarters for the settlers, and contains the office of the Oklahoma War Chief newspaper. The town and newspaper will be moved outside the Indian Territory. The officers say that the orders given them shall be strictly obeyed, and that in expelling the settlers, the utmost kindness will be used consistent with the circumstances. The estimates concerning the number of people to be removed varied greatly, some putting it as low as 400. The true number will probably be about 1,500 boomers and about twenty stock ranch outfits. Some of the latter are pretty extensive. The highest estimate heard came from military sources, and raises 3,000 in all. The last issue of the War Chief is full of defiance. Force will be required to remove these people, but the position taken by the leaders of the boomers in their organ would indicate they desire this to be exercised. It is said that some 18,000, including servant girls in hotels and the easily influenced everywhere, have paid their $2.50 fee for claims, and another $2.00 fee as members of the colony. Of course, the men who have received these moneys want something more than constructive force for their own justification, but at the same time no violent opposition to the military is anticipated.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 13, 1884.

Bounced Boomers.

On Wednesday morning, August 6, Gen. Hatch, in company with Adjutant General Finley and Inspector Green, of the Interior department, visited Payne=s camp at Rock Falls, and after reading the president=s proclamation to him and his assembled followers, directed them to leave the Territory before the next morning, or they would be ejected. This took place in a small board shanty occupied by the Oklahoma Chief newspaper, the forms of which were being made up at the time.

Payne attempted to discuss the legal aspects of the case, but soon became angry and very abusive in his language, calling all the officers of the government, from the highest to the lowest, a pack of damned thieves. Cooper, the editor, chimed in with vituperation and threats. Failing to provoke the officers into a quarrel, Payne said he had a valise full of money and would give one thousand dollars to be tried by a United States court, and, in order to assure the officers of a case against him, he would, then and there, sell them liquor or cigars without license or permit. He urged the officers to dine with him and offered them plenty of liquor if they would do so. By this time a large crowd had assembled from the tents and shanties along the river, and the officers again admonished them to leave and not return. The only reply was a torrent of abusive epithets that cannot be published. The officers then returned to camp ten miles distant.

Early the next morning two squadrons of the Ninth United States cavalry, commanded by Capt. Moore, appeared in the boomers= camp, and under direction of Indian Agent Rogers, arrested the whole community, and took charge of the printing office. All the women, children, and men who were first offenders, were escorted to the Kansas line, together with their personal property. Six old offenders, named as follows, D. L. Payne, J. B. Cooper, D. G. Greathouse, T. W. Eclebarger, John McGrew, and S. L. Mosley, were loaded into a six-mule team and started under escort of Lieut. Jackson and fifteen men, for Fort Smith, Arkansas, three hundred miles distant. The paper was ready to go to press, and upon inquiry a number of printers were found in command who soon printed an edition of one hundred copies. The press was then carefully packed and loaded into a wagon, and started under an escort for Muskogee, Indian Territory, it being confiscated property and, under the law, unreplevinable. The printing office and other buildings, including the boarding houses, a drug store, cigar store and restaurant, and some cheap dwellings, were then burned to the ground, and the last vestige of Rock Falls had disappeared.

Payne threatened to cut the throat of the first man who attempted to arrest him; but one colored soldier marched him about the camp for an hour. Payne has lost whatever prestige he may have had heretofore with the thinking class of the community. He has been on a drunken debauch for a week, and was too drunk last night to attend a conference of the squatters after Gen. Hatch left Rock Falls. The poor deluded squatters realize that they have paid him many thousands of dollars without any equivalent.

The number ejected from this camp was about two hundred and fifty people. A large crowd of citizens were present from Hunnewell as spectators, and heartily approved the course adopted to rid the Territory of the intruders. It is believed this will cure the boomers of trying to force a settlement on the Indian lands. Other detachments have been sent to the remaining settlements, who will in like manner arrest the ringleaders and take them to Fort Smith.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 20, 1884.

Speaking of Payne=s ejectment from the Indian Territory, the Caldwell Journal says that among the personal effects captured was the colony membership book, dating from 1881 to 1884, and further says: AThe face of the receipts in those books shows that Payne has received $54,435 from the sale of membership certificates, aside from the sales of stock in the town he has started in Oklahoma proper and on the Cherokee Strip, which from the best information obtainable, is fully as much more, and must aggregate over $108,000.@

[Above item is the only one I have found that gives a clue to Payne=s motive in getting gullible people to go to Indian Territory.]

Arkansas City Traveler, August 20, 1884.


W. B. Williams, deputy United States marshal, of Wichita, was in the city last Wednesday, and from him we learn the following facts.

Armed with a warrant for the arrest of D. W. Payne and other trespassers against the government, Mr. Williams came to this city, and securing the services of Frank Reed, they started for Otoe Agency. On Wednesday morning Mr. Williams met Lieut. Garner and force with the prisoners in charge, and showing his authority, asked that the lieutenant deliver the men over to him, and provide him with an escort of thirty men to the state line. Mr. Williams says that Lieutenant Garner not only refused this request, but in a very insulting manner told him he would not entertain it al all; that he drew his troops up in line and threatened fight if the demand was insisted upon. In view of the fact that Messrs. Williams and Reed were alone, this was very brave on the part of Garner with two or three companies of soldiers at his back. It is probably true, as we are informed, that Lieut. Garner had a little more whiskey than anything else in him, or he would have been more courteous to Marshal Williams.

Regarding Payne and his work, it is known that we have opposed him, only because he was acting contrary to law. But in this matter it looks to us as though Mr. Williams had the right on his side, if, as he claims, his authority ranks higher than that of the military. The lieutenant may not have known this, or it may be that he did, but was acting on the advice of interested parties, knowing that he had sufficient force to hold his prisoners.

The government is losing by its attitude in this matter. Mr. Payne has been arrested repeatedly, but nothing has ever been done with him. Now if he is violating the law, he ought to be put in the penitentiary. If he is not in the wrong, let him and others go in and occupy what lands are open to settlement. We do not advocate this in the interest of Payne, who has duped thousands, but in the interest of right and justice to all parties. We would like to see the Indian country kept for the Indians according to treaties, allowing the right of way to one or two railroads, so that Kansas may have direct communication with southern markets; but if there are government lands there which the government does not want settled by whites, let it pass a law to that effect and forever settle this question. Otherwise, we do not see how people are to be kept out of this country much longer.

We predict that Mr. Payne will suffer no more punishment at Fort Smith than if he had been delivered over to Marshal Williams.

Arkansas City Republican, August 9, 1884.

T. J. Gilbert & Co., contracted 1,000 head of cattle from Mackey, of Texas, to be delivered on the Kaw Indian Reserve. High waters impeded the delivery of the cattle, and when settlement was reached, Mackey claimed $900 for extra expense, which Mr. Hollowell refused to pay. Shots, commenced by Mackey, were exchanged; and Seth Hollowell, a relative of Mr. Hollowell, was wounded in the leg. Two of the fellows were arrested and their trial set for August 15.


Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, September 6, 1884.

Mr. Pappan, an Indian from Pawnee Agency, called THE REPUBLICAN up from the Diamond Front Wednesday. It was Mr. Pappan=s first experience with the telephone, and he was very much astonished as well as pleased. He talked in his native language over the wire, and it sounded very much to us as if he was saying Ago home@ through his nose. Mr. Pappan came down to see us afterwards and we found him to be a gentleman. He was dressed the same as a white man and spoke very good English.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, September 6, 1884.

Last Monday morning the outgoing stage team to the Indian Agencies, furnished amusement to early risers. After the stage was loaded with passengers and merchandise, Kroenert & Austin cried Aall=s ready@ in one breath; but they forgot to consult the horses on this occasion, for they refused to go. The horses had balked. Amid cries of ADon=t want to go to Pawnee,@ Ait makes my feet sore to ride,@ and other epithets from bystanders, the managers of the stage line, the driver, and several kind hearted citizens labored unceasingly to conquer the stubborn equine. But, alas, it was labor lost. Some suggested unhitching and leading down the street, which was done, and then Frank Austin with his broad shoulders against the rear end of the stage and numerous other hands at the wheels pushed the team up the street as far as the Cowley County Bank, where they took a sudden notion to Ago@ and to go while all hands were pushing. We leave our readers to imagine how the Apushers@ came out.

Arkansas City Republican, September 13, 1884.


Recollections of General Harney, the Indian Fighter.

Every school boy has heard of W. S. Harney, the great Indian fighter. The old hero still lives, at the age of eighty-four, and, with the exception of a somewhat impaired vision, and a slightly defective memory, enjoys excellent health. He is now on a little pleasure tour from his home in St. Louis, and, with his adopted daughter, Mrs. St. Cyr, is quartered at the Ebbitt House. During his journey, he has been the recipient of many flattering attentions from hosts of friends and admirers.

A reporter of the Post has a long and pleasant chat with the General, who when he rose, towered considerabley above his visitor, his height being six feet and three inches, and his figure still erect and soldierly. He injured his leg a few weeks ago and is a little lame, but treats the matter lightly. He spoke with modesty about his exploits, and several times allowed Mrs. St. Cyr to relate incidents of his long and adventurous career.

AI was in command in Missouri when the rebellion broke out, said the General during the conversation, Aand had I not been relieved by President Lincoln in May 1861, I am sure there would have been no bloodshed in that State. But I never blamed Mr. Lincoln, for he and I were old friends. So much political pressure was brought to bear upon him by Frank P. Blair and others that I suppose he had to relieve me; and yet,@ continued the General smiling, AMr. Lincoln never saw me without reminding me that I once saved his life.@

AHow was that, General?}

AWell,@ said the General laughing, AMr. Lincoln was captain of a company of volunteers, and I was captain of a company of regulars during the Blackhawk war. I remember well how Captain Lincoln used to come to our rendezvous, General Taylor=s headquartes, and tell stories that amused us immensely. He used to lie on the grass and very frequently would say, AThat reminds me,@ and begin a funny story. One day Lincoln said to me, AI say, Harney, let=s pick out four or five good shots from our commands and go gunning for Indians on our own hook.@ AAll right, Lincoln,@ said I, Abut do you know anything about Indian fighting?@


________ good shot.@

AThat will do to start on,@ said I, Abut let me tell you one thing, never look for a redskin in front of you; look out for your flanks.@

AWell, we started out and soon came on signs of redskins. All of a sudden, while I was watching the flanks, I saw an Indian drawing a bead on Lincoln. As quick as I could possibly do so, I leveled my rifle and fired. I didn=t hit him, at least he didn=t fall, and he ran away. Ever after that Captain Lincoln insisted that I had saved his life.@

AHow many wars have you served in, General?@

ADon=t know,@ laughed the General, AI don=t care to talk about my own services.@

ALet me see,@ said Mrs. St. Cyr, Athe General was in the Seminole war in Florida, in the war with the Sioux, in which he fought a bloody battle at Ash Hollow, on the blue water; in the Mexican war, and in the late civil war. The General, you know, was the hero of the Seminole war, and hung thirteen of the hostile chiefs, which ended it. Billy Bowlegs used to say, >if Harney catch me, me hang; if me catch him, he die.=@

AIt was the General who captured the hill at Cerro Gordo, but he never boasts of his own achievements,@ said Mrs. St. Cyr.

Subsequently General Harney spoke kindly of the Indians, and told how he came near hanging an Indian agent for swindling them.

AThey all know me,@ said he, adding with laudable pride, Aand if today there was an outbreak among the Sioux, I could go to them alone and stop it, for they would listen to me. There is no trouble getting along with the Indians if they are treated kindly. It=s a shame that they should be swindled as they frequently are.@

Arkansas City Traveler, September 17, 1884.

Chilocco schools were crowded with visitors and sight-seers last week, keeping Billy Delesdernier busy answering all number of questions propounded by curious strangers. Billy is the most patient man in the world, but after cheerfully assuring his inquisitors that they were in the Indian Territory, that the British government didn=t support these Indians, and that a burly buck carelessly sauntering around in Father Hubbard costume was perfectly harmless, he was almost floored by an old lady who wanted to know how far it was to grass! Verily, it takes all kinds of people to make up a world.

Arkansas City Traveler, October 8, 1884.

Some Kiowa Indians killed a valuable steer, owned by Burt Worthley, last Wednesday morning, when returning from this city. The herder, Col. Berry, was, fortunately for the Indians, out of ammunition, or the theft would not have been committed, unless at the sacrifice of one or more Indians. There is a great deal of complaint among stockmen against the depredations committed by Indians freighting between this city and the various agencies in the southwestern part of the territory. Especially is this so among sheep herders, who lose from two to half a dozen sheep every few days, caused by Indians setting their dogs upon a flock and capturing two or three in spite of the herders. Such practices will result in trouble soon. Some stockmen will civilize an Indian so suddenly that he will not be conscious of his change from barbarism to the land of his dreams.

Arkansas City Republican, November 8, 1884.

Messrs. J. J. Jones and Will Smith, of the Washington Civil Service, were in the city this week visiting with their old friend, Mr. N. A. Haight. They were in the government survey of the Indian Territory with Mr. Haight for five years. This was an extremely AWild West@ in those days, some eleven years ago, and the wonderful changes were astonishing to them. Having cast their last vote in 1873 before going to D. C., at what was then their residence, Arkansas City, they put in their votes while here for the straight ticket. The law makes the residence of civil service employees in non-suffrage Washington only temporary. Winfield Courier.

Arkansas City Republican, November 22, 1884.

Jim Alke-Dah, the Otoe chief, up for stealing, was acquitted Wednesday on being taking before Judge Bonsall. Luckily for Jim there is no jurisdiction over a full-blooded Indian. He can do as he pleases on his native soil and Uncle Sam cannot visit the penalty upon the Indian that he does upon the white man.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 26, 1884.

It is reported that the Cheyenne Indians have refused to receive the lease money from Geo. E. Reynolds of Colorado. Mr. Reynolds leased a strip off the east side of their reservation, for which he was to pay them $14,500 annually. The Indians now claim that he has fenced more than he agreed and will not accept the money. No settlement has as yet been effected.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, December 10, 1884.

By all means, let the leasing of lands to cattle men in the Indian Territory be thoroughly investigated, and if it shall appear that such transactions are illegal or fraudulent, then let the scope of the inquiry be so enlarged as to give the two Missouri senators a chance to explain how they came to advise the approval by the government of an operation of that kind involving 1,500,000 acres on the ground that the Indians could never use so much land, and that by leasing it at two cents an acre, they would receive a full equivalent for its occupation by the cattle men.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, December 10, 1884.


The following letter received by one of our citizens gives in a nutshell, so far as persons desiring to locate thereon are concerned, the true status of the Okklahoma lands.


T. G. MITTS--My Dear Sir: I am in receipt of your favor of the ____ inst.

As matters now stand no person can settle on the Oklahoma lands in the Indian Territory.

These lands cannot be opened to settlement except by act of congress, and until that action is had it would not be prudent to attempt to locate upon these lands. Some action may be taken this winter; but in all probability, nothing will be done until next session. The secretary of the interior has no authority to grant permission to settlers to locate on or occupy the Oklahoma lands.

Very truly yours, JOHN A. LOGAN.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, December 10, 1884.


Missouri=s junior member, the Hon. G. G. Vest, has suddenly rolled into prominence as an enemy to the cattle men of the United States. To be absolutely just with the mossback senator, however, we will state that his speech in the senate referring to the leases now existing between cattle men and Indians seemed more especially directed against Secretary Teller and heads of departments. Mr. Vest charges collusion between the cattle syndicates and officials in the interior department, and calls for a strict and immediate investigation. Just what has stirred up the senator from Missouri to such a stage of indignation is hard to tell, especially as the alleged abuses are of long standing and have been fully known by Senator Vest; but certain it is that more or less trouble will result therefrom.

The practice of leasing large tracts of grazing lands in the Territory to white men has been in vogue about ten years. At that time there were about 100,000 head of cattle in the Indian Territory, from which the Indians received little or no benefit as compared with the tribute now paid to them by the immense herds grazing on unoccupied lands. The lands on which these cattle are held belong to the Indians, who have preferred to lease them to cattle men, even at the small price paid, rather than attempt to cultivate them. Indeed, it is very doubtful if by cultivation the Indians could have realized anything from the vast tracts of grazing land, while the cattle industry, backed by the white man=s energy and thrift, has been a source of profit which is peculiarly gratifying to the Indian in that it involves a very small percent of labor on his part. In that part of the Territory which Mr. Vest has specially in view, comprising about 3,500,000 acres, the various tribes realize about $77,000 annually from the leases, which is vastly more than could be obtained if they depended on cultivating it taking into consideration their aversions to work and the small percent of arable land.

The province of the government, then, lies in its right to discriminate between the various propositions submitted to the Indians, and to approve only such leases as guarantee the greatest benefit to the Indian--always looking carefully to he responsibility of the lessee. This is no small matter, for with the great opportunity for money making offered by the cattle industry, it is quite natural that unreliable men should seek to take advantage of the Indians, and it is often a difficult question to decide.

We do not believe Secretary Teller and the heads of departments have sought to wrong the Indians in this matter. The authorities are guided by the best advice they can obtain, and if there has been any flagrant violation of contract, it is probably the result of placing too much confidence in the representations of United States senators and congressmen, to whom all aspirants for government favors appeal. In Senator Vest=s own state, the largest cattle holder is Col. R. D. Hunter, of St. Louis, whose lease was obtained through the efforts of Senators Cockerell and Vest. These honorable senators urgently requested that Col. Hunter=s lease be approved, which was done upon their representations; and now we find the junior senator bitterly attacking the very lease he advocated a few years ago. All the leases are similarly drawn up, and if there is anything wrong in them, Mr. Vest knew it at the time, which would bring the charge of collusion very close to his own door. All the leases in existence were made under a law passed by the very senators who are now attacking it, and we have no doubt the interior department is doing the best that can be done so long as the law remains as it now is. We cannot tell the result of Senator Vest=s latest move, unless it be instrumental in securing him a position in the great reformer=s cabinet. Stranger things have happened.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 10, 1884.

The Indians are getting restless and somewhat stirred up over the immense amount of deer the whites are killing this year. We fear some disturbance soon, if it continues.

Winfield Courier, November 20, 1884.

According to the report of Commissioner Price, for 1884, the Indians have made considerable progress towards civilization, and it is claimed that in the near future they will be a help rather than a burden to the Government. The Commissioner suggests that Congress should pass stringent laws prohibiting the sale of arms and ammunition to Indians. We have always thought that it would be wise to refuse ammunition to an Indian, unless he could satisfy a government agent that he had recently killed one bad Indian and wanted to kill another.

Winfield Courier, December 11, 1884.

The Sac and Fox Indians have leased two hundred thousand acres of grazing land to Kansas parties for ten years, at $40,000 per annum, the wire fencing to revert to the Indians at the expiration of the lease.

[See Traveler, December 31, 1884, after reading the following.]

Winfield Courier, December 25, 1884.

Another Territory Tragedy. The Wellington Press chronicles another of those revolting and dastardly deeds which are so often committed in the Indian Territory.

AIt seems that a party of boys were out hunting, and on arriving at a point near the Canadian River, and about 130 miles below Caldwell, they came across the bodies of three men, wrapped up in blankets, and all bound together with buckskin thongs. They had the appearance of hunters, and were only a short distance from a Cheyenne camp. It is believed that these men were hunting, were captured by the Indians, bound firmly with thongs, wrapped up in blankets, and all bound together with buckskin thongs. They had the appearance of hunters, and were only a short distance from a Cheyenne camp. It is believed that these men were hunting, were captured by the Indians, bound firmly with thongs, wrapped up in a blanket, placed out upon the open ground and there allowed to die of starvation and exposure, the appearance of their bodies giving evidence that their death had been caused in this manner. The boys who found them were terribly frightened, and hastened to the nearest white settlement, where they told their story, and word was sent here to Sheriff Henderson, who left for Caldwell Thursday. He will notify the government officials, and will doubtless be governed by their orders as to the disposition of the bodies. The clothes worn by these unfortunate men were such as to proclaim them well-to-do gentlemen, and no doubt were connected with an eastern party of hunters.@

Arkansas City Republican, December 6, 1884.

A jolly party of eight Suckers from Braidwood, Illinois, consisting of Hon. P. M. Sollady, the mayor; W. J. Stewart, chief of police; F. E. Munn, city attorney; U. Goldfinger; L. Wolfe; E. D. Phillips; D. Husband; and Thos. Fleming arrived here Thursday and put up at the Windsor. They were en route for Dodge City, but hearing of Arkansas City, threw their tickets away and came here. These genuine Suckers supposed that Kansas was made up of green Jayhawkers. They visited the Oklahoma boomers in the territory, camped on Chilocco Creek Thursday, and by a great deal of begging procured permission to share the boomers= hospitality for the evening. The fine clothes of the Suckers created a temptation among the boomers to have them soiled. At the still hour of midnight, when all were sound asleep, several of the frontiersmen dressed in the guise of the noble redman and came down on the tent in which our Illinois friends were staying with a swoosh. Their yells were enough for the Suckers. The campfire showed they were surrounded by Indians. With cries of AOh, Lord! Lord! I wish I was home and was not here,@ each Sucker skipped to the state line, instead of going to the point intended they were to go into the territory. Splash! They went across the Chilocco, legs and arms puffing only as Suckers do. They flew on. After running some more they ran into the camp of Uncle Sam=s soldiers. Thinking it was more Indians, they turned to fly in another direction, but the quick ear of the sentinel had heard them. In a deep guttural voice, he commanded a halt. It scared them more. The voice, the dark complexion of the negro, and the Suckers= imagination made Indians of the soldiers. As the sentinel=s voice smote their ears down, they went on their knees and with clasped hands began to beseech of AMister Indian@ that he not hurt them. The sentinel seemed to understand the situation. He called assistants and to continue the joke, they bound and gagged them. With yells the negroes began to dance around the frightened party. At this point of the programme, they all swooned away. When daylight came, to their great chagrin, they found they were in the camp of the U. S. Army. Now they are trying to smooth the matter over so their friends at home will not find it out. They were all day yesterday walking back to Arkansas City.

P.S. The tail end of this item is a Agoak.@ These worthy gentlemen are still here prospecting and may locate with us. At least we hope they do.

Arkansas City Republican, December 6, 1884.

Navigation of the Upper Arkansas River.

The question of utilizing that vast, though ever-changing current of water known as the Upper Arkansas River, flowing through our state from northwest to southeast, and making it the highway to a southern market, has been a living project with the enterprising agricultural people of Cowley, Sumner, Sedgwick, and those counties lying along and contiguous thereto, ever since the first settlement of that fertile valley in 1870. Owing to their remote distance from a railroad or a market, and the consequent cost of transporting the vast surplus of wheat raised in Cowley and Sumner, has this matter been of vital interest to the people living within their borders. The subject has been discussed in the field and in the grange, has been the slogan of the country poltician and the shiboleth of the farmers. It has been resolved upon by the conscientious, petitioned for by representatives, and memorialized by our state legislature until congress has taken the matter under consideration, and appointed a commission of competent engineers to personally visit, examine, and report on the feasibility of opening up the stream for navigation, from some point near the terminus of the Wichita branch of the Santa Fe railroad to Little Rock, Arkansas.

In view of these facts, a brief account of the local and individual efforts to solve the problem will doubtless be of interest. During the fall of 1875, A. W. Burkey and A. C. Winton, of Cowley County, built a small flat-boat at Arkansas City, loaded it with flour, and started town the river, bound for Little Rock. While they may not have seen the Aunexplored wilderness@ that lay between DeSota and the dream of [CANNOT READ NEXT WORD...THINK IT IS A MAN=S NAME], or the dangers that beset Coronado in his march of disappointment through undiscovered Kansas, to encounter yet four hundred and fifty miles of an unknown river, guarded by semi-barbarous people who had no particular good feeling towards a frontiersman, laying between them and civilization, presented anything but a cheerful outlook for this pioneer voyage. The trip was made, however, without misadventure, and in a reasonable length of time. The produce disposed of, the navigators returned overland to Arkansas City, and reported a fair depth of water and a lively current from the state line to Fort Gibson.

On the strength of this report, a joint stock company was immediately organized, and an agent appointed to proceed at once to the Ohio river and purchase a suitable steamer to ply between the points named. A light draught wharf packet was procured, and a point known as Webber= Falls, between Little Rock and Fort Gibson reached on her upward trip. Here it was found that her engines were of insufficient power to stem the current, so she was taken back to Little Rock, and there sold at a loss to her owners of twenty-five hundred dollars.

This failure temporarily dampened the ardor of even the enthusiastic pathfinders, and nothing further was attempted until the summer of 1878, when Messrs. W. H. Speer and Amos Walton, two leading public spirited citizens of the county, equipped a Aferry flat@ with a 10 horsepower threshing machine engine, and by several trips up and down the river for a distance of 60 miles from Arkansas City, demonstrated beyond a doubt that a steamer could be successfully propelled on the Arkansas River at any season of the year. The flat was fifty feet long, sixteen feet wide, and drew ten inches of water. This novel little craft visited Grouse Creek, the Walnut River, Salt City, the Kaw Indian Agency, Oxford, and other points along the river, and attracted crowds of people wherever it went. At Oxford a public reception was tendered its officers and crew. These experimental trips were all made while the river was at its lowest stage, and prior to the annual AJune rise.@

Soon after this, and while the Aferry flat@ was still prominently before the public, Mr. I. H. Bonsall, an experienced engineer and prominent citizen of Arkansas City, corresponded with the businessmen of Little Rock, and induced them to send a boat on a trial trip to the upper country. The little steamer, AAunt Sally,@ a tug built for the deep, sluggish bayous of Arkansas, and used in the local cotton trade there, was selected and manned for the purpose. Though not designed for swift water, this crude little steamer made the complete voyage, and, in command of Captains Lewis and Baker, with Mr. [NAME OBSCURED] as pilot, landed safely at Arkansas City, and was moored there, in the Walnut River, Sunday morning, June 30th, 1878. The officers reported sufficient water and a safe current for light draught steamers for the entire distance, and expressed themselves of the opinion that a boat built especially for the purpose could run regularly between the two states every day in the year.

Soon after the AAunt Sally@ returned south, Henry and Albert Pruden, and O. J. Palmer, of Salt City, Sumner County, started for Little Rock with a Aferry flat@ loaded with seven hundred bushels of wheat. The wheat was sold at a good round figure, and the gentlemen returned, reporting a successful trip and a good stage of water.

On their return, the businessmen of Arkansas City, finding that steamboat owners in the lower country were not disposed to adventure up so far with their boats, resolved to build a steamer themselves, and with it make regular trips between their city and the Indian agencies in the Territory. After several attempts to find men of experience to take the matter in charge, McCloskey Seymore secured the service of Mr. Cyrus Wilson, who began the building of a boat for the purposes named.

Wednesday afternoon, November 6, 1878, the ACherokee,@ the first steamboat ever built in Kansas, was successfully launched at Arkansas City. The hull of this boat is 83 feet long, 18 feet wide on the bottom, and 85 feet long, and 18 feet wide on the boiler deck; beam, 22 feet, with guards extending 2 feet around a model bow. She carries two twenty horsepower engines, and with all her machinery draws less than eight inches of water, and, when loaded to the guards, will not draw over sixteen inches. The shallowest water found on the bars between Wichita and Little Rock during the lowest stage of the river was eighteen inches. From this it will be seen that the ACherokee@ will answer the purposes for which it was built, and be of great service in transporting the supplies from these counties to the Indian agencies lying south and east of Arkansas City.

With the Arkansas River open for navigation, and a good line of boats and barges making regular trips from Arkansas City, business of all kinds will receive a fresh impetus in Southern Kansas. There will be no railroad monopolies, no Apooling of earnings,@ annd no forming of combinations to affect the interest of the producers. The farmers of this locality will then have a highway of their own by which they can exchange their surplus wheat, flour, and corn for the coal and lumber of the Lower Arkansas.


We furnish this bit of navigation reminiscence to our readers to show what has been done to make the Arkansas navigable. It is taken from the biennial report of the state board

[Note: I have a tremendous number of stories about navigation on Arkansas River, in particular, from rafts to steamboats.]

Arkansas City Republican, December 6, 1884.

Prohibition in Fact.

The young city of Ashland out west had a little excitement last week. Just above the town two miles a saloon was running. A couple of hard characters got drunk there, came down to Ashland each day and rode furiously through the streets firing their revolvers. Finally the citizens got together to lay them out at the next foray. The roughs heard of this, so sneaked down and laid outside of town until two young men who were boarding at a dugout nearby came down to supper, when they crawled out and killed them. They then went up to the saloon for a fresh supply of whiskey. Soon a deputy sheriff came along and captured one of them, the other getting away. The captured murderer was taken to Ashland, and placed under strong guard while pursuit was made for the other one. During the night a party of armed men took him away from the officers and hung him, then went up to hang the saloon keeper, but he had fled. A resolution was passed by the body of vigilanters that the first man who set up a saloon in Bear Creek Valley should be hung without further warning. In that country, where every man carries a big six-shooter, whiskey is the bane of civilization. Sober, they are pleasant social gentlemen, but drunk they shoot and tear up the earth. The settlers along those valleys are mostly from Cowley and Sumner Counties, have gone there lawfully to make themselves homes, and they do not propose to be disturbed in the pursuits of peace by the illegal presence of a death-dealing whiskey shop. One of the young men killed was the cousin of Treasurer Nipp. They had both recently married in Kentucky; and leaving their wives behind, had come west to build up homes, when they would have brought them on. It was a cold-blooded whiskey murder. A reward of eight-hundred dollars has been offered for the body of the escaped murderer, dead or alive, by the town company and citizens of Ashland. The people in the town have armed themselves with Winchesters and shot-guns and the next man who rides into the place and shows blood-thirsty symptoms will die very quickly. Winfield Courier.

Arkansas City Republican, December 20, 1884.

A Hunt Down on the Cimarron.

The following bit of hunting experience was written by one of the hunting party composed of Drs. Love, Mitchell, Hart, Rev. J. O. Campbell, and others.

AOn the 23rd of November last a something on four wheels, which on close inspection proved to be a wagon, hid by its miscellaneous load of tents, blankets, and other necessaries for a hunting jaunt drew up in front ot the Hotel de Windsor to receive its last but most precious cargo, viz: The Patriarch, the celebrated Indian fighter from Ohio, and the French cook (brought out from New Orleans especially for the occasion), who were to proceed the distinguished nimrods and prospectors of the expedition, composed of His Reverence, a great medicine man, a Love of a baker, and Fritz, our boy, who were to follow the next day, which would allow ample time for the Indian terror to clear the country of any objectionable bands of red men before the rear guard should join them at Salt Fork.

AThe commissary department, after about eight hours hard driving over soft roads, pitched its tent on Duck Creek (called a creek by courtesy, for there was very little of that fluid that constitutes creeks) for the night. After a hasty meal rapidly prepared by the culinary artist. all hands turned in to dream of the numerous quantities of game to be slain by their party.

ANovember 24, 5:30 a.m. All hands up, each one very stiff but smiling as pleasantly as a basket of chips and almost upsetting each other in their ludicrous endeavors to appear agile and refreshed by their first night=s slumber in a tent on very damp ground. (Please drop the final letter in damp, and you will have my opinion of that same ground born that first and fully grown and developed by the last night=s experiment of that trip.) Horse hitched and fed, off we go, towards Salt Fork, which point we expected to and did reach by afternoon, where we were soon joined by the nimrods. My countrymen, what a noble sight was presented to us as the chariot drawn by two elegant chargers rushed into view--about ten minutes after a terrific discharge of fire-arms.

AAnd would=st thou have me paint the scene then listen.@

AFritz (first cousin of Oliver Twist) with eyes fixed on the provision wagon handled the ribbons seated next to our Love of a pastry cook, who looked as if he could rise on any occasion to show how well bread he was. The back seat was occupied by our learned medico and His Reverence, who presented a beautiful study in red, black, and blue. (Caused by an ambitious attempt to introduce his novel method of shooting a gun heavily charged, held a foot from the shoulder.) Result, one chicken, one black eye, one skinned nose, and a wish I had stayed at home look upon his countenance.

AAfter a short consultation, each member was assigned to duty. The Patriarch as chaperone, the Doctor as guardian of the bodily welfare of the horses, the Terror as tent pitcher and chief of the fire department, assisted by His Reverence, whose additional work wood necessitate his chopping for the fire.

AOne day and a half on the road and only one dozen quails and four chicken, rather a poor showing but still enough to enjoy a royal repast prepared by our culinary artists and embellished by one baker. After supper we gathered around the camp-fire and told Sunday school stories until 8 p.m., when we passed off for slumber in the following order, which was kept up (or rather down) during the remainder of the trip. The Terror and the cook (the lion and the lamb shall etc.); the Doctor and His Reverence (birds of a feather, etc.). The Patriarch and the pastry cook (whom we shall in the future call Biscuits for short) and Fritz were soon wrapped in blankets and the arms of morpheus.

ANovember 25, 1 a.m.

>What time is it,= from the cook.

>1 o=clock, go to sleep,= from the Terror, and the cook subsided until 5 a.m., when all hands turned out very sore but hopeful and soon camp was broken up and a fresh start made for the river. Half-way over, we stuck on a sand-bar. After some consultation, during which the wheels of the wagon were sinking rapidly into the sand, we concluded to have the least valuable articles, composed of the ammunition, tents, horse-feed, dogs, and cook on the bar to await the return of the other vehicle, which according to the cook=s story was a terrible time. However, all things must end sometime and the cook was soon dug out and carried to terra firma much to the amusement of the rest of the party. To make a long story short, after several small mishaps, we arrived at our destination on the evening of the 26th very fatigued, but still hopeful. The only thing worthy of note was the extreme length of the Indian Territory miles. That night we had quite an artistic meal, in preparation of which the two cooks allowed themselves off.

AThe next day everyone started off except the patriarch, who was feeling unwell (not being used to such rich living), and did not participate. After about four hours of fearful rough walking, the party re-assembled at camp with four quails. No one saw anything to shoot except his Reverence, who made several ineffectual efforts to kill four deer with no cartridges in his gun. The deer smiled, and so did we. Our hopes somewhat daunted, we soon turned in for the night very tired and sleepy only to be awakened about a dozen times by the cook, who could not sleep because he was cold and asked the Terror for the time. Patience ceased to be a victim and the Terror requested the cook to go to a perpetual kitchen and buy his own time piece in so terrible a voice that he observed a heavenly silence for the balance of the night.

ANext day the smiles were few and a new plan for slaying the deer was devised. The Terror and cook went out together leaving the rest of the crowd to push their own say into the woods and speculate as to how much of the cook would return. The pair got a few quails and then got lost. Of course, the cook knew the way best, and after wallowing about ten miles, acknowledged he ws wrong. The air was literally thick with howls from the Terror, who took offense (a wire one) and went in the opposite direction, meekly followed by the trembling cook, and they were in camp about two hours afterwards. Result of day=s sport, six quail, five tired men. Someone said after supper, >I want to go home;@ a dead silence, a murmur, finally a deafening uproar, a chorus of >so do I,= settled that we would start the next afternoon. Before retiring the party, minus the cook and boy, started after turkey. They succeeded in getting a few after a couple of hours shooting into a large number.

AWell, we started home the next afternoon after getting stuck in a creek and losing half our cooking utensils, wearing out the horses, and our good humor. We reached home after three days hard driving, sadder but wiser men.

AWe got about two dollars worth of game and a hundred dollars worth of experience. ACRESCENT.@

Arkansas City Republican, December 27, 1884.

Hunters on the Pawnee Reservation sometimes find game they are not seeking. Four residents of Winfield were recently arrested there by Indian police for trespass. We wonder if Capt. Nipp was not one of that quartette.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, December 31, 1884.


The United States senate, about a month ago, adopted a resolution authorizing the appointment of a committee to investigate the matter of the leasing of certain lands from the Indians by various companies and individuals. The directors of the Cherokee Live Stock Association and of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Cattle Association met in Kansas City lately and adopted resolutions signifying their willingness to be investigated and to have all their actions and contracts laid before the proper authorities.

In consequence of this, the officers of these associations received telegrams summoning them to appear before the senate committee in person, January 5, 1885, to answer such questions as that committee may see fit to propound in regard to the lease and the way it was procured. In accordance with this, next Friday those summoned will start for Washington.

This investigation has been sought by the Association for more than a year past, on account of the report of foul and unfair means having been used, which has been going the rounds of the press. They say there is not the slightest foundation for this charge and have invited investigation. They do not fear the result at all and say they have paid for every foot of land grazed over and taken no unfair advantage whatever.

We hope this will settle the question to the satisfaction of those persons who have been so loud in their denunciations lately.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, December 31, 1884.


Agent Dyer Before the Investigating Committee.

D. B. Dyer, agent for the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians, is at present in Washington consulting the secretary of the Interior in regard to the conduct of some of the uncontrollable braves attached to his reservation. These Indians are classed as Awild@ and some uneasiness is felt about the lawless acts of some of the young braves. They have progressed far enough in civilization to have acquired most of the vices, but few of the virtues, of that advanced state.

The cattlemen are suffering extensively from the raids of these Indians, and it is estimated that one cattle company has lost $100,000 by their acts. There are one thousand of these lawless braves, who are better armed than any like number of men in the country. Scores of them are not seen by the agent on delivery days; but whenever they want beef, they go out and shoot down what they want out of whatever herd is the handiest. It has not been long since a party of these went out and stopped a ranch train, and under pretense that they wanted meat, shot down nine head of oxen. Some choice portions were taken, and the carcasses left where they fell. The worst feature of this was that the leader was one of the educated Indians, having just recently returned from Carlisle barracks. The bucks are careful not to hurt persons, but pay no respect whatever to property.

The examination shortly to be made by the senate in regard to the leases with these Indians will show up the trials of cattlemen in their proper light.

The agent has the authority to prevent these outrages, but has not the required force. The secretary of the Interior has, heretofore, looked upon this matter in this wayCthat to send troops there to protect the cattlemen would look as if the department was looking too exclusively after their interests.

Agent Dyer went before the Dawes investigating committee and made quite a lengthy statement the other day. He stated that the number of acres leased by the Cheyenne and Arapahoes are about 38,000,000, at two cents per acre. That as to law in regard to leasing or not leasing, there is none; but that, for the last ten or twelve years, the lands have been occupied by various parties; that heretofore these parties paid a small sum to some of the principal Indians, which soon created a dissatisfaction among the balance and finally resulted in the cattlemen making contracts with the tribes, so that at present few or none are opposed to it. He asserted that ninety-nine hundredths were satisfied.

The contracts, Mr. Dyer said, were made for ten years, to be paid for twice a year. That the cattlemen acted in good faith; had not only paid up promptly, but even fed, clothed, and given employment and beef to many of the Indians; that the Indians were doing better with their lands than could possibly be done otherwise. In the past a few of them received $3,000 or $4,000 while now the tribe derived $80,000 a year from it.

He concluded with the statement that these lands had been occupied for years by cattlemen without losses, and that the department ought, now that the cattlemen were paying for leases, approve the same and protect the lessors in their rights. That if this were done, more money could be got, and the Indians be better off in every way.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 31, 1884.

Andrew Hutchison came up from Cheyenne Agency last Saturday. He reports that there never has been a time when freighting was so bad as in the last few weeks. The Indians are getting scattered and doing more or less plundering as it comes to their hand.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 31, 1884.

April Fool!

Word reached this city Saturday evening of a most revolting and dastardly deed, recently committed in the Indian Territory. It seems that a party of boys were out hunting, and on arriving at a point near the Canadian River, and about 130 miles below Caldwell, they came across the bodies of three men, wrapped up in blankets and all bound together with buckskin thongs. They had the appearance of hunters, and were only a short distance from a Cheyenne camp. It is believed that these men were hunting, were captured by the Indians, bound firmly with thongs, wrapped up in a blanket, placed out upon the open ground, and there allowed to die of starvation and exposure, the appearance of their bodies giving evidence that their death had been caused in this manner. The boys who found them were terribly frightened and hastened to the nearest white settlement, where they told their story, and word was sent here to Sheriff Henderson, who left for Caldwell today. He will notify the government officials, and will doubtless be governed by their orders as to the disposition of the bodies. The clothing worn by these unfortunate men were such as to claim them well-to-do gentlemen, and no doubt they were connected with an eastern party of hunters.

Wellington Daily Times.

The Press failed to get the full particulars of this find. The boys found the decomposed remains of two or three horses near the bodies with bullet holes in the center of their foreheads, an old saddle or two lying near them, also some brass kettles, frying pans, and other traps commonly used by the Cheyenne Indians about their camps.

Those boys were so badly frightened at their find that they never thought of the fact that the Cheyenne Indians bury their own dead in blankets bound round them and above the ground, and then slay a horse nearby; placing all the necessary traps at the foot of the corpse, for him to continue his hunting expeditions in the spirit hunting grounds. The boys simply found a Cheyenne graveyard of about six months standing. Caldwell Journal.

Arkansas City Republican, January 3, 1885.

Rumor reaches us that the Oklahoma boomers and the soldiers came together last week and that the boomers routed the soldiers. A dispatch to the Wichita Eagle from Caldwell Wednesday says: AGen. Hatch arrived here today and immediately made a requisition upon Quartermaster Agent Lomens for transportation for 500,000 pounds of freight, to accompany the column in the field in Oklahoma. He has detachments of troops enroute now to the Oklahoma country from Ft. Riley, Ft. Leavenworth, Camp Supply, Ft. Reno, and Ft. Sill. Part of these troops are at present writing in that country, and inside of the next ten days all of them will be there. His orders in the matter are sweeping and explicit, and with twelve or fifteen hundred men to back him, the boomers are likely to be bounced in style. There will be no child=s play in the matter and the would-be settler in Oklahoma will do well to make himself exceedingly scarce until the storm blows over.@

The following is not re Indians or hunting parties, but I thought you might find it of interest....prohibition was really in force here in the County at that time.

Arkansas City Republican, January 3, 1885.

On Christmas day the Sheriff and his deputies raided the Jim Fahey building on Ninth Avenue, where a contrivance for dealing out liquor, known as a Ablind tiger,@ was in operation. After capturing the operator, they took a tour through the building. In the cellar were found several barrels of whiskey, and a basket containing a large number of pint and quart bottles filled with liquor and apparently ready for delivery. Pasted up in this cellar was a government liquor license, setting forth that James Fahey had paid the requisite fee as a retail liquor dealer. The young man occupying the upper part of the building and in charge of the Ablind tiger,@ had no government license. Thus, unless he can prove by Mr. Fahey that he was the latter=s agent in the sale of liquor, he becomes subject to indictment and conviction under the revenue laws of the United States in addition to the penalties inflicted under the statutes of our own state for liquor selling. The young man has certainly got himself into a very serious predicament unless Mr. Fahey will generously sacrifice himself by coming to his relief. Winfield Courier.

Arkansas City Republican, January 3, 1885.

The senate committee on Indian Affairs on January 6th will begin an investigation of the leasing of lands in Indian Territory and on the Crow reservation by Indians to cattlemen. A number of prominent cattlemen and Indian chiefs will be subpoenaed to appear before the commission. One section of the revised statutes declares that Indian tribes have no authority to lease their lands. A succeeding section allows owners of herds the privilege of driving their cattle over the reservation on obtaining consent of the Indians and government. Cattlemen construe the latter section as meaning that they may lease the lands, and under this construction, nearly all the Crows Reservation in Montana, and Quapah, Cheyenne, and Arapahoe Reservations in the Indian Territory have been leased for a period of from five to ten years at from two to twelve cents per acre per annum. In the Cherokee strip, also in the Indian Territory, nine cattlemen have exclusive control of 60,000,000 acres at an annual rental of $10,000. The object of the investigation is to enable congress to take intelligent action on the subject if additional legislation is deemed necessary.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

Bad for the Boomers.

CALDWELL, KANSAS, Jan. 2. General Hatch expects to move on Oklahoma early next week, probably on Monday, with seven troops of the 9th cavalry, and one troop of the 24th infantry, one troop from Ft. Hays, one from Ft. Riley, three from Ft. Sill, one from here, and two from Ft. Reno. Forage stores for fifty days campaign are being concentrated here and sent to the front. There is no particular excitement here over the matter, as the local boomers have given up the idea of invading to force the country. They await congressional action. No couriers have arrived from the seat of war in the past six days. The latest report is that Lieut. Day is close to Crouch=s colony on the Cimmarron [NOTICE...2M/2R], and neither party is strong enough to capture the other. Crouch don=t want Day, and Day can=t take Crouch without a fight. This child=s play will close when General Hatch strikes the colony, if they do not move peaceably.


About 2 o=clock yesterday morning a party of boys on a lark, found a party of boomers in a saloon playing cards. The boys to frighten the boomers kicked the table over. The boomers skipped for camp, but one more bold than the others returned with his pistol. The boys gave him a chase and when nearing his camp, he turned and fired upon them, two balls taking effect in the abdomen of Jake Windalls, one of the boys. The boomer was arrested and by request of the wounded man turned loose, stating that had he been in the boomer=s place, he would have killed the entire party. The physician removed the ball from Windalls= body today and he is thought to be out of danger. [NOTE: THEY STATED ACROUCH@...NOT ACOUCH@ IN ARTICLE.]

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

Indian Leases.

Secretary Teller has written a long letter to the chairman of the senate committee on Indian Affairs upon the subject of leases of Indian lands. He says in part that the Interior Department has for years recognized the right of Indians to receive compensation for pasturage of stock on their reservations, and that such right has also been recognized by the courts and the land occupied by the Indians. The secretary says they did attempt to make leases, but the department refused to recognize them beyond treating them as licenses and receivable by the Indians at will. No one can question their right to make such a disposition of the grass growing on their lands as they have made. Concerning the pecuniary gain which the Indians now derive from licenses to use the products of their lands, which they grant to the whites, the secretary says they are now receiving $50 for every dollar received under the old system. With respect to allowing the Indians to control large and valuable tracts suitable for agricultural purposes, the secretary concludes they should not be permitted to own such tracts to the exclusion of settlers when such lands are not needed by the Indians, and that it is a misfortune to any country to have its lands held in a large quantity by a few owners, the more so if held by owners who neither make use of it themselves nor allow others to do so.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

Oklahoma Boomers.

KANSAS CITY, Dec. 29. A Wichita, Kansas, Times special says a number of societies of Oklahoma colonists are forming in this section. Private advices from W. L. Couch, who has succeeded the late Capt. Payne in leadership, state that the boomers are in force in camp on the Cimarron river and menaced by troops, but propose holding their ground. Fresh recruits are joining the colonists daily.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

Messrs. Cooley and Rowell residing on Grouse Creek brought into our office yesterday a large bald eagle, which they had killed down on Coon Creek in the Indian Territory. It measured seven feet and six inches from tip to tip of wing and is two feet and eight inches in height. It is a large monster and could easily have carried off a large size lamb.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

James Park and James Lewis and others returned from the territory Wednesday, where they had been hunting. They were within a few miles of Oklahoma camp, but did not visit it. One of the boomers informed them that there were about 800 [? 300? ] colonists in camp. They were expecting the soldiers and were going to resist.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

P. Pappan has been appointed U. S. Interpreter for the Pawnee tribe of Indians. Monday Mr. Pappan came to the city and subscribed to the REPUBLICAN. This is substantial evidence of the rapid progress of Indians toward civilization. Mr. Pappan brought from the Pawnee Agency 10 children and left them at the Chilocco school. He says they all desire to become educated like the white man. Mr. Pappan is one-half French and one-half Indian. He speaks English well, better than some whites.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

The Oklahoma Boom.

Mr. T. J. Wakefield, marshal of Wellington, Kansas, was seen at the Union depot last night by a Journal reporter just as he was taking an eastern train for Illinois, where he will spend the holidays. Mr. Wakefield has just come from Oklahoma, and he freely gave an extended account of the colony and of the present condition of the boom. By reason of his long residence in Kansas, and his thorough acquaintance with Indian Territory, Mr. Wakefield is one of the best informed on Oklahoma matters, whom one could find in the whole country. He knows the history of the movement, and the original boomers were his very neighbors. When asked what is the present condition of the colony, Mr. Wakefield said.

AAt present the government troops are all on the south side of what is known as Salt Fork, while the boomers all occupy the north side of the river, which is now so high that it would be impossible to ford even if the boomers were inclined to venture into the district occupied by the soldiers. There are many boomers at Wellington, now, waiting for the weather to moderate so that they can go down to the land of milk and honey which they dream that God forsaken land to be.@

AWhy do you call it a God forsaken land?@

ABecause there is nothing there now to hold a man while there is everything to make life a curse. The land itself is all right enough, but it takes a brave man, with lots of grit, to face the soldiers on the one hand, and the frightful weather on the other. The weather at Oklahoma when I left there a few days ago, was a great deal colder than at Wellington or Arkansas City, and you can imagine what it is from the raw wind here tonight. Those who want to live in camps or covered wagons, such weather as this must have an awful amount of faith.@

AAre there no houses there now?@

AYes, but not very many. The houses that are there are structures made of logs and poles, rough boards, or anything that can be grabbed up. But many people live in camps or in common covered wagons. There is great suffering among the people. Most of them are very poor and some of them cannot get back. Very many of them are having a hard time of it during these cold times. There is plenty of snow there now and dozens are hobbling around on frozen feet. Others have had their hands and ears terribly frost bitten and I look for great suffering there very soon.@

AAre there many boomers there now?@

AAbout 1,500 on the north side, I should judge. There were 700 who were from Arkansas City three weeks ago and a good party from Caldwell not long ago. They soon find that it is a life of hardships and severe trials, and the population is changing all the time.@

AWhat has been the effect of Captain Payne=s death upon the boom?@

AI think it will put a damper on the matter, but new leaders are already trying to take his place. There is a man from Arkansas City whose name I do not recall, and this man is assuming to be the bell boomer of the bell boomer of the Oklahoma flocks, but bucks from other fields are also pretending to be leaders.@

AWhat seems to be their business?@

AThey live by studying up new schemes to get people excited.@

AHow do boomers pass away the time?@

AOf course, there are no churches or schools and no houses to speak of, so they loaf and hunt. If it was not for the game down there, some of them would have been buried before now. They live to talk to each other, and the poorest one among them seems to hope that a day may bring something forth.@

The genial gentleman=s conversation was hastily terminated by the departure of the Chicago & Alton, but he said enough to give the outside world a glimpse of Oklahoma life in mid-winter.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

Hatch and the Boomers.

CALDWELL, KANSAS, Jan. 5. Two troops of cavalry arrived today from Ft. Hays, Capt. Duncan in command. Two days will be required to reshoe the horses and put the command in motion for Oklahoma. Thursday the troops will leave here for the boomer camp at Stillwater, Indian Territory, where the Capt. Couch colony of three hundred men are located. This section will there be joined by three troops from Ft. Sill and two from Reno. Gen. Hatch will commanded the regiment. He was seen by the press agent at his headquarters today and from him learned the particulars. He will have two Hotchkiss guns and skilled men to work them with him. He does not intend to lose a man in his short range fights, but will retire and open on the boomer camp with these long range guns. He does not desire a fight, but his orders are iron-clad and specific and will be executed to the letter. He hopes the colonists will not resist when called upon to surrender, but if they will not peaceably, there will be trouble.

A colonist direct from Couch=s camp yesterday called upon the press agent for the scope of Gen. Hatch=s orders and his intentions in matters. From him we learn that they obey Capt. Couch=s orders implicitly, and will resist the soldiers when he gives the word. They are all well armed and prepared for a fight, and they will not be removed by superior numbers and force; they denounce the President, congress, cattlemen, and the war department in unmeasured terms; say they would have cleaned Lieut. Days= company out if he had opened fire on them. No collision was had between Day=s men and the boomers, as was reported. He ordered them to surrender. They refused, armed themselves, took refuge behind their breastworks, and awaited his executing of the order to fire in five minutes. His instructions did not cover that emergency and he retired, but went into camp nearby. Thus do matters rest. It is so stormy now the soldiers cannot move on nor the boomers move out. They say when removed they will burn every ranch out on the Oklahoma and Cherokee strip.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

Frost Bitten Boomer.

Frank Martin, of Hutchinson, Kansas, went with Capt. Couch to Oklahoma about five weeks ago with the intention of securing himself a home. On arriving there Dec. 16, he went out hunting, lost his bearings, traveled two days and nights without fire or food, and, becoming completely tired out, laid down and fell asleep. When he awoke he found that his feet were frozen. But being determined to save his life, he pushed forward till he came to Berry=s ranch, arriving there on the 18th. Here he was provided with a pony and he reached Couch=s camp the same day. He received medical treatment for two weeks and then came to Arkansas City and placed himself in charge of Dr. Sparks, who amputated four of his toes. He is at this time doing well although his feet are in a fearful condition and there is some danger of blood poisoning. He has been well provided for by our humane trustee, Geo. Whitney.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

The Boomers.

Mr. H. F. Sloan, of Sandusky, Ohio, arrived here direct from Arkansas City Tuesday. He reports the greatest activity among the boomers. He says an active, energetic lawyer, E. D. Munn, late city attorney of Braidwood, Illinois, a John A. Logan style of man, is now the leading spirit among them. He is reported to be a diplomatist and depends more on diplomacy than fight. There is where his head is level. It is also said that he has an organized company of two hundred stalwart miners organized in the town he came from and that one hundred of them are expected to arrive here today.

On Monday Mr. Munn indited telegrams to President Arthur, Senator Plumb, Ingalls, Logan, and Vest. The message to the president was a lengthy affair and cost $44. It requested him to restrain the troops and appoint a committee to investigate the affair and that twenty boomers, all honorably discharged ex-soldiers, would go to Washington and testify as to the ravages by the stock-men among the timber, and other matters of interest connected with the territory.

We received a special dispatch last night that the news about Gen. Hatch receiving orders from Washington not to move against the boomers was an error and that the troops are already on the move. The question now is will the boomers fight. Mr. Sloan thinks they will. He says the boomers have been actively engaged in forwarding arms to Stillwater for several days, paying their way and furnishing them with arms and ammunition. In view of these facts, trouble is anticipated and news of a hostile encounter may be looked for before many days.

Wichita Eagle.

Arkansas City Republican, January 10, 1885.

Indian Lands.

WASHINGTON, Jan. 6. In the investigation of the Indian land leases begun by the Senate committee on Indian Affairs today, John W. Scott, agent for several tribes in the Indian Territory being called, said all the tribes under his charge had leased portions of their lands. The Poncas had leased 50,000 acres, or one-half of their possessions, at $17,000 per annum. The land was not sub-let, but was occupied by Sherburne, the lessee, for grazing purposes. The present policy of leasing lands the witness considered the best. He was asked if the price paid by Sherburne was a fair one, but was not prepared to express an opinion on this point. He thought, however, it would bring more if open to competition. The Nez Perces Indians leased a portion of their reservation for $20,000 a year. The Pawnees leased 127,000 acres at three cents per acre, for a term of ten years. Witness was present and advised the Indians in making some of these leases. Since the public attention has been so wildly called to this matter, witness thought the lands might now be leased for a higher price.

J. O. Tuffts, agent for the civilized tribes of Indians, testified that the Cherokee strip, 200 miles long and fifty six miles wide, was leased to an association for $100,000 a year. The land would now probably rent for $50,000 more. The witness heard rumors of irregular payments of money to secure the case, but could not trace them to a reliable source.

[Note: Sherburne from Arkansas City, originally from Maine. He was at this time an Indian trader with the Ponca Indians. His sister was married to E. D. Eddy, very early druggist in Arkansas City. Tuffts was a Cherokee Indian, who was at this time acting for the Nation with respect to leasing land to various people. Many formed livestock associations in dealing with the Indians.]

[Early articles said Tuffts...later it was corrected to Tufts.]

Arkansas City Republican, January 17, 1885.

The Trail.

The trail proposed for Texas cattle is to begin on Red River as near the 100th degree of longitude as practicable; thence running in a northerly direction through the Indian territory, following as near as practicable, the Fort Griffin and Dodge City trail to a point in Ford county, on the southern boundary of Kansas; thence over the appropriated public domain of the United States, through the counties of Ford, Hedgeman [? Hodgeman ?], Lane, Buffalo, Scott, Wallace, Sherman, and Cheyenne in Kansas; then in a generally northerly direction through Nebraska, Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana, or any one or more of them, to the northern boundary of the United States. The trail is not to exceed six miles in width, and the grazing grounds not to exceed twelve miles square. The public lands over which it is to be established are to be withdrawn from sale and reserved for the trail ten years. A small appropriation is requested for carrying out the provisions of the bill.

Arkansas City Republican, January 17, 1885.


The principle theme of conversation now on our streets is the Oklahoma invasion. The news to be gleaned from the special dispatches to our dailies is meager and to us appears very unreliable. It is either unreliable or pure braggadocio. The dispatches from Caldwell are all from the pen of a prejudiced party, it appears. In the specials we glean that Hatch has several companies of soldiers, which is no doubt true, and that they are advancing on to the boomers to remove them, and with very strict orders from headquarters to remove them at all hazards, that the soldiers have long range guns and all such stuff as that. We have read such nonsense as this for three weeks. Now we would like to know if anyone ever heard of a general who divulged his orders from headquarters to newspaper correspondents before executing them. Next, we don=t believe that Gen. Hatch has orders to fire on the Ainvaders.@ Probably he has orders to remove them, and as thee is a law against entering the Indian country, necessarily there must be a penalty attached. There is no law but what has a penalty when violated. For five years now this thing of invaders going to Oklahoma and the soldiers removing them has been going on. Their leader, Dave Payne, violated every law on the statute book during his life on Indian soil. Nothing was done to him. He was always captured, hauled over the country at the expense of Uncle Sam and then finally turned loose without trial to commit the same deeds over again. But Dave Payne was a man no community could not respect. He is gone now and no doubt has long since accounted for his misdeeds on earth to his Redeemer. But to return to our subject. The boomers in their late petition to congress say they have gone there to become husbandmen. They have their farm machinery as well as their rifles. They implore congress to take action upon this question. Plumb introduced a bill tending to the opening of the Oklahoma country, but it was referred to the committee on Indian Affairs. A few days since Plumb called for his bill. Dawes said that the committee reported unfavorably to it and that the senate had received the report. This seems to us only a continuance of the child=s play which has been going on for five years. If the boomers are guilty of violating the law, visit the penalty on them, and stop all this palaver. If they have a right to settle on this land, allow them, and do not attempt to bulldoze them with long-range guns into submission and fear in the interest of a few monied cattlemen.

In 1866 treaties were made between the government of the United States and the Cherokee, Seminole, Choctaw, and Creek Indians, by the terms of which certain lands west of Creeks and Seminoles and south of the Cherokee were ceded to the United States by the tribes named. There was no condition attached to the cession. It was absolute and the title passed unconditionally. The lands were afterwards surveyed, and have been ever since borne on the rolls of the general land office as Apublic lands.@ These are the Oklahoma lands.

During Jackson=s administration in 1834 a law was enacted providing that if an attempted settlement or a trespass of any kind in the Indian Territory by citizens of the United States in numbers too large to be handled by proclamation or unassisted officers, the president of the United States should use the military arm of the government to dislodge the trespassers. The soldiers are cautioned, in the law, to deal gently with the offenders, using only such force as is absolutely necessary to affect their removal. Repeated offenses shall subject offenders to harsher treatment, and a fine of a thousand dollars was affixed to cases of determined persistence. The law also says no one shall go into or across Indian country. That law enacted in 1834 has never been repealed and that is the grounds for removing the boomers by force. In going to the Oklahoma country you necessarily have to cross Indian lands and commit trespass. What is the use of removing the invaders unless the penalty of $1,000 is assessed. They will go right back again. They have been persistent in their invasion and we see no reason why the government should show leniency so often. A horse thief has the penalty visited upon him immediately by the court as soon as convicted of his crime, and so ought the boomer. We all know the boomer is guilty of invasion, but whether it be a crime or not, it remains yet to be decided. We are not a boomer, but we would like to have equity meted out to the boomers if they be guilty of law-breaking or be they but demanding their rights as citizens.

Arkansas City Republican, January 17, 1885.

The REPUBLICAN says the boomers are camped on the Salt Fork. The deuce they are. Where is Salt Fork, Richard? Democrat.

We are not a walking geography, Charlie, but we will enlighten you. You have been here a number of years and ought to know by this time. Salt Fork River takes its rise from Salt Springs in Harper County and flows southeasterly through the Indian Territory, emptying into the Arkansas below Ponca Agency.

Arkansas City Republican, January 24, 1885.

Cherokee Land Leases.

WASHINGTON, Jan. 19. Dr. Adair, of the Indian Territory, a Cherokee, was examined by the Senate committee on Indian Affairs, today. He said he was president of the association of Cherokees formed for the purpose of taking a lease of the vacant land of the Cherokees. The association=s agents were authorized to offer $125,000 for a lease, but it was secured by outsiders for $100,000. It was the impression of the members of the active association that there was money used by rivals. Cash was a very rare commodity among the Cherokees before the lease was made. About the time it was made, however, members of the council came to witness= store with $50 bills to be changed.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, January 31, 1885.

The wareroom at the depot is full to the roof with supplies for the Cheyenne and Kiowa Indians. Though these supplies consist of shoes, blankets, comfortables, underclothing, and other garments which the Indians must really need, they steadily refuse to come after the goods, seemingly preferring to go cold rather than do the work necessary to get these things to the agencies.

Arkansas City Republican, January 31, 1885.

Indian Items.

There are, in the United States, 143 Indian reserves, embracing 151,000,000 acres in the limits of twelve states and territories.

There have been 652 treaties made with the different tribes since the adoption of the Federal Constitution on matters of lands.

There are 123 licensed Indian traders in the United States. The licenses are granted by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The bond of the trader is $10,000.

There are in the Indian service 71 agents, 3 inspectors, and 2 special agents, who have to give bonds to sums from $5,000 to $50,000.

By hunting, farming, freighting, and selling robes, furs, etc., the Cheyennes and Arapahoes supply one-half their subsistence, and the government one-half.

The Kiowas and Commanches draw more than three-fourths of their supplies from the government and only rustle for less than one-fourth of their rations.

The Pawnees make one-fourth their chuck, and look to Uncle Sam for the balance. This is owing to the scarcity of the game and the great distance they have to go for it

The Wichitas earn half of their hog and hominy.

The Osages derive a large revenue from the sale of ponies; they have thousands of them. They receive 5 percent per annum interest on $69,120 for educational purposes, and 5 percent on $300,000 or $15,000 a year paid semi-annually, either in money or such articles as the Secretary of the Interior may direct. They have $39,911.53 in government bonds, of the loan of 1881, drawing 5 percent, besides $7,000 of Missouri State bonds, drawing 6 percent, the interest of which Missouri has failed to pay since 1861.

Arkansas City Republican, January 31, 1885.

Kansas has 78 townships above the Indian Territory, and measures 468 miles in length. It has 25 townships east of the principal meridian and 43 west of it. Arkansas City is four miles west of the 97th meridian and three ranges or eighteen miles east of the 6th principal meridian.

Camp Supply is 150 miles west of Arkansas City and 36 miles south, or 180 miles distant. It is situated between Wolf and Beaver Creeks that make the head of the North Canadian.

Fort Cantonement is 10 townships east, and 16 west, being 156 miles distant from Arkansas City.


Fort Reno is 130 miles south-west.

Arkansas City is the supply point for 14,343 Indians, besides the U. S. soldiers at the different forts, and the cattle men and cowboys of the Territory.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, January 14, 1885.


ARKANSAS CITY, KANSAS, January 5, 1885.

To the Editor of the Topeka Commonwealth:

Your correspondent has been roaming about in Southern Kansas and the Indian Territory during the holidays, and in order to pass away the hanging hours, took notes of what was seen and heard, and now we propose to unbosom ourselves, as it were, and impart a vast amount of information to your Amany readers.@ (This phrase is entirely new and copyrighted for the occasion.)

Arkansas City (we don=t like the name) is the most prosperous little city in Southern Kansas, being the source of supplies for Oklahoma and the Indian Territory.

The city is really taking upon itself metropolitan airs and wears them quite gracefully. Upon every hand can be seen evidences of prosperity, which has come to stay. Three years ago we Asaw the old year out and the new year in@ at this point. What a change since that time! Saloons flourished upon every hand, and the town was filled by a drunken mob, who made night hideous with bacchanalian songs; but now peace and quiet reign and the new year was welcomed in with the ringing of joyous bells, and Atolling the knell of the departing year.@

Not a saloon in this city of three thousand, and no drunkenness. Beautiful churches, that are well attended; substantial business houses and good stores; hotels as good as there is in the state. We cannot speak too highly of the management of the Windsor, the largest and finest in the city. It is complete in all its appointments, and Mr. McIntyre, the proprietor, is reaping the harvest he deserves.

Many large business houses have been erected during the year--notably the Cowley County Bank building, the Commercial block, the Central school building, and a number of fine churches.

There are dry goods stores here that equal Stevenson & Peckham=s, and every other business seems to be as well represented.

All eyes are turned upon Oklahoma, and the thought of depression and hard times finds no place in the minds of this people. Livery mail brings messages from the ABoomers,@ as they are called, the following being a fair representation of the whole.

STILLWATER, Dec. 24, 1884.

Mr. F. B., Arkansas City, Kansas.

SIR: The soldiers attacked us on December 24. They formed in line about 150 yards distant and told us to surrender within five minutes or they would fire upon us. We formed in line under cover of a hill, in the timber, and dared them to fire, and we would give them Athe best we had.@ They fooled around awhile and then went into camp near us. They had forty men and we had 200. We still hold the fort. We could come out any time, but we propose to stay and fight it out on this line. We have passed an order forbidding anyone to leave our party. We are on the best of terms with the soldiers, and are having a good time with them. The officers in camp took dinner with me after the little racket we had with them on the 24th inst. Yours, etc. R. C.

By this you can judge of the situation, and of the good feeling existing between soldier and foe. Now, if we were a soldier boy, we would continue to cultivate this same friendly relationship with the Aenemy.@ It is less hazardous. Now we see the soldier obeying the injunction ALove thine enemy,@ and the enemy fully reciprocates. It appears to us this farce of a warfare has gone on about long enough.

Ryan=s bill ought to pass this session of congress, and settle this question at once, as it will be settled eventually. The opposition comes only from the cattlemen, who are anxious to hold the land for their own benefit. Arkansas City is hoping for an early settlement of this question, as it will form the base of supplies.

A joint stock company has been organized here, with a capital stock of $20,000 paid, with which to build a woolen mill to be run by water power, the canal company charging them only five dollars per diem for power. This will no doubt be a bonanza for this city.

We returned yesterday from Kaw Agency, where we saw the noble red man in all his primitive primitiveness, and his squaw in about the same condition. If there is one thing which the Kaw Indian loves more than another, it is his leisure, and his wants in that direction are amply supplied. We might imagine that time hangs heavily upon him, but it don=t seem to crush him in any remarkable degree. The full blood has made wonderful strides in the arts of civilization in one direction, viz: He has lost his appetite for dog meat, and subsists wholly upon beef and pork furnished by Uncle Sam.

The half-breed is an intelligent fellow, orderly and well disposed. Mr. Keeler is sub-agent and has charge of the school. The tribe now contains 232 members; 180 of them are full bloods. Their annuity for the year 1884 amounted to $15 per capita, and $9 per annum per head is collected for pasture rentals. The tribe owns 100,000 acres, one-half is rented to the Kaw Cattle Company, at four cents per acre for pasture lands, and five cents for all the lands cultivated by the company.

The government has built eleven miles of fence enclosing a large pasture in which stock is run at twenty cents per month.

There are 260 children in the school, who were much surprised Christmas morning upon finding the breakfast table loaded with presents, consisting of candy and other good things. The Indian children are bright and learn rapidly, but it is said that when they have completed their education, they return to their old haunts and modes of life. Education does not seem to change the character. A young Pawnee, who recently returned form Carlisle Indian school, adopted the costume of his fathers, upon his return, and feasted upon dead carcasses and all manner of filth, and enjoyed it as much as though he had never received Abook larnin=@ at government expense. What hope is there for them?

We long to be a post trader. AIt is a consummation devoutly to wish,@ (or words to that effect.) How the money comes into those fellows! The gentleman who occupied that position to the Kaw tribe during a term of two or three years is now at the head of a cattle company. Do you see?

The cattle upon these ranges are poor in quality and thin in flesh, and already a great number of them have turned up their toes. The Kaws have a splendid country, plenty of timber, and good soil. The tribe cultivate about two acres per family. Corn is worth there seventy-five cents per bushel, a small crop being raised.

This letter has reached Agigantic proportions,@ and we must close.


Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, January 14, 1885.


It appears that the individual above mentioned is the sole and only cause of the appointing of the present senate investigating committee to investigate the leasing of the Indian lands in the Territory below us.

There has been no evidence, whatever, adduced to prove anything fraudulent or illegal in the manner of obtaining such leases. We do not claim, nor are we fully convinced, of the advisability of leasing such large bodies of land at such low prices to single individuals; but, at the same time, we do condemn anyone, whoever he may be, who will cause the expense to the government and to private citizens that the individual above named has caused.

We know this Ivey--know all we wish to know about him. Arkansas City had about six months= knowledge of him, enough to last her through the next two or three decades. It would perhaps be pertinent to mention him gently in this connection; Gus Ivey is a printer. He came here in the fall of 1879 from the Cherokee Nation, where he left an Indian wife, and stayed here until along in the spring of 1880. While here he was a drunken, dissolute, good-for-nothing dog, working until he had a few dollars and then laying off until he could drink it up; in the interim he made what he could out of gambling. The police judge of that time made his acquaintance several times. A dirty, drunken bummer, he spent his time around the saloons, drinking and playing billiards. A dead-beat of the worse character, no one would associate with him. Our people remember him as a beat, a bummer, a loafing, lying, lazy cur. He is the brute who enticed Ben Gardner into giving him all his money, by representing that they could travel together, and by working now and then on daily papers, on any of which he could get a case, and thus go West very cheap. He spent Ben=s money and deserted him up near Topeka or Lawrence, leaving him without a cent. Oh, yes, we know Gus Ivey.

The next time Senator Vest wants to make himself conspicuous, he should choose a different co-partner than a drunken, free-lunch, good-for-nothing vagabond like Gus Ivey.

Vest now wonders why Ivey didn=t appear and testify against the cattlemen! If the senator should see this eulogy of the illustrious gentleman, he would wonder no more, for he would know that Ivey did not dare show his face where decent men have their boots blacked. Selah! We have done.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, January 14, 1885.

Gen. Hatch left Caldwell Sunday morning with a troop of the Ninth Cavalry for

Stillwater, Indian Territory, to remove Couch=s company of boomers. He will be joined at that point by four companies from Reno and Sill and one from Camp Russell. There is no possible doubt that the boomers will be removed, and that at once. Whether they decide to fight or not remains to be seen. A large wagon train of supplies accompanied the expedition. About Thursday the General will march to Stillwater with his command.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 14, 1885.


Below we give from the Emporia Republican a careful statement of the present condition of the Oklahoma lands. We advise a careful reading of it and feel sure that such a course will not fail of thoroughly explaining the status of these lands.

AThe particular locality known as Oklahoma lies in the region of the fork of the Canadian River, in the Indian Territory, and amounts to some twelve or fourteen million acres. The north line of the lands lies some seventy-five miles south of the South line of Kansas. These lands were originally part of those set apart to certain Indian tribes when the present boundaries of the Indian Territory were fixed. In 1866 treaties were made between the government of the United States and the Cherokee, Seminole, Choctaw, and Creek Indians, by the terms of which certain lands west of the Creeks and Seminoles and south of the Cherokees were ceded to the United States by the tribes named. There was no condition attached to the cession. It was absolute and the title passed unconditionally. The lands were afterwards surveyed, and have been ever since borne on the rolls of the general land office as Apublic lands.@ These are the Oklahoma lands.

AIn the treaties there is language showing an intent on the part of the government to use the lands for settling freedmen and friendly Indians upon; and in pursuance of that intention, some of the lands are now occupied by Indians. But while such an intention is expressed in the treaty, it is not a condition, and it is not a law. The lands are unquestionably public lands.

AThere is something else, however, connected with the history of these lands which is more important to persons proposing to settle on them without special permission.

AOur Government began its dealing with Indians as if they were citizens of foreign nations. It made treaties with tribes through the chiefs and head men. That had been the custom of the colonists before our Government was founded. During the administration of President Jackson, a number of important Indian treaties were made. In pursuance of them a law was passed in 1834 regulating >intercourse= with Indians. All territory belonging to the United States lying west of the Missouri and the territory of Arkansas, was designated in the law as >The Indian country,= and the act prescribed methods of intercourse between citizens and Indians in the Indian country, and provided penalties for its violation. It was enacted that no citizen of the United States shall go into the Indian country for any purpose unless he had a permit from some designated officer of the government; no such persons shall travel into or across the Indian country without a passport from the government, setting forth the intent and object of the visit; in short, every citizen of the United States was by this act of 1834, positively prohibited from going into the Indian country for travel, for pleasure, for business, or for any other purpose, without authority specially granted by some officer of the government named in the law; and every contract made by a citizen with an Indian was declared to be void and of no effect. The law further provides that in case of any attempted settlement or a trespass of any kind in the Indian Territory by citizens of the United States in numbers too large to be handled by proclamation or unassisted officers, the president of the United States should use the military arm of the government to dislodge the trespassers. The soldiers are cautioned, in the law, to deal gently with the offenders, using only such force as is absolutely necessary to affect their removal. Repeated offenses shall subject offenders to harsher treatment, and a fine of a thousnd dollars was affixed to cases of determined persistence.

ASuch are some of the provisions of the Indian intercourse act of 1834, and attention is called to them now because they were never repealed, and hence are the law today. All the vast territory designated by that law of 1834 accept as far as was necessary to set apart and organize new territories out of the old. Indian Territory is still under the law of 1834. It is in that law that authority is given to remove intruders by force; and it is by that law that persons going into the Indian country without special permission are intruders and trespassers. Indian Territory is all that is left of the >Indian country= of 1834.

AFrom this brief statement, it will seen that in removing Oklahoma colonists, the president is executing a positive requirement of the law enacted fifty years ago. If the Indians did not complain, no notice probably would be taken of the proposed settlement; but in going to those lands from Kansas, it is necessary to cross territory belonging to the Cherokee Nation, and Indians object to it. Some of the most intelligent men among the Cherokees are in favor of throwing the whole Territory open to settlement. But nothing is done in that direction yet, and so long as the Territory remains under preent laws and treaties, whenever the Indians complain against intruders, they must be removed by the president. There is no way to avoid it except to openly violate the law.@

Arkansas City Traveler, January 14, 1885.

Indian Trade.

Ed. Kingsbury, forwarding clerk, informs us that he paid out for goods purchased by the Indians of our merchants $2,116.46 for the last quarter of 1884. The cash rates to the Indians for the same period were nearly double that, making $8,000 spent in our midst during the last three months by the noble red man. This is only an item of our trade, but a very good one. This would show a cash trade of $30,000 a year from one source alone.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, January 21, 1885.

A Proposed Cattle Trail.

ST. LOUIS, January 14. The bill which is to be introduced in Congress for the establishment of a cattle trail from Texas to the British possessions provides that the Secretary of the Interior shall appoint three commissioners to lay out and mark by a meter and boundary a quarantine national trail and grazing grounds, the trail not to exceed six miles in width, and to be narrowed at places to a mere roadway. The grazing ground is to be established at intervals along the trail and is not to exceed twelve miles square, both the trail and grazing grounds to be strictly quarantined and no cattle allowed to leave it so long as they have signs of Texas fever among them. When the Commissioners make their report, the Secretary of the Interior is to file a map of the trail as laid out, and he is to give public notice of the establishment and the withdrawal of public land occupied by it, front either sale, location, or settlement, for a term of ten years. There is to be an appropriation of $100,000 for the work. When this publication is made, the trail is to be open at all times of the year for the driving upon it of any livestock by any person, firm, or corporation.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, January 21, 1885.

SENATOR VEST thinks Augustus Erlbert Ivey is a blasted fool and wants him brought before the Indian lease committee in a basket if he will come in no other way! While the honorable Augustus is smiling in his sleeves to think what a fool he made of the reverend Senator with his little pen. Vest will suffer more than Ivey in this deed as he has more to lose. Caldwell Journal.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 28, 1885.

Those three point, 8 pound, white blankets worn by the Indians cost the government $4.80 each in New York City; 2-1/2 point, $3.60, and the 3-1/2 point, 10 pound, green blankets, $7.50. APoint@ is shown by the stripe of four inches long on the edge near the end of the blanket. The Indian coats cost $2.81 each; pants $1.63 per pair; calico shirts, 24-1/4 cents; overalls 38 cents; boots $2.12 per pair; rubber boots, $2.44; washboards, 90 cents per dozen; wagons, 3 inch spindle, $52.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 4, 1885.

Quite a stormy discussion was had by the boomers in reference to cutting down the membership fee from $6 to $4. It was argued that if such a reduction was made, the number of members would be augmented and larger expenditures gathered to invade the Territory. The leaders of the colony opposed it solidly. In this connection we wish to repeat a remark made to us by Capt. Couch himself. In answer to a question, he said every man who ever went to Oklahoma was self-sustaining, took along his own provisions, arms, and supplies. Also that no officer received any remuneration whatever for his time of service for the colony. At another time he said there were 10,000 members of the colony, holding certificates of membership. The price of each certificate is $6.00. The organization of the colony has been in existence five years. Also, that every dollar in the treasury has been used. These facts we state as having been obtained from the leader, and do not wish to draw any inference detrimental to him, but we can but think, AThere=s a nigger in the wood pile.@

Arkansas City Traveler, February 4, 1885.

The Boomers.

Capt. O. S. Rarick, deputy United States Marshal of Arkansas City, arrived here on the noon train in charge of four of the boomer leaders: Capt. W. L. Couch, H. H. Stafford, G. W. Brown, and E. S. Wilcox. The gentlemen were very plain, farmer-looking men. They were supposed to be under arrest, but were allowed to go about where they planned and they always came back. They were taken before United States District Attorney Hatton who wrote a complaint against them, charging them with having Aunlawfully and feloniously conspired together to levy war against the United States and to oppose by force the authority thereof and to prevent, hinder, and delay the execution of the laws thereof.@

There was nothing in the appearance of these men that would lead an observer to suspect that they would tackle a government as large as the United States.

Capt. Couch, in conversation with an Eagle reporter, said they did not surrender to Gen. Hatch. The whole company, which consisted of 225 men, arrived at Arkansas City Friday morning and were accorded a public reception.

Their preliminary examination was set for February 10. They were allowed to enter into bonds for each other in the sum of $1,000 each to appear before Commissioner Shearman on the day named. Wichita Eagle.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, February 28, 1885.

Indian Territory.

The Indian Territory was originally given to the Cherokees, Creeks, Seminoles, and Choctaws in return for their lands east of the Mississippi, ceded to the United States in 1882 and 1883. There are now about 82,000 Indians in the Territory, consisting of 62,000 Cherokees, Creeks, Seminoles, Choctaws, and Chickasaws, who are known as the five civilized tribes, and 19,000 Arapahoes, Apaches, Cheyenne, Kiowas, Comanches, Wichita, Osages, Pawnees, Poncas, Pottawatomies, and other tribes who have been removed to the Indian Territory.


Arkansas City Republican, February 28, 1885.

Last Friday 24 men from in the vicinity of Maple City visited the Indian Territory after wood. While there Agent Keeler and two Indian marshals came along and arrested them and wanted to take them to the agency, which the wood-seekers refused to submit to. Some broke loose and went to Maple City, where they raised a band of young fellows who went to the rescue. The agent and marshals detained some of the wood-seekers until the boys from Maple City came, when the prisoners were set free.

Arkansas City Republican, February 28, 1885.

Gen. Hatch, Lieuts. O=Connor and Finly [Thought it was Finley?] arrived in the city yesterday and we learn from Lieut. Chas. M. O=Connor that a forwarding office will be established here for the purpose of supplying the U. S. Troops to be stationed at different points in the Territory. Lieut. O=Connor will have an office in connection with the storage depot.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, March 7, 1885.

The Kiowas and Commanches have at last fallen into the rank of other Indian tribes in leasing to cattlemen for grazing purposes, the surplus portion of their reservation. A lease has been effected between these tribes and Texas parties, the same being made for a term of six years. Delegates of Indians are at Washington pray the approval of the lease by the authorities. Cheyenne Transporter.

Arkansas City Republican, March 7, 1885.

AWhy are the boomers like a setting hen,@ is the latest conundrum. Because they are going to Hatch.

Arkansas City Republican, March 7, 1885.



What They are Doing and Where They are Stationed.

As announced in last week=s REPUBLICAN, the soldiers were to be here last Saturday. Two companies of infantry came in Friday night and three companies of cavalry came Saturday noon on a special train. They pitched camp near the depot and remained until Tuesday. Some until Wednesday. They have departed for the Territory. The cavalry are now camped down on Chilocco and the infantry have gone to Ponca Agency.

Tuesday was to have been pay day for the soldiers, but it did not come off until Thursday. Maj. Gibson drew some $17,000 out of the bank here and departed to pay the boys in blue for their services.

Thursday was the day the boomers were to have started for Oklahoma, but they did not go because the leaders of the movement, 13 in number, consisting of W. L. Couch, Geo. F. Brown, A. C. McCord, W. P. Ecklebarger, R. Courtright, H. H. Stade, D. J. Odell, A. T. Ketchum, L. S. Wilcox, and four others, were arrested by the U. S. Marshal, Capt. O. S. Rarick, and taken to Wichita on the early morning train with charges of treason against them. It is well the boomers were arrested for it probably saved blood-shed. Hatch was ready to receive them. The troops were picketed along the state line. The invasion has been put off until next Monday. At present the invaders are camped across the canal awaiting the return of their leaders. There are about 300 in number. Others are arriving daily and it won=t be long until quite a large van is gathered here.

We learn that just north of town there are more boomers in camp. Some 75 wagons, making all together about 500 boomers who are waiting for orders to fall in line when the move is made. All avenues leading to the territory are closely guarded by the soldiers, and it is quite probable that the boomers will not get across the line before they will be stopped. It would generally be supposed that the soldiers and boomers would show some antipathy toward each other. But a friendly feeling seems to exist between them.

Arkansas City Republican, March 7, 1885.

A special dispatch says that Buffalo Bill, commanding several hundred boomers, arrived

in this city Wednesday. No Buffalo Bill has been in this city lately. Buckskin Joe is the nearest to a Buffalo Bill man here at present.

Arkansas City Republican, March 7, 1885.

The arrested boomers appeared in U. S. Commissioner Sherman=s court at Wichita Thursday. They pleaded not guilty and waived preliminary examination, as that court had no power to settle the difficulty. The arrested boomers were required to give a bond of $3,000 with two sureties, each worth that sum above all indebtedness. Capt. Couch and company intended to come right back to Arkansas City, as arrangements had been made to move from here next Monday. In view of the turn matters had now taken, he thought it useless for those under arrest to leave Wichita before their trial as the adjourned session will be held there on the 9th of this month.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 18, 1885.

Rev. Dr. Hill at Presbyterian Church.

We had the pleasure of listening to a very interesting talk by Rev. Dr. Hill, of Kansas City, Synodical missionary for Kansas and the Indian Territory, at the Presbyterian Church last Sunday evening. His talk was about the Indians and the work of the Presbyterian Church in their midst. We made some notes of points of interest which we append. There are thirty Indian tribes in the Territory and thirty dialects spoken. The Indians were brought from all points of the compass, from Alabama, Florida, Montana, Idaho, Tennessee, New York, Iowa, Mississippi, and Kansas. The most civilized Indians are the Cherokees. Among them the most missionary work has been done. The least civilized are Cheyennes or Apaches. Among them the least missionary work has been done. Which apparently proves the statement of the Dr. that to the christian missionaries the Indians are indebted for their civilization.

The Dr. has traversed every part of the Territory east of the 110th meridian. He says the Territory is very much inferior to either the same scope of country in Kansas or Missouri, being in parts very rocky, exceedingly mountainous, a good part of the prairie having alkali in composition. The Oklahoma land being no exception to that so far as he could tell. The word Oklahoma is of Indian origin, composed of Oklahoma people, and home, red, meaning the land of the red people. This name is certainly significant, as it was called this in the treaty of 1866. Among the Indians, the Cherokees and Creeks are increasing in population, the majority of the other tribes decreasing. These two tribes have a great mixture in blood, the former principally of white and Indian, and the latter principally negro and Indian.

After the address a collection was taken up for the purpose of aiding in the establishment of a mission school at Tahlequah.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 25, 1885.

Some wicked cowboy perpetrated a cruel joke on one of the AJennie Bowen@ combi-nation. Wm. Davis, the Akid@ of the troupe, is a Welshman who has never before been out West, and cowboys and Indians were Athem be queer critters,@ to him. His greenness in this line was so prominent it stuck out far enough to hang an overcoat on. Several cowboys, who were staying at the Leland, soon caught on; and while they were in the washroom, suddenly turned on Davis and ordered, AHands up.@ It is needless to say that hands went up, and heart too. His knees knocked together like dry limbs in a gale as he looked in the barrels of two Abull-dog@ revolvers. After a little loud talk, they told him he could go. He went. Afterwards we asked him if he was scared. AScared!@ he said, Awell I should remark.@

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, March 4, 1885.

The bill reported to the Senate to enable the President to negotiate for the purchase of the Oklahoma lands provides, among other things, that any person who, without authority of law, enters these lands shall be fined not more than $500 or imprisonment not more than one year, or both, for the first offense; and be fined $1,000, or be imprisoned for more than two years, for each subsequent offense. It also authorizes the seizure of the outfit of such persons.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, March 4, 1885.


Why the Government Hesitates to Grapple with the Problem of Opening Oklahoma. The Shrewd Chiefs of the Creeks Puts the AlternatesCA Masterly Protest Coupled with a Business-Like Proposition. The Price of Abrogating the Treaty Fixed at Millions.


A middle-aged man, with mild eyes, a pleasing cast of countenance, and a bright yellow complexion, which leaves an impression of perplexity as to what race he should be classed with, appeared at the Capitol while the Indian matters were monopolizing attention recently. He remained only two or three days and then went away. While he was there, it was notable that the various representatives of the tribes in the Territory did him considerable deference. Now that he has gone, it is learned that he had some documents which go far to explain the hesitancy of the Government in dealing with the Oklahoma problem. Chief Perryman, of the Creeks, is smart enough to have inherited the best mental qualities, as he has the blood of three races.


His documents are two in number, and they are drawn with wonderful concisement. In less space than any United States Senator has been able to do the subject justice, the Chief presents the whole situation so clearly that a child may understand it.

In the first of these two State papers, which would do credit to men more illustrious in diplomacy than the Creek Chieftain, he hastily sketches the Indian policy of the Government, refers to the understanding upon which the Indians ceded Oklahoma, and then utters his most solemn protest against the pending bill for the opening of the lands to white settlers.

AAs long as thirty years ago,@ writes the Chief, Ait became the well defined and active policy of the United States to locate a tribe of Indians within such limits as would not at first, or too suddenly, change the modes and manner of hunter life for purely agricultural, yet at the same time compel the members to labor for subsistence.@ In proof of this the Indian Commissioner, W. P. Dole, in 1864, emphasizes this necessity by declaring: AI feel that I cannot too strongly urge the importance of preserving the Indian country for the use of the Indians alone, and in all treaties or other arrangements, which may hereafter be made with its former owners insisting, and if needs be, enforcing such terms as will insure ample homes within that country for all such tribes as from time to time it may be found practicable and expedient to remove thereto.@

AIn consonance with this policy, the Indian Bureau has removed from other portions of the counry some fifteen or more tribes and located them upon portions of these lands, and the unanimous testimony of the Indian agents of the Government attest the efficiency, wisdom, and humanity of the system. Under the workings of this policy, the so-called Indian problem is gradually but surely being solved. The bill, for no just reason, however, proposes to interject a state of affairs in the Indian Territory which must surely obstruct the workings of this policy, and relegate the Indian problem back to the domains of mooted questions. Almost all Indian Commissioners and other government officials conversant with the subject unite in endorsing the policy of holding the Indian Territory inviolate as a home for the Indians, and never yet has any objections or complaints arose against it, except such as have come from the agents of railway corporations, cattle syndicates, and irresponsible parties, misled by the late D. L. Payne, and like adventurers.@


AThe policy is one suited to the preferences of the Indians already occupying the Territory, and it is questionable whether the Muskogees ever would have consented to a cession had it at the time been thought that the lands would ever in the future be affected by such provisions as those embraced in H. R. 7,598. But it being expressly understood that the lands were to become the homes of other Indians, thus making the whole Territory an Indian Territory, in fact, as well as in name, the Muskogees, after much negotiation, ceded their right of occupancy. In view of the fact that the lands were to be occupied by neighbors who are Indians like themselves, and not white people, and the fact that the Muskogees still held the right by treaty of objecting to their occupancy by people other than >Indians and freedmen,= they ceded the lands for the palpably inadequate price of 30 cents per acre. Had the Muskogees surrendered all future voice and interest in the ownership of these lands, it is hardly to be supposed that they would have done so for so paltry a sum of money as 30 cents per acre. They would more likely have demanded at least the minimum price as fixed by the United States for her public lands. I protest, therefore, against the passage of the bill, because it is a palpable violation of the third article of the treaty of 1866, between the Muskogees and the United States, and will become a fruitful source of evil only, and benefitting no one unless it be cattle syndicate, and railroad corporations, who, in the shock and confusion that must inevitably ensue, may hope to reap the lion=s share.

AThese lands, as is well known, are worth today, for grazing purposes alone, not less than $2.50 per acre. The Muskogee Nation still possesses a certain interest in those lands ceded in 1866; and while I earnestly protest, in the name and behalf of the Muskogee Nation and people, against the enactment into a law of the bill, I hereby give notice to the President and Congress of the United States, that if it shall be determined to pass it over this protest and in plain violation of the provisions of the treaty of 1866, they will insist on full indemnity to them in money for such of the lands involved as were ceded by them in 1866, at a price per acre that shall be then full value, according to the price of such lands at the time of the passage of the bill.@


The above is Chief Perryman=s personal protest to the opening of Oklahoma. There has been some dispute as to the stipulation under which the Creeks parted with the land, and that the United States Government may be reminded, the Chief furnishes a copy of the pertinent section. It reads:

AIn compliance of the desire of the United States to locate other Indians and freedmen thereon, the Creeks hereby cede and convey to the United States to be sold to and used as homes for such other civilized Indians as the United States may choose to settle thereon the west half of their entire domain, to be divided by a line running north and south, * * * and in consideration of said cession of the west half of their lands, estimated to contain 3,250,000 acres, the United States agrees to pay the sum of 30 cents per acre, amounting to $965,168.@

These are the terms under which the Government has acquired all the title it has got to Oklahoma.

In his prayer to the President and Congress given above, Chief Perryman appeals to the sentiment which should sustain consistency in the Indian policy, and he searches for a sense of justice in the White House.

There is another paper emanating from this wise Indian. It is in the form of a business proposition and comes ostensibly from the Creeks, who are here to watch their interests. But it has got the old Chief=s finger marks in it. He seems to realize that the white men are bound to get into Oklahoma, and that all he can expect his petition to accomplish is to awaken a feeling that the Indians have not been treated justly in the matter and that their claims deserve recognition.


In this second state paper of the Creeks, there is no waste of sentiment. All through there is recognition of the inevitable and at the same time a manly assertion of the Indians= rights, and a demand that they shall be respected.

AA treaty is a contract as well as law,@ says this skillfully worded document, Aand binds the United States as well as the Indians.@

AThe Creek nation owned the land in question by the title in fee-simple, and if it had been known that they were to be opened for settlement, or disposed of otherwise than expressly provided in said treaty, they never would have ceded and conveyed on any terms, much less for the paltry sum of 30 cents per acre.

AThe purpose for which this land was bought by the United States, as expressed in the treaty, entered into and became an element of the contract, and it cannot now, in law or justice, be disregarded by either of the parties in interest.

AAt the date of treaty mentioned, the lands in question could have been sold to individuals at a price averaging not less than $1.25 per acre, and at the present time could be sold for several times that amount.

AThe difference between 30 cents per acre, the price stipulated in the treaty, and $1.25 per acre, the real value of the land at the date of the treaty, is $3,202,308.96.

AThe aggregate amount of land and 3,402,430.46 acres, which at 30 cents per acre, amounted to $2,020,729.14. But at $1.25 per acre, the minimum price at which government lands are usually soldCit would amount to $5,286,638.10, making a difference, as above stated, of $3,262,308.96.@ [NOT 100% SURE I COPIED FIGURES CORRECTLY!]


AIf therefore, the lands so ceded are to be thrown open to settlement by the United States, contrary to the terms, provisions, and stipulations of the said treaty of 1866, then we ask, on behalf of the Creek nation, that said lands shall be sold by the United States at their real value, which certainly is not less than $1.25 per acre, and after deducting the expense of such sale, and the amount heretofore advanced, that the remainder of the proceeds of such sales be paid to the Creek nation. Or if it be the purpose or intention of congress to declare them to be public lands of the United States and subject to entry under the homestead laws only, then we ask that the matter may be adjusted according to principles of equity and fair dealing, and a reasonable price paid the Creek nation for said lands.

AThe United States, we submit, cannot do less than to accede to one or the other of these propositions, especially since a part of the interest on the stipulated price of 30 cents per acre has not yet been paid.

AThe Creek nation has observed with fidelity its treaty obligations. May we not expect the same good faith on the part of the United States?

ATo declare the lands mentioned public lands and subject to entry, under the homestead laws of the United States, as proposed in the bill now pending, would not only be a violation of the treaty, as already stated, but an infraction of all treaties with other tribes or nations in the Indian Territory.

AThe manifest object of the legislation proposed is to open the Indian Territory to settlement; and that, in the opinion of the undersigned, means the total annihilation of Indian rights, titles, laws, customs, institutions, and governments, and, finally the extermination of the Indians themselves.


Against all such legislation, therefore, we beg to offer our earnest and most solemn protest. * * *

AMore than half a century ago, the Creek people, at the instance of the government of the United States, embodied in treaties to the effect that they should never be included within the bounds or jurisdiction of a state or territory, without the consent of the Indians.

ANow in violation of all these treaties, comes a proposition to open a part of the territory to settlement which means a territorial government, first for the district known as Oklahoma, and next for the Indian territory. And that means as already stated, annihilation of Indian rights, laws, and governments, and the gradual extermination of the Indians themselves, because the two races cannot live together and prosper. The weaker and less skillful in the management of their own affairs must yield to the stronger and more artful.

AYour attention, therefore, is respectfully but earnestly invited to the whole subject, including treaties between the United States and the several tribes or nations in the Indian territory, to the end that justice may be done to all parties in interest.@


Some days ago just as Gen. Hatch was at the point of driving the boomers out of Oklahoma, the senate adopted a resolution calling on the president for what information he had as to the exact status of the lands and what was necessary to be done before they could be opened for settlement. Mr. Arthur has replied by sending to the senate these two state papers from the Creeks. They present the Oklahoma question conclusively and they exhaust it. In all the arguments before congress and in all the reports and recommendations, there is no such presentation of the matter. Chief Perryman is a statesman.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, March 4, 1885.

The fact, recently brought to light, that Jefferson expended in one year $2,668 for intoxicating fluids is slightly opposed to the idea that he was a man of severe simplicity in his ways of living, but at the same time it confirms his right to be regarded as the founder and boss prophet of the Democratic party, particularly when we take into account the additional fact that his bills for washing during the same year aggregated only $100.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 11, 1885.

Crowds flocked to the soldiers= camp Sunday, and to the new iron bridge on the Walnut. Every hour of the beautiful day was exhausted by our citizens, riding or walking.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 11, 1885.

Couch and his right hand men arrived from Wichita yesterday and were escorted into the city by the band and about 200 boomers. They were bound over at Wichita to the fall term of court.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 11, 1885.

Through the kindness of Lieutenant Finley, we are enabled to furnish the latest order pertaining to the Oklahoma country. This order, based on the complaints of the boomers and made to correct the abuse they say exists, will certainly clear this country of all intruders.




SIR: It having been reported unofficially, to the commanding officer, that cattlemen in Oklahoma have erected houses and other permanent improvements in their ranges since the removal last year, and are now occupying them, he directs that you investigate the subject and destroy or cause to be removed, all such buildings found in the Oklahoma country.

Very Respectfully your obedient servant.


1st Lieut. 9th U. S. Cavalry, Actg. Asst. Adj. Gen.

Arkansas City Republican Saturday, March 21, 1885.

New Cattle Route.

GALVESTON, March 17. A Wichita Falls News special says:

AArrangements have been consummated whereby Texas cattle for the northern market will be shipped to Harrold, the new terminus of the Fort Worth and Denver railroad, thence driven north to Caldwell and Hunnewell, on the south line of Kansas, thence railed to destination.

AThose for Colorado, Wyoming, and the northern territories will go from Harrold by way of the neutral strip to the north Panhandle, thence north to their respective destinations. This settles the outlet for the cattle drive this year, and saves the Texas stock interest from being seriously injured through the quarantine regulations of Kansas and other states.@

Arkansas City Republican Saturday, March 21, 1885.

The Oklahoma Country. [Boomer Story.]

WASHINGTON, March 13. In answer to a telegram from the secretary of war, relative to the exact condition of affairs in Oklahoma, Gen. Hatch telegraphed from Caldwell, Kansas, that no tresspassers were now on the Indian Territory. About 1,200 settlers, he said, were camped in Kansas, near the territory border. They were threatening to go over the line, but as yet had taken no steps of that kind. Troops are stationed in the territory, the general said, and will drive out any invaders who may attempt to settle on the lands.

At a meeting of the cabinet yesterday, the Oklahoma question was considered at length. It was said the impression prevailed among those who contemplated an invasion of the territory that President Arthur=s proclamation relative to the trespassing upon the Indian lands had become inoperative with the end of his administration. To prevent such action by the invaders as would naturally arise upon the prevalence of such impression, it was thought best that President Cleveland should issue a proclamation similar to that issued by President Arthur while chief executive. The following is


By the president of the United States of America--a proclamation.

WHEREAS, It is alleged that certain individuals, associations, persons, and corporations are in unauthorized possession of a portion of the territory known as the Oklahoma lands, within the Indian Territory, which are designated, described, and recognized by the executive authority thereto, as Indian lands, and

WHEREAS, It is further alleged that certain other persons or associations within the territory and jurisdiction of the United States have begun and set on foot preparations for organized and forcible entry and settlement upon the aforesaid lands and are now threatening such entry and occupation, and

WHEREAS, The laws of the United States provide for the removal of persons residing or being found upon such Indian lands and territory without permission expressly and legally obtained of the interior department.

Now, therefore, for the purpose of protecting the public interest, as well as the interests of the Indian nations and tribes, and to the end that no person or persons may be induced to enter upon said territory, where they will not be allowed to remain, without the permission or authority as aforesaid, I, Grover Cleveland, president of the United States, do hereby warn and admonish all and every person or persons now in occupation of said lands, and all such person or persons as are intending, preparing, or threatening to enter in or settle upon the same, that they will not be allowed to remain thereon, and that if due regard for, and voluntary obedience to the laws and treaties of the United States this admonition and warning be not sufficient to effect the purposes and intentions of the government as herein declared, the military power of the United States will be invoked to abate all such unauthorized possession, to prevent such threatened entry and occupation, and to remove all such intruders from said Indian lands.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.


Arkansas City Republican Saturday, March 21, 1885.

The Boomers and the Proclamation.

ARKANSAS CITY, March 14. The president=s proclamation was received at noon today. Great disappointment and indignation was manifested among the boomers here, who expected the action to be favorable to their cause. A meeting was called at 3 o=clock this afternoon to decide what course to pursue.

At a meeting held at the camp ground this afternoon, over a thousand colonists present; the president=s proclamation was read, and the following resolution was adopted without a dissenting voice.

WHEREAS, Payne=s Oklahoma colony in Arkansas City have received with surprise and astonishment the full text of the proclamation issued by President Cleveland on the 13th inst., wherein it is asserted that we have organized for a forcible entrance upon the aforesaid Oklahoma lands; and

WHEREAS, The law of the United States which provides for the removal of persons residing upon Indian lands, cannot in any way apply to the aforesaid Oklahoma lands; and

WHEREAS, At the present time large numbers of cattlemen and cattle syndicates are occupying these same lands with permanent improvements, for grazing and farming purposes, among whom might be mentioned Berry Bros., Burke & Martin, Fitzgerald Bros., McClellan Cattle Co., Hewins & Titus, Williams Bros., Standard Oil Co., B. H. Campbell, J. Sanderson, Belle Plain Cattle Co., John Purcell, Butler Co., Ben Keith, Quartermaster Clerk Hauser, and the same are not, nor have been disturbed or ejected from the lands, we can see no justice or reason for the enforcement of the order in the case of actual settlers which is not enforced upon the cattle men who continue to hold thousands of cattle upon these lands; therefore be it

Resolved, That in our opinion President Cleveland has not been made acquainted with the full status of the situation which we had hoped and believed would be done before he made any public utterance, and we yet demand a thorough and speedy investigation and explanation as to why the settlers are ejected and the rich syndicates allowed to remain, and further we condemn the misrepresentation of Gen. Hatch in stating to the secretary of war that there were no trespassers now in the Indian Territory. To our knowledge and also to that of General Hatch, the above named cattle men are holding large herds upon these lands.

Be it further

Resolved, That we demand of President Cleveland an explanation of the laws and treaties governing said Oklahoma lands by which he claims said lands are Indian lands and we impatiently await a most speedy reply, and we instruct our president to forward these resolutions by telegraph to President Cleveland.

These resolutions were immediately forwarded to President Cleveland.

Capt. Couch said it was to be hoped that every man would remain until an answer could be received. As no further business was offered, Col. Crocker of Iowa, who represents several hundred boomers of that state, was called for and made a brief speech. He said he had much disappointment and indignation in him. He could give a clear argument but would speak on the Oklahoma question tomorrow (Sunday) afternoon.

The meeting then adjourned subject to the call of President Couch.

Arkansas City Republican, Wednesday, April 4, 1885.

The disputed territory known as Oklahoma has an extent of about 1,800 square miles. In order to reach it, it is necessary to go from the borders of Kansas 120 miles westward through the Cherokee country. Its boundary on the south is the Canadian River; on the north, the Cimarron River; on the west, the reservation of the Cheyenne and Arapahoes. It originally embraced nearly 5,000 square miles of territory, but various reservations have been set off, so that its dimensions have been reduced to 1,800 square miles, as mentioned above.

The name Oklahoma was given to the country by Colonel Boudinot, a Cherokee, and signifies in the language of that tribe Athe home of the red man.@ [NOTE: THIS STATEMENT IS QUESTIONABLE.]

A bill was introduced into congress, some years ago, to establish a territorial government in the Indian country, to be called AOklahoma,@ but the project fell through.

Oklahoma occupies a position nearly in the center of the Indian Territory. In general, it may be defined as bounded on the north by the Cherokee strip of land lying west of the Arkansas River; on the east by the reservations of the Pawnee, Iowa, Kickapoo, and Pottawatomie tribes of Indians; on the south by the Canadian River; and on the west by the reservation of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians. The territory within the boundaries thus described is about sixty miles on a line running through its center north and south, and about forty miles east and west, except in the northern part, where it overreaches considerably both east and west. The total area comprises 1,887,800 acres, or over 500,000 acres more than the state of Delaware. The nearest route from Kansas is by way of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railroad to Caldwell, on the northern border of the Indian Territory. From that point a stage road and cattle trail runs down the west side of the Oklahoma country to Fort Reno, which is about three-fourths of the way down the western border. At that point the road passes out of the Oklahoma country on its way to Fort Sill. From Caldwell to the north line of the Oklahoma country is about sixty miles, the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River being crossed at about half the way. Indianapolis Journal.

The Journal is mistaken about Caldwell being the nearest rroute to Oklahoma. Arkansas City is headquarters for the boomers, and is the natural gateway to Oklahoma. Come by way of the Santa Fe.

Arkansas City Republican, Wednesday, April 4, 1885.

The disputed territory known as Oklahoma has an extent of about 1,800 square miles. In order to reach it, it is necessary to go from the borders of Kansas 120 miles westward through the Cherokee country. Its boundary on the south is the Canadian River; on the north, the Cimarron River; on the west, the reservation of the Cheyenne and Arapahoes. It originally embraced nearly 5,000 square miles of territory, but various reservations have been set off, so that its dimensions have been reduced to 1,800 square miles, as mentioned above.

The name Oklahoma was given to the country by Colonel Boudinot, a Cherokee, and signifies in the language of that tribe Athe home of the red man.@ [NOTE: THIS STATEMENT IS QUESTIONABLE.]

A bill was introduced into congress, some years ago, to establish a territorial government in the Indian country, to be called AOklahoma,@ but the project fell through.

Oklahoma occupies a position nearly in the center of the Indian Territory. In general, it may be defined as bounded on the north by the Cherokee strip of land lying west of the Arkansas River; on the east by the reservations of the Pawnee, Iowa, Kickapoo, and Pottawatomie tribes of Indians; on the south by the Canadian River; and on the west by the reservation of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians. The territory within the boundaries thus described is about sixty miles on a line running through its center north and south, and about forty miles east and west, except in the northern part, where it overreaches considerably both east and west. The total area comprises 1,887,800 acres, or over 500,000 acres more than the state of Delaware. The nearest route from Kansas is by way of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railroad to Caldwell, on the northern border of the Indian Territory. From that point a stage road and cattle trail runs down the west side of the Oklahoma country to Fort Reno, which is about three-fourths of the way down the western border. At that point the road passes out of the Oklahoma country on its way to Fort Sill. From Caldwell to the north line of the Oklahoma country is about sixty miles, the Salt Fork of the Arkansas River being crossed at about half the way. Indianapolis Journal.

The Journal is mistaken about Caldwell being the nearest route to Oklahoma. Arkansas City is headquarters for the boomers, and is the natural gateway to Oklahoma. Come by way of the Santa Fe.

Arkansas City Republican, April 4, 1885.

Indian Murderers Convicted.

FORT SMITH, ARKANSAS, March 28. Jas. Arcine and Wm. Parchmeal, full blood Cherokee Indians, were convicted of murder today in the United States court, after a twelve days= trial. They were tried at the last November term of court, but the jury failed to agree and was discharged. The crime for which Arcine and Parchmeal were convicted, was the murder of an old Swede named Henry Feigel, near Paequa [?], in the Cherokee Nation. Twelve years ago Arcine and Parchmeal were informed by a disreputable white man that Feigel had money, and they were advised to kill and rob him. They took his advice, followed the Aold man@ into the woods, murdered, and robbed him, and got only twenty-five cents. They also took his hat and boots, divided the spoils, and for nearly twelve years kept their secret. Last July Arcine was convicted for selling whiskey in the Indian Territory, and certain developments bring to light the murder of Feigel. Arcine was indicted, but denied participating in the murder. Parchmeal was subsequently indicted and admitted being present at the murder, but claimed that Arcine forced him to be there and that he had no hand in it, but was there under duress. The defendants were represented by different attorneys and each endeavored to saddle the guilt upon the other, and each prosecuted the other to clear himself.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, April 11, 1885.

The suttler at the soldiers= camp across the line is running a saloon. Sunday several parties from here went down and got gloriously full. This desecration of the Sabbath should be stopped.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, April 11, 1885.

On the night of March 30, T. M. Moreland and G. W. Esters, two tramps who had been killing time in this vicinity for several days, disappeared and took with them two horses belonging to Oklahoma colonists. Some of the boomers headed by H. H. Stafford pursued the thieves and captured them away out in Commanche County. They brought their victims back to our city Wednesday evening and Thursday morning Johnnie Breene went to the colonists= camp and arrested the thieves. They were taken before Judge Kreamer, who bound them over in the sum of $500 each to appear at district court. In failure to give the bond, Sheriff McIntire, who had arrived in the meantime, escorted them to Winfield and incarcerated them in the county bastile.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, April 11, 1885.

The Colonists and The Cherokee Strip.

ARKANSAS CITY, KANSAS, April 2. That part of the Indian Territory, known as the Cherokee strip, has been the line of defense against the invasion of Oklahoma by Capt. Couch and his followers for some time past. The members of the Cherokee Strip Associa-tion have been quarreling among themselves, the more wealthy members seeking to oust the less influential, and possess themselves of all the lands.

The Standard Oil Company has been among the most agressive and has suffered the loss of considerable fence and other improvements. The poorer members of the association have resisted the encroachments of these more wealthy associates, and of late a decided stand has been taken by the former and a strenuous effort is being made to throw off all allegiance of the strip on the grounds that it is public domain.

At a meeting held in Caldwell a few weeks ago, the board of directors by whom all the secret concerns of the association are directed and controlled determined


for assessment against the rebellious members of the organization, and soon after notices to pay their assessments or drive their herds off the land were served on a dozen members.

Since then an organization has been in the course of formation with a view to oppose and resist the claims of the board, and though the fight was conducted secretly, knowledge reached the boomers, and the contest has been watched by them with eager anxiety. The result of such a domestic quarrel must, of course, be favorable to the colonists; and as a matter of fact, many owners of small cattle herds have already declared themselves in favor of the settlement of Oklahoma and the Cherokee strip.

Soon after the adjournment at the Caldwell meeting


a portion of which could not be got hold of before today, and which is given below in full. This opposition led to the calling of another meeting for the 15th inst., and that the situation is regarded as perilous to the interests of the Cherokee Strip Cattle Association is rendered evident by such a call.

Following is The Petition.

To his excellency, Grover Cleveland, president of the United States:

We, the undersigned citizens of the United States and of the state of Kansas, respectfully represent unto your excellency that we are now, and for some time past have been occupying and using as a pasture for our cattle herds that certain portion of the Indian Territory known now as the Cherokee strip.

That an organization of capitalists known as the Cherokee Strip association claim to own said pasture land under and by virtue of a lease from the Cherokee Indians.

That said association, through collusion and confederation with scheming politicians and corrupt government officials did get and obtain and do hold and possess a lease from said Cherokee Indians purporting to be executed with the sanction of government authority.

That the title of said land long since passed from the Indians to the United States under and by virtue of a treaty and partially completed contract of sale with said Indians and that said land thereby became and is part and parcel of the


That said association is a powerful syndicate of capitalists organized for the sole purpose of obtaining exclusive possession of said lands through corrupt influences under the guise of legal sanction.

That from its inception, while knavishly pretending to protect the rights of paid Indians in the collection of heavy rentals for the use of said land, said association has been but fostering an oppressive monopoly and depriving the people of the right guaranteed to them by the constitution, of settling upon and building homes on a part of the public domain.

That under the pretended sanction of authority obtained by corrupt influences and the well concealed bribery of government officials, said association has succeeded in securing protection for their unlawful claims by a


of military powers, and has by the same influences prevented their claims to said lands from being questioned by lawful authority and their title thereto from being brought into dispute.

That we have felt the iron hand of this oppressive monopoly until we are no longer able to endure its heavy pressure, and being unable to fully compete with the enormous capital arrayed against us, and unwilling to allow our smaller interest to be sacrified to the greed of these human cormorants, we earnestly and respectfully petition your excellency for an immediate investigation into the claims of said Cherokee Strip association under said lease, and inasmuch as we are informed and verily believe that the military authority of the United States is to be invoked against us because of our unwillingness and refusal to recognize the right or claim of said association to collect rental for said portion of the public domain upon which our cattle herds are now grazing and that we are now threatened with eviction from said lands unless the demand of said association be complied with.

We further petition your excellency to protect us from the threatened danger by withdrawing the military forces now located on the Kansas border for the avowed purpose of protecting said association in the exclusive possession and control of said Cherokee strip and the country known as Oklahoma and your petitioners will ever pray, etc.

Late last evening it was reported that some new engine had been set in motion against the leaders of the colony, but so far as traced, the only ground for apprehension is the statement of Gen. Hatch that Secretary Lamar had instructed District Attorney Hallowell of Topeka to push the prosecution of the boomers as rapidly and vigorously as possible. A general impression seems to prevail that a new policy will be developed in a few days on the part of the government, but the boomers would welcome any change that would bring the situation to a crisis.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, April 18, 1885.

The following from Col. Boudinot, the celebrated Cherokee, upon Territorial questions will be of interest to our readers.

AWhile I have not encouraged the various raids made by Payne and others, I believe that Senator Plumb is right when he says that those lands of Oklahoma belong to the government exclusively. I will say this much about them. They were bought of the Creeks and Seminoles in 1866 for the purpose of settling other Indians on them. That was understood in the transaction between the government and the Creeks. The delegations for several states took strong grounds against the location of any more wild tribes there and a law was enacted forbidding it. Everybody knows that congress will never repeal this and settle more Indians in the territory. This leaves the Oklahoma lands on the hands of the government. Now, I claim that the government ought to do one of two things, and that as soon as is possible.

AOne of these is to return it to the Indians from which they were bought at first.

ANo doubt the Creeks and Seminoles would be very glad to take them and refund what was paid. The Seminoles received 15 cents per acre for 3,360,000 acres, worth not less than $2.50.

AThe government has got to sell these lands back to tribes or to throw Oklahoma up to settlement. The latter would throw a body of whites right into the heart of the territory.@

Col. Boudinot continued:

AThe time is not far distant when the Indian must become a citizen of the United States, and then the Territory must become a great state. Those who opposed me in my views about the division of the lands have severally acknowledged that this must come, but not now. Pleasant Porter says a little more time is necessary. Substantially there is not between interviews. I believe it is time to take in the Cherokees. By the division members of the tribeCmen, women, and childrenCwould receive 500 acres each. I think the proper course would be to set aside 160 acres each, make it inalienable for a term of years, not liable to taxes. This would protect all in the possession of that amount of land, and they could dispose of the rest if they wanted to.@


H. P. STANDLEY, Editor and Proprietor until April 8, 1885.


Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, March 18, 1885.

Dr. Mary Walker and the Cattlemen.

WASHINGTON, D. C., February 26, 1885.

The Western cattlemen were sitting in Mr. Teller=s ante-room today, waiting for an audience with the secretary of the Interior, when Dr. Mary Walker entered on some errand. The doctor abhors tobacco smoke. Just as she came in, Col. N. D. Hunter, of St. Louis, had found a comfortable position and was puffing away contentedly on a cigar. APoison! Poison! Ejaculated Dr. Mary, lifting her cambric handkerchief to her nose and commencing to cough. It was Col. Hunter=s first meeting with the Washington celebrity. He sat bolt upright and put his cigar out of sight. The Doctor saw she had made an impression, and she hastened to follow it up. Glaring savagely at Col. Hunter, she opened a tirade like this: AI thought this was a room where ladies could come without being insulted by gentlemen smoking in their presence.@ Col. Hunter stared at the speaker and then at her trousers, whereat Denman, Kerens, Fenlon, and the other cattlemen began to say ANo.@ AI don=t mean gentlemen,@ continued the Doctor, ANo gentleman will smoke in a lady=s presence.@ Col. Hunter got up and walked out of the room amid snickering. Dr. Mary rushed around the room raising all the windows and continuing her denunciations of the weed. While she was in the midst of her lecture, in walked the venerable ex-Senator Thayer, of Nebraska, with a cigar in his mouth. Dr. Mary, in spiteful tone, renewed her objections. Gen. Thayer laughed and smoked on. The doctor became furious. AAn old gray-headed man who will do that is a man I would expect to beat his children and abuse his wife,@ she snapped out. Then Mr. Teller=s colored messenger came in and insisted on shutting the windows. Dr. Mary delivered a piece of her mind on Aniggers@ and departed. In the course of fifteen minutes Col. Hunter looked in at the door cautiously, and seeing the coast was clear, re-entered. AKerens,@ said he in an awe-striken voice, Awhat was it?@ Globe-Democrat.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, April 8, 1885.

The Oklahoma Land.

A Aboomer,@ who signs himself A. D. Marble, and writes from this city, appears with a letter in the Toledo Blade, in which he ventilates the grievances of himself and fellows. He makes a general arraignment of the government for its hostility to the settler in excluding him from the Oklahoma lands, and condemns its injustice in allowing ATexas steers@ to enjoy a home withheld from the American citizen. A sufficient answer is found to this charge in the fact that cattle owners with their live stock have been expelled from the land in question, and it is now held unoccupied and without lien, to be disposed of by the secretary of the interior, as soon as Congress shall have declared its status. The writer makes the following statement of fact.

AIt seems strange that a shadow of title should remain, when the facts are that the same Congress that bought the lands from the Indians, some at 15 cents per acre and some at 30 cents per acre, donated a strip 40 miles wide (each alternate section), to the Atlantic & Pacific railroad, immediately after obtaining possession of it, and the same act of Congress says the even sections shall be held for preemption, for actual settlers.@

If Mr. Marble supposes he is stating his case correctly, he is badly fooled. The treaties made with most of the Indian tribes, and ratified and confirmed by acts of Congress, whereby they surrendered their homes in the Southern States and removed to the country they now occupy, provided for the passage of two railways through the Indian Territory, one running east and west, and the other north and south. But no land grant is provided for in the treaties. They merely concede a strip of ground 200 feet wide for the construction of the road, with a quarter section of land where a passenger station is placed, and a section at the end of each division, for workshops, round houses, and to provide room for the houses of employees of the road. The Missouri, Kansas and Texas road has no grant of land, beyond that specified above, and the Atlantic and Pacific charter is no more liberal in its provisions.

The Toledo Blade writer has his facts badly mixed. It is true that during the Secession war, when the seceding states were not represented in Congress, and Republican members were profuse in partitioning out the public domain, that a number of railroad bills were passed granting the right of way through the Territory, and endowing the companies with land subsidies as liberal as that mentioned by our authority. But these grants were conditioned upon the voluntary abandonment of their homes by the Indians, or the dissolution of their tribal relations. Congress, affected as it was at that time with the mania for giving up all the land that lay out of doors to intangible railway corporations, was still duly impressed with the fact that the Indian title to the lands occupied by the treaty tribes stood in the way of its summary disposal of their possessions. It therefore imposed a condition upon the diversion of their homes; and this condition, the boomers would do well to bear in mind, is not yet complied with.

Upon what legal grounds the government holds that portion of the Indian Territory known as the AOklahoma lands,@ we are not sufficiently informed to warrant the expression of an opinion; and the same lack of information is admitted by the United States Senate. In order that the matter may be thoroughly inquired into, a commission has been appointed from the members of that body, who will probably make due inquisition during the coming summer and make its report when Congress meets next December. With this information before it, that body can act; and if it shall be found that no entanglement stands in the way of the tract in question being thrown open to settlement, we may then look to see the Secretary of the Interior declare it public domain. But until these forms are gone through with, occupation of the lands will not be allowed by the administration, and the proclamation of President Cleveland forbidding invasion of the Territory may be taken by all parties concerned as an effectual bar to their entrance and occupation. It would be money in the boomers= pockets to lay these facts to heart.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 8, 1885.

Cattle men in this section are now inquiring where to go with their herds. A number have already been turned out of the territory, and more are likely to follow. The great Northwest, with its wide stretches of pasture land, they now regard with interest, and Montana and Dakota are likely to receive considerable accessions to their grazing population.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, April 15, 1885.

There is a pressing demand upon Congress to open up a portion of the Indian Territory for settlement. Something will be done to that end.

The natural and correct thing to do is to remove the cloud which the Cherokee Nation have upon the title to the ACherokee Strip,@ or Aoutlet,@ as it is known in treaty vocabulary. Their title is slight at the best.

Then attach this Aoutlet@ with the ANo Man=s Land,@ between the panhandle of Texas and the southwestern portion of Kansas, both to Kansas. Mr. Ryan, at one time, had a bill before Congress to attach the latter strip to Kansas. Let that be revived with the Astrip@ included. This would give Kansas eight or ten more counties, which would rapidly fill up.

This plan, if carried out, would relieve all pressure for a considerable period for the opening of what is more definitely known as Oklahoma, south of the strip. What do our Kansas delegation at Washington think of this? Topeka Commonwealth.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, April 15, 1885.

A Long Standing Claim Recognized.

Congress has ordered the payment of ABob@ Stevens= claim for $100,000, which has been pending upward of a score of years. He procured the contract for building a number of stone houses for the Shawnees, on the Kaw reservation; but after the dwellngs were built, the Indians used them as stables for their ponies, while they preferred to live in their tepees. Mr. Stevens is now a member of Congress from New York, and being on the inside, has managed to get his claim recognized. He is said to have made a good thing out of his contract, and his mode of dealing with the Osages and other tribes of Indians, when building the M. K. And T. Road would warrant the belief that he would not be over scrupulous in his dealings with the Government. While laying track through the Osage reservation, in Southern Kansas, his genius suggested to him that a wholesale land operation with that tribe might be a profitable enterprise. Accordingly he gathered the chief men together, plied them plentifully with fire water, and gained their consent to a proposition to buy up their reservation, comprising upwards of 7,000,000 acres, for 18-3/4 cents an acre. This coming to the knowledge of Enoch Hoag, then Indian Superintendent for the tribes in Kansas and the Indian Territory, he procured authority from the Interior Department to act as a commission with General Hazen, then in command at Fort Gibson, and one other, to treat with the Osages for the disposal of their lands. The action of this commission resulted in the magnificent domain of that tribe being taken in trust by the government, and sold to settlers, thousands of whom had already squatted on their domain. The result of this intervention was a fund stored up by the government, as trustee for the Osages, exceding $8,000,000, which has since increased to $10,000,000, and which constitutes them the richest tribe of the red race.

In cutting timber for ties, bridges, and other purposes, he made most prodigal use of the timber lands in the Cherokee, Creek, and Choctaw nations, and refused to pay any indemnity. Superintendent Hoag again intervened, and succeeded in exacting meagre pay, and restrained the tie cutters to a more economical use of the forests. Mr. Stevens won a hard name as builder and subsequent manager of the road, but he has had time to reform since then, and we trust that as Representative in Congress from the Empire State, he has a decent regard for the public interest.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, April 15, 1885.


The Boomer camp here is still made the subject of newspaper talk, the associated press agent finding something new to say about them daily. A Lawrence report, which we give in another column, tells, on the authority of Osage students attending school there, that the Ponca and Pawnees are disturbed at the agitation kept up, and are threatening to go on the war path. Perhaps this is stating the case rather strongly. The agency people report these two tribes quietly at work, and no threats of a rising are made. But among the Comanches a more uneasy feeling prevails. A knowledge of the attempts made by the boomers to occupy the Indian lands begets suspicion as to the results; and the fact that crowds of these people are hovering on the border of their country watching the chance to enter and take possession, inspires them with the belief that the time is at hand when they will have to defend their homes with their lives. The great father at Washington has guaranteed the Indian tribes undisturbed possession of their homes Aas long as grass grows and water runs,@ and they want to see his power exerted in dispersing all bands of men who threaten to violate this compact. Should the need arise for further intervention by the President, it is probable he will by proclamation command these boomers to disperse, and if they refuse to comply with this command, they can be arrested by the authorities and punished as insurgents against the peace of the country.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, April 22, 1885.


Secretary Lamar Tells Him that Settlers Cannot Occupy Indian Lands.

WASHINGTON, D. C., April 15. The Post tomorrow morning will print an interview between Captain Couch, the leader of the Oklahoma boomers, and the secretary of the interior, with regard to the Oklahoma lands, in the course of which Secretary Lamar said:

AWhat is it you wish?@

AI wish to know what cause the administration has determined to pursue with reference to Oklahoma and the soldiers,@ replied Couch.

[Paper used the word Acause@....wonder if it should be Acourse@??]

AWell sir, I will state to you the policy of this administration with regard to the Okla-homa country,@ said the secretary. AIt considers the Oklahoma territory, on which the persons you represent are proposing to make settlements, as within and part of the Indian territory. The administration regards it as not a part of the public domain, open to entry and settlement, and acquisition of title under the land laws of the United States. Being Indian country, that is a territory organized and reserved for Indian occupancy; the government is pledged to the protection of it and the security of the Indians from intruders. No white persons have the right to go there, and without a permit, and when they do go they are intruders who are acting illegally and wrongfully. The policy of the president is to execute the pledge of the government and to protect this territory from the intrusion of white persons, who claim that they have the right to enter it and that it was public domain, subject to pre-emption and homestead settlement.@

AIs that the final decision?@ asked Captain Couch.

AIt is, and will be enforced,@ said Mr. Lamar.

In reply to a further question, Secretary Lamar said the administration was determined that the cattlemen in the Oklahoma reservation should leave. They will not be permitted to graze their cattle within the limits of that territory. He repeated this declaration with emphasis.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 22, 1885.

Cheyennes and Arapahoes.

We mentioned last week that Mrs. Berger was in the city, spending a vacation with her friends. We have since learned from that lady that she has resigned her position as matron in the Arapahoe school, and will remain here permanently.

The Cheyennes number 4,000, and have always been a warlike tribe; but the influence of the schools and the extermination of their savage prey, the buffalo, are having a civilizing effect. These are affiliated with the Arapahoes, 2,000 strong, or rather are placed on the same reservation and are under the same agent; but although less apt in taking on white man=s ways than the tribe last named, they regard themselves as of higher caste, and do not allow their children to mix with those of the other tribes.

Some years ago, during the early days of John D. Miles= agency, a schoolhouse was built for the children of the two tribes, and it opened with sixty scholars. A few acres of land were fenced in, and plowed for the boys to learn gardening, and the girls were introduced to the art of housekeeping. But the repulsion between the two tribes soon manifested itself in the scholars, the Cheyenne children refusing to eat at the same table or sleep in the same dormitory with the young Arapahoes. As a consequence, the building had to be partitioned off, and the dining room and dormitory divided.

The subject of schools suggests an amusing incident in Arapahoe history. Some contraband whiskey dealers being caught selling liquor to the Indians, they were indicted and put on trial in Topeka. Agent Miles was present with half a dozen Arapahoe chiefs as witnesses for the government. He then took them to Leavenworth, to show them the world, and on the suggestion of this writer, showed them over the Morris school. As the wondering red men were taken from room to room, beginning with the primary grade and ending with the high school, and remarked the quiet that prevailed and the careful classification of the young people, the head chief, Big Mouth, was moved to oratory, and throwing off his blanket, giving to view his brawny muscles, spoke through an interpreter as follows.

AI come with the agent to see the places where the pole faced dwell. This man who writes (making a rude imitation with his hands) brings me here. The pale face children learn in these rooms all that the white man knows. I have wandered with my people many years; have fought soldiers and seen many of my braves killed. I like this better than fighting. The white man outwits the Indian every time, and this because he has schools. I will go home and counsel with my people and ask Washington to build me a school just like it. I have no more words to say.@

This visit to the Leavenworth high school was probably not without effect, for the interest in schools among the Cheyennes and Arapahoes has greatly increased of late, and we have the assurance of Mrs. Berger that the young people are making satisfactory progress. The present superintendent of the Arapahoe school is Prof. McLane, appointed April 1st, vice Mr. A. P. Hutchison, of this city, resigned. His assistant teachers are Miss Lamond, of Washington, D. C., and Miss Hamilton, of Illinois. One hundred scholars are enrolled, but the building is hardly adequate to the requirements. Two young Arapahoes who spent three years in the Carlisle school are at the Agency, one engaged as commissary clerk. The pay of the teachers is $60 a month, and they are paid for the summer vacation of two months, if they re-engage. Mr. Whiting is superintendent of the Cheyenne school, which has an enrollment of ninety scholars.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, April 29, 1885.


Both Sidney Clarke and Capt. Couch, on their return to this city from Washington, dwelt with great gusto on the truculence of Brick Pomeroy, in charging the Kansas Senators with corruption, and being beneficially interested in the stock breeding companies who hold leases of the Indians in the Territory.

These gentlemen tell that this political crank devotes several columns of his paper, in every issue, to befouling Messrs. Ingalls and Plumb, charging them with all the crimes in the calendar, and that he has streamers in front of his office, setting forth in glaring capitals that Ingalls and Plumb and Teller are land thieves and cattle-monopolists, and offering to produce evidence to sustain these assertions. This talk is eagerly listened to by the boomers, and their commentary is, these charges must be true, because there is the law of libel to punish him if the parties implicated are belied. These people forget that Brick Pomeroy is bankrupt in character as well as in purse, that defamation is his stock in trade, and that a controversy with the public men he so brutally assails would bring him the notoriety he covets.

From Senator Ingalls we have the following explicit denial of the charges, in a letter dated the 20th inst.

AAfter a Republican and a Democratic administration have both taken the same position on the legal question (of the right of entry to the Oklahoma lands) that I announced originally, it would seem as if my sincerity should not be open to question. With regard to the resolutions against me, adopted by the colonists, I would say I never had any interest in the Indian Territory to the extent of a blade of grass, either for myself or through others, directly or indirectly. I was never consulted by any person on the subject, nor did I request or recommend the granting of any issue, either by the Indians or by the department.@

The case resolves itself into a question of veracity between our home statesmanCa leading member of the United States Senate, enjoying the confidence of the people he represents and elected to a third termCand a political outcast like Brick Pomeroy, whose life is a public scandal, and whose pen drips with the gall of detraction and abuse. The boomers make a great point of the justice of their cause, but they should be careful to practice justice in their dealings with public men. They also profess to be solicitous to win the approval of the American people, but it would be well for them to consider whether unstinted abuse of all who differ with them in opinion is the best way to win confidence in their aims and methods.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, April 29, 1885.


When the Oklahoma colonists classify this journal among the newspapers hostile to their cause, they show gross misapprehension. We wish to see the surplus lands in the territory thrown open to settlement, and, certainly, those who have devoted years to the agitation of the matter, and committed their all to the success of the endeavor to get in, should be allowed to have a share. To take a purely selfish view, Arkansas City would be greatly benefited by the settlement of the Indian lands, as it would extend her trade over a wide area now under the pall of barbarians, and impart a stimulus to her growth that would last for years. And to consider the matter on its intrinsic merits, it would be well to remember that the occupants of the territory are divided among themselves in regard to the allotment of their lands. Some years ago the Chickasaws stirred up a movement to apply to the Secretary of the Interior for the survey of their land, with a view to allotment in severalty and the sale of the surplus to white settlers. The Choctaws, however, affiliated with the Chickasaws, and who outnumber the latter tribe four to one, were less progressive, and when the question was brought up in the national council, it was defeated by the preponderance of the Choctaw vote. In the Cherokee nation there has long been a division on this point; the Ross party clinging to tribal relations and the social conditions of their early ancestors, while Col. E. C. Boudinot with a considerable following, desire the leaven of pale face energy let in, with the further advantage of a revenue derived from the sale of their lands.

How this desirable movement is to be brought about, is a question for statesmanship to determine. To attempt to coerce the red tribes by a forcible occupation of their soil would arouse their resentment, and hinder rather than advance the work.

As a feeble concession to pale face demands, a number of tribes have leased a portion of their land to cattlemen, partly to relieve themselves of the odium of keeping their domain idle, and because they have abundant uses for the rent derived from the same. The boomers claim that these leases are illegal, quoting Sec. 2,115 of the Revised Statutes of the United States, which prohibits the making of any lease, grant, or conveyance of land, by any tribe of Indians, unless by treaty or convention. How this law sould be interpreted by the courts is a matter of conjecture, as treaties are no longer made with Indian tribes, and the word Aconvention@ has wide signification.

But the colonists are naturally suspicious. They see eastern capitalists and European land grabbers gaining a foothold on the soil, and, having experience of their unscrupulous methods, they believe this step to be preliminary to ultimate absorption. Therefore, they are imperative in demanding that the cattlemen with their herds be driven out, and this done, they express themselves willing to abide the action of the administration.

While reasonable counsels prevail with the colonists, they have the TRAVELER=s hearty support. We desire to see the Indian Territory opened to settlement, and we insist that the surplus land, after the red occupants are provided with homes, shall be parceled out among actual settlers. The boomers by organizing themselves as colonists, by urging this step on the government, and forcing it on the attention of the American people, as such agitation tends to advance the desired consummation, are rendering useful service to the country. But when they undertake to override Congress and the law, when with demagogic clamor, they denounce all branches of the government as composed of thieves and usurpers; and when they declare their intention to commit sedition and enter the territory, Asoldiers or no soldiers,@ it is clear they are transcending the rights of citizens, and no law abiding journal can sanction their excess.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 29, 1885.


The Oklahomites Discuss the Present Situation.

And Take Solid Comfort that the Cattle Men Must Leave.

They Adopt Resolutions and Have a Good Time.

The announcement that the Boomers would hold a meeting on their camp ground at 9:30 o=clock, on the 22nd inst., to hear the resolutions to express the sense of the colonists that had been prepared, drew together a considerable gathering of Oklahomites and others interested in the movement. At the hour designated the leader of the boomers, Capt. W. L. Couch, presented himself on a stand, and called the meeting to order. He said the colonists would be deprived of the pleasure of listening to Hon. Sidney Clarke, who had come to Arkansas City from Washington for the purpose of telling them what had been done in the national capital the past winter in relation to their interests, and also to counsel with them as to the steps now proper to take. But that gentleman was unable to appear before them, as he had been taken down with sickness in his hotel and was now confined to his bed. The speaker said it was for the colonists to determine which they would do. He had the assurance of the government officers that the cattle men should be excluded from the Territory.

A voice: AAnd their stock?@

Capt. Crouch: AYes, and their stock, and their improvements, and all they have placed there.@

Capt. Crouch stated he believed the administration was acting in good faith. If the colonists sought to force an entrance upon the prohibited lands before the government had taken the necessary proceedings, it would prejudice their cause, and forfeit the favorable opinion that was now held of the law-abiding character of the colonists. He desired them to listen to the resolutions that would be read, debate them fully, every man and woman saying what they thought about them, but he hoped they would restrain themselves from uttering anything that would beget ill-feeling.

Col. Crocker, of Iowa, who is a sort of attorney-general to the boomers, then mounted the stand with the resolutions in his hand. He explained that the committee which had framed the resolutions had been enlarged to 34, that being the number of states represented in the colony; it had met at 8 o=clock the preceding evening to consider the question, and although there was diversity of opinion among the members, the report he was about to read was unanimously approved by the committee. He then read the report as follows.

WHEREAS, The members of Payne=s Oklahoma Colony have received the report of Capt. W. L. Couch, Gen. James B. Weaver, and Hon. Sidney Clarke, who presented our cause and views to the President, the Cabinet, and the Hon. Secretary of the Interior, and solicited favorable action in our behalf. And

WHEREAS, Assurance has been given us through our delegates that the question at issue, relating to Oklahoma, will be speedily settled by removing the cattle syndicates from the whole territory in dispute, including the occupancy of the surrounding Indian Reser-vations under illegal leases, preparatory to instituting negotiations to open the country to homestead settlement, as provided by the recent act of Congress.

Therefore, Resolved that in order to aid the Administration to carry out the aforesaid measures in good faith, and to solve the problem of the settlement of Oklahoma as soon as practicable, we deem it advisable to wait for a reasonable time the contemplated action.

Resolved, That the headquarters of this Colony shall remain at Arkansas City, Kansas, until a more suitable place be secured by officers of said Colony.

Mr. Furlong being called for, said he held different views from some others as to what it was best to do, but he would acquiesce with the sense of the meeting. He had insisted on going to OklahomaCsoldiers or no soldiers, because he was tired of being trifled with. Promises had been repeatedly made to them that the cattle men should be driven from the Indian lands. Had this been done? Now there was another promise offered them. If his brethren thought the administration was acting in good faith and would do as it said, let them adopt the resolutions. If they thought confidence was not to be placed in any such pledges, then vote them down and march into Oklahoma in spite of all obstacles. If the colonists should conclude it was right to go there, he was willing to take all chances of gaining possession.

A murmur arose among the crowd that they were being stuffed with the same old story; their delegates had come back from Washington and brought nothing new.

Mr. Echelberger being next called, said it was premature to ask his views, as he had just joined the meeting and had not heard the resolutions. But this he was willing to say: He had been a devoted follower of Capt. Payne for four years, and now that W. L. Couch was their leader, he was willing to follow him through thick and thin. When Cleveland issued his proclamation warning the boomers off the Indian land, they sent their leader to Washington to see what could be done in their behalf. He has performed the duty assigned him faithfully and worthily, as all are willing to believeCand now he is here to give us the benefit of his judgment. What we know of the intents and professions of the officials at Washington cannot be measured with his knowledge, and he did not believe that any were present who desired to cast a reflection on his fidelity. The speaker favored the adoption of the resolutions, as he believed in supporting Capt. Couch as long as he stood by the cause.

Col. Wilcox, the next speaker, thought it would be best to make haste slowly. Yesterday he did not favor delay, but after talking with Capt. Couch and Sidney Clarke, he now thought it best to abide by their judgment. The impression has been produced by senators, cattle owners, and others, that the colonists are a reckless, law-defying set of men, and this has injured their cause in Washington. Mr. Clarke assures him that this sentiment is entirely changed, and the villifiers of this people are now under the ban. The simple statement of their agents had more weight with the authorities in Washington than all the reports of Hatch and the other government agents. He with others had waited years, during which time it had been a struggle to keep body and soul together. Still they had survived, and could pull through another year. If in the end they could secure a home in Oklahoma, it would abundantly repay them for all the suffering it had cost.

Mr. Shepherd was then called for, who on presenting himself, said he approved the resolutions. To reject them would affix the hand of untruthfulness on their delegates and convict them of treachery to the cause they were identified with. It was proper to trust in the honesty of the administration. A commission had been appointed to rid the territory of the cattle men before settlers are admitted. A boom had been made in Washington last winter that had helped their cause more than anything done before. His counsel was to adopt the resolutions, and then give the government time to redeem its pledges. Capt. Couch should be sustained as he had shown his fidelity when put to the proof, and they all know that he feared neither man nor the devil. When the proper time arrives, he will take you into Oklahoma, if he has to open the way at the point of the bayonet. He (the speaker) cared more for the approval of popular sentiment then all the opposition of cattle men and their lying auxiliaries. His advice was to stand by their leader, for if he had to go back on Couch he should be ready to lose confidence in himself. What he wanted to see was the territory ridded of the cattle men, and not have the government make fish of one class of citizens and flesh of another. He again urged the colonists to sustain the resolutions and show they still held confidence in their leader.

Mr. Echelberger resumed the stand to enter his protest against the disparagement cast by the last speaker upon the labors of Capt. Payne. During the five years their deceased leader had carried the Oklahoma banner, he had fought a hostile public sentiment, won thousands of supporters to his cause, and so pressed the justice of his claims on the American people that the government was now ready to concede what they asked.

This brought Mr. Stewart again to his feet, who said he thought his brother had insight enough into human nature to know what he (the speaker) meant, if he didn=t say it. Capt. Payne had planted the seed and nurtured the plant; it had blossomed at Washigton, and now they were ready to pluck the fruit.

Dr. Pile said he was here and had no other place to go to. He was looking for the appointment of a commission to remove the cattle men and admit honest settlers in their place. He cited instances where commissions had been appointed to treat with Indians for their lands, and settlers had been admitted before the negotiations were concluded or the lands surveyed.

A Texas boomer, named A. T. Stone, said he was stopping at a city hotel, and cattle men were coming there in great numberCtheir name was legion. Some of these people mistook him for a cattle owner, and had taken him into their confidence. The declaration of Secretary Lamar that the cattle men should be put out of the territory had scared them badly, and they were now ready to extend their hands to the boomers and make common cause with them. He believed that within thirty days the colonists will be invited to enter. The stock is too poor to drive yet, and the owners want time to fatten them. Those that are fit for market they will then sell, and the others they will drive out west. He believed that within a month the President would issue a proclamation declaring the land they were seeking public domain.

Isaac McClaskie said he was in favor of adopting the resolutions, but he was not certain that their work was all done when the resolutions should be adopted. The next step would be to memorialize government to remove the cattle men at as early a day as possible. No Indian permit or lease justifies them in keeping stock in the territory. When this is done, they had done all they could, until the time comes for them to take possession. If the way is not opened to them in the manner promised, he would then favor their going in in spite of the devil.

Mr. Crocker, in a second brief address, gave a history of the Oklahoma movement since its inception in 1879. It had grown in public favor because the claim of the colonists was just, and the opposition they now encountered came from capitalists in the east and European land monopolists, whose aim was to rob the working-man of his heritage. But he believed the colonists had beaten them in their game, and this was the first successful effort of the kind since the days of the revolution. He then indulged his hearers with a lofty flight of the American bird, which they seemed in no humor to enjoy. He declared his belief that by June 1st they would be permitted to enter their long coveted Oklahoma homes.

The debate on the report of the committee being brought to a close, its adoption was submitted to a vote and unanimously carried. A resolution offering the entire confidence of the colonists in their leader, Capt. Couch, was also sustained with unanimity; and another awarding the thanks of the meeting to Hon. Sidney Clarke and Gen. Weaver for their faithful and effective services.

Capt. Couch said the headquarters of the colonists would still be kept in Arkansas City, and the interests of the company would be diligently looked after. Those who were compelled to work to support their families would do well to seek employment as near at hand as possible, so as to join in the rally when the call comes. Those who could afford to wait awhile longer should stay by the camp, as he did not wish the report to be spread abroad that the boomers had scattered and given up their organization. Three rousing cheers were then given for Oklahoma, and the meeting dispersed.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, May 6, 1885.


A Judicial Decision Affirming the Title of the Cherokees.

FORT SMITH, ARKANSAS, April 28. One of the mot important judicial decisions ever rendered in the Federal Court of this district was docketed here today. In September, 1884, the Federal Grand Jury at Wichita, Kansas, indicted Connell Rogers, chief clerk of J. Q. Tufts, Indian Agent, charging Rogers with arson. The alleged offense consisted in burning a small board cabin, built by one of Oklahoma Payne=s followers, at the time of Payne=s last expulsion from the Indian country. The cabin was situated upon the Cherokee strip, or outlet, known as Oklahoma. Mr. Rogers was acting in the place of Tufts, carrying out an order of the Interior Department to remove all settlers from such lands. A copy of the indictment was forwarded to this court from Wichita. This court ordered a warrant, upon which Rogers was arrested on the 31st of December, 1884, and brought here. The United States District Attorney for this district asked an order of removal for Rogers to Wichita for trial. At the same time Rogers sued out a writ of habeas corpus, and challenged the jurisdiction of the United States Court of Kansas to try the case. The relator insisted upon the jurisdiction of the court of Wichita.

The court held that all that tract of land lying west of the ninety-sixth meridian, known as the Cherokee strip or outlet, is now, and was at the time the illegal offense was committed, a part of the Cherokee country, owned in fee by said tribe and occupied by them under a patent issued by the United States on Dec. 31, 1838 [? 1888 ?], and still owned by them, except such as was sold to the Osage tribe and one or two other tribes, still leaving them owners of more than 7,000,000 of acres of unsold land. This virtually declares the Cherokees, as a tribe, the owners of all the Oklahoma country, and decides that the act of Congress of January, 1883, creating the Federal court at Wichita, with jurisdiction over all that country lying west of the ninety-sixth meridian and north of the Canadian River, unoccupied by the Cherokees, negatory, because these lands are part of the Cherokee country. Therefore, Rogers was released, the jurisdiction of the Kansas court denied, and the Cherokees own Oklahoma.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, May 6, 1885.

One of our New Mexico exchanges, the Silver City Enterprise, quotes, with hearty approval, Secretary Lamar=s declaration that the government would protect the Indian Territory from the intrusion of white persons, and his further saying that it would be the policy of the administration to remove all stockmen now holding cattle on the Oklahoma reservation. Upon this the editor extends the following hospitable invitation: AThis will force the ejected stockmen to secure new ranges for their herds, and will doubtless give New Mexico a lasting boom in the stock line, as there are yet many unstocked ranges in this Territory which can be had at reasonable prices.@

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, May 6, 1885.

The decision rendered by the Federal court at Fort Smith (which we give on another page), declaring the Oklahoma land the property of the Cherokees, sustains the ground taken by the Administration. The case tried was one of ejectment by an Indian agent (acting through his clerk), and the act was justified on the ground that the Cherokees, by virtue of a patent issued by the government to that tribe, are owners of all the Oklahoma country. Brick Pomeroy and the boomers declare the coveted region public domain, but with the administration and the judiciary against them, there is slight chance of their loose allegations having effect. This will probably bring the matter before the Supreme Court of the United States, and then it will be decided beyond revocation.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, May 6, 1885.


Journals devoted to the livestock interest are bestowing a good share of attention on the subject of leases. The question lies between stock raisers taking in large tracts of land for grazing purposes, and the same being left open for agricultural use. A warm feeling has been aroused over this question, and the matter is debated with some energy on both sides. The charges against the leasing system are that vast tracts of land are enclosed to the detriment of settlers and often in violation of their rights, that roads are closed up, access to streams denied, and one case is mentioned where a barb wire fence was extended around a county building. The rent, it is alleged, is in many cases, merely nominal, and the suspicion is strongly intimated that many of these leases are but a preliminary step to an eventual absorption of the land. Foreign corporations figure among the most extensive lessees, and the question is asked whether these English lords and plutocrats will not soon invest in our corn and wheat lands, and introduce the practice in vogue in Ireland of leasing the same to American citizens.

Every new development in social and political life has a tendency to run to excess. When the policy was inaugurated of granting land subsidies to railways and wagon-roads, the bounty of the nation was found so profitable that charters were obtained for roads by companies who invested no capitalCexcept for laboring purposesCand to traverse routes where business would not support them. This was continued till the public domain was nearly all parceled out to Agreedy corporations,@ and it became such a public scandal that the people imperatively forbade its continuance.

This cattle business has also run riot. Leases are recorded of half a million acres to private individuals, and a corporation in this state is said to have a domain of 6,000,000 acres (nearly 10,000 square miles), larger than some European kingdoms. This arouses public resentment; it is land monopoly, and the whole system is condemned without discrimination.

There is sound argument on the other side. The supply of beef to our population of 55,000,000 is as useful an industry as the cultivation of grain, and the man whose enterprise is as much a public benefactor as he who makes two blades of grass grow in the room of one. The grazing lands are mainly found in the arid regions of the far west, in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Arizona, and New Mexico. Ranges in those incultivable countries, which produce native grasses, support numerous herds, where the settler who depends on the plow for his support, would run the risk of starving to death. A good portion is public domain subject to entry, under the various land laws, but settlers without capital have no use for it, and that it may be turned to the best use it is capable of, leases are granted to stock raisers, which gives them secure possession.

There is much useless clamor in this outcry against cattle land leases. The country must have beef the same as it must have other necessaries, and a place must be devoted to raising the supply. If the people depended on the animals raised on cultivated grasses and foddered through the winter, butcher=s meat would become as great a luxury as it is in the old countries where the working man tastes it once or twice a week and the farm laborer no oftener in the entire year. A feeling of jealousy lies at the bottom of this outcry; several cattle men have grown rich and some suppose their success is gained at the expense of the many. But this works its own correction. Large profits attract competition; and there has been such large accessions made of late to the stock raising industry that if there is no actual danger of the business being overdone, there is certain to be a paring of profit, and an economical equilibrium will thus be established.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, May 6, 1885.


The Topeka Capital argues itself into the belief that the Indian Territory must be opened to white settlement at no distant time. Population is pressing up to its borders, and traffic with the gulf country must be uninterrupted. The Indian occupants are entitled to fair treatment at the hands of the government, but there is no justice in discriminating in their favor at the expense of the white man. Let each head of an Indian family have a quarter section of land allotted to him (or half a section if deemed advisable), and make it inalienable for a term of years; then let the surplus land be sold to settlers at the government price of $1.25 per acre, and the entries so guarded that monopolists cannot get hold of the domain. Too many million acres of public land have already been given to greedy corporations, and profiting by this costly experience, we should be careful to provide that what remains passes into the hands of the honest toiler. The more progressive of the Indian occupants of the territory ask that this disposition be made of their reservations, because they are aware that they cannot put the land to proper use themselves, and they are willing to part with the surplus to those who can. This would open roads through that unoccupied region, cause the building of towns and cities, and transform what is now a mere wilderness into a busy home of thrift and industry. Our Topeka contemporary says: AThe white people of this country have concluded that if 160 acres of land is enough for a white man, it is equally so for an Indian, and they intend to apply that theory in practice.@ This is the whole thing in a nutshell, and the force of logic will prevail.

Arkansas City Traveler, May 6, 1885.

The boomers were comforting themselves a while ago with the belief that the cattle owners in the Territory would make common cause, and within thirty days invite them in to joint occupancy. But the stockmen are now perplexed with the inquiry whether they can hold the fort themselves.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, May 20, 1885.


Capt. Couch=s followers have changed their base, and are meditating, as we are again told, another inroad into the territory. They take credit to themselves of having outwitted the authorities. While loafing in their camp in Arkansas City, eating up their scant substance, a number of the more enterprising, who had wagons and teams, went to work at freighting for the government; and a dispatch, dated the 13th inst., mentions twenty-seven boomer wagons loaded with Indian supplies, taken on at the depot in this city, having delivered their loads at the Cheyenne Agency, passed on to the Oklahoma district. They had concealed what farming utensils they possessed, and on arriving at the coveted land, instantly set about farming operations. The absence of the military, consequent upon the change of regiments, gave them the opportunity they sought, and these men, who have effected an entrance, now invite their brother boomers to join them in their raid.

What they are to gain by this sharp practice we are a loss to see. The fifth cavalry, under Colonel Merritt, will reach here early in June, and as their duty is to keep invaders out of the territory, they will make short work in dislodging those unauthorized occupants and destroying what improvements they may have made. It was a cute game they played, but the question is, what good are they going to derive from it?

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, May 20, 1885.


Capt. Couch=s followers have changed their base, and are meditating, as we are again told, another inroad into the territory. They take credit to themselves of having outwitted the authorities. While loafing in their camp in Arkansas City, eating up their scant substance, a number of the more enterprising, who had wagons and teams, went to work at freighting for the government; and a dispatch, dated the 13th inst., mentions twenty-seven boomer wagons loaded with Indian supplies, taken on at the depot in this city, having delivered their loads at the Cheyenne Agency, passed on to the Oklahoma district. They had concealed what farming utensils they possessed, and on arriving at the coveted land, instantly set about farming operations. The absence of the military, consequent upon the change of regiments, gave them the opportunity they sought, and these men, who have effected an entrance, now invite their brother boomers to join them in their raid.

What they are to gain by this sharp practice we are a loss to see. The fifth cavalry, under Colonel Merritt, will reach here early in June, and as their duty is to keep invaders out of the territory, they will make short work in dislodging those unauthorized occupants and destroying what improvements they may have made. It was a cute game they played, but the question is, what good are they going to derive from it?

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, May 20, 1885.


The Indian appropriation bill passed by congress in its last session, provides for the appointment of a commission to negotiate with the Cherokees for the cession of their lands comprising the Cherokee strip, comprising an area of 6,500,000 acres. This large extent of country was leased by the Cherokee council, in a special session, held two years ago (May, 1883), to a number of cattle companies for a term of five years, at an annual rental of 1 2 cents per acre. This supplies a revenue, during the continuance of the lease, of $17,500, a more profitable return, it is fair to suppose, than the Cherokees would derive from it, if they retained it as pasture land for their own stock.

But there appears to be dissatisfaction with the authority exercised by the Cherokee legislators in granting the lease. A memorial laid before President Cleveland asking that negotiations for the cession of the above mentioned land be deferred, rehearses the following facts: That the Cherokee people were not consulted by their representatives in the council about the terms and conditions of the lease; that these members had been elected nearly two years, and the granting of a lease was not contemplated when they were elected; that corrupt means were used to procure the lease, and, finally, that the contract is in violation of the Cherokee constitution and of the laws of the United States.

There will be a general election in the Cherokee nation the first Monday in August, to elect members of the national council, which body will convene in regular session the 2nd of November next. There the question of the legality of the lease will be considered, and the methods whereby it was procured and granted, inquired into. These are the grounds advanced by the memorialists for asking that the proposed negotiations be postponed; but what real force may be contained in them, a lack of a full knowledge of the facts prevents our hazarding an opinion.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, May 20, 1885.


A recent Washington dispatch informs us that Senator Dawes, with his sub-committee, commissioned to investigate the leases granted to cattlemen in the Indian Territory, will take the field during the present month. But we learn from later information that the appropriation to pay the expense of this commission will not be available till July (the beginning of the next fiscal year), thus it is not likely the gentlemen will start till the money to pay their expenses can be drawn. They propose to make diligent inquiry, travel from post to post, see the country, and learn from the Indians how the leases were obtained, and whether the contracts are satisfactory. At the meeting of Congress next December, it is probable the commission will recommend legislation either to legalize and define this practice of leasing or to prohibit it entirely.

There is also another commission authorized by Congress to inquire into the status of the Cherokee strip and to learn on what terms the five great nations will release what claims they have upon Oklahoma and the strip, with a view to opening these lands to settlement by the whites. Under existing treaties with the tribes for the purchase of the tracts by the government, it is stipulated that they shall only be occupied by Indians. Numerous applications have been made to the President and Secretary Lamar for appointment on this commission; but as the appropriation does not mature till the opening of the next fiscal year, it is not thought that any commissioners will be chosen till that time is at hand.

Arkansas City Traveler, May 20, 1885.

[Boomer Newspaper.]

The War Chief, an alleged newspaper partly printed in this city, fills its columns every week with lying abuse of the Kansas senators, copied from Brick Poneroy=s paper in Washington. The Chief is not identified with the interests of the state, and is simply the exponent of a filibustering crowd of boomers; it has therefore no becoming pride in the reputation of our public men, and persists in traducing and slandering them at second-hand from a reckless disregard of truth.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, May 27, 1885.

Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS, May 25. A special from the Indian Territory says that the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs have arrived at Muskogee. The visit is creating great interest. They began work at Muskogee, Creek Nation. The most important question, other than the sale of Oklahoma and the Cherokee Strip, will be that of citizenship.

The Indians claim that the Territory is being overrun by whites claiming Indian blood. Many hundreds have been declared intruders, and ordered to leave; but the Interior Department has interfered and prevented their ejectment. The sale or lease of the western portion of the Territory is being warmly discussed. An outright sale is generally opposed, but the advocates claim that it is gaining ground.

In the Cherokee Nation there is a great diversity of opinion. A communication signed by many leading Cherokees has been sent to President Cleveland asking that he defer sending a special committee to negotiate for the purchase to the Territory until after the election of a new legislature in August, so that the measure may be brought before the poeple and deliberated upon during the campaign. Although it is not a decided stand, yet it is the ground taken by the leaders of five tribes who must unite on a decision.

The opinion prevails that Bushy Head, the principal chief of the Cherokees, and J. M. Perriman, chief of the Creeks, favor a sale. McCurtain, governor of the Choctaws, also is said to be in sympathy with the move to dispose of the lands.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 5, 1885.


It is a healthy sign when a people becomes worked up over a political issue. A public matter that comes home to the bosoms and business of all, that sets them to arguing and resolving, and even produces bad blood in the most excitable, is as useful to social life as a thunder storm is to physical nature. It puts the life currents of the people in motion, it stimulates an interest in public affairs, it is an educator, and a sovereign specific against intellectual dry rot.

The Cherokees have been in a turmoil the past month or two over the vital question of the disposal of their lands. The nation is divided into two parties over this matter: the Independents, in their platform, declaring against selling one foot of Cherokee land for white settlement; while the Downing party are indifferent about who purchases their soil, their sole solicitude being over the price it will bring. This has been the one subject of angry discussion between the Cherokee Advocate organ of the Independents, and the Indian Chieftain, advocate of the Downing party.

On Monday this matter was brought to an issue in the election of members to the national council. Each candidate for the senate and the lower branch was unmistakably committed to the side he would take, and every Cherokee voter, in depositing his ballot, declared his will in regard to this important land question. The Independents (or according to our political nomenclature, the Conservatives) pledge themselves Ato uphold and maintain the existing form of government of the Cherokee people, and to strive to retain the national domain entire, that there may be lands and homes for every member of the nation,@ this exclusiveness being rejected by their political opponents, who favor the sale of the Cherokee strip, as a means of procuring wealth to stimulate the energies of the nation.@

In the Chieftain, a lively discussion has been maintained the past few weeks of what is called Athe intruder question.@ As presented by the writersCand correspondence is voluminous on this side issueCwhite men are crowding into the Cherokee nation, and the soil is being rapidly absorbed by these intruders. AWe are losing our lands at a fearful rate,@ says one writer, who signs himself J. H. Beck, Aby the encroachments of the so-called intruders. We are so addicted to old time customs that we fear to ask council to allot our lands and give us patents therefore, fearing its influence will, in the end, break up our form of government. And so we drift on, no one knowing what he has, and each year he owns less.@

The enforcement of the laws seems to be lax in regard to pale face occupants. AIt has reached that point,@ says one authority, Athat all a person has to do to establish a right to live in this nation, is to move in here and claim Indian blood, file certain papers with the Indian agent, claiming to be a citizen of this nation, and here he remains.@

This evil may be overstated for political effect, but it was turned to good advantage during the canvass. The lesson inculcated by all who dealt on the prevalence of intrudership, was to allot the land in severalty, and obtain patents for the same, then dispose of the remainder to the best advantage and divide up the money among the members of the tribe.

We are apt to regard our red brothers as unsophisticated, but in the arts of the politician they show themselves by no means slow. At this writing the result of the election has not been made known.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 19, 1885.


The irritation of the Cheyennes was caused by the attempt of Agent Dyer to carry out the order of Commissioner Atkins, to enroll the members of the tribe as a basis for the issue of rations. The braves gathered around the agency threatening the agent=s life, and spreading panic terror through the border settlements, it being supposed they were about to take the war path. A large military force was gathered there to restrain them, and Gen. Sheridan was sent to the seat of the trouble to deal effectively with the insurgents. The presence of this redoubtable chieftain had a mollifying effect on the truculent redskins, and they submitted to enrollment without further protest. The actual count of the Cheyennes showed 3,377 members of the tribe, instead of 5,000, which number had hitherto been supplied with rations; and of the Arapahoes there were 1,300, instead of 2,360, as the ration table had hitherto reported. Those who have lately been employed at the agency are positive in their belief that both tribes contain more individuals than were enrolled, they supposing that a considerable number absented themselves from the reservation rather than take part in a proceeding they despised.

This affords fruitful matter for reflection. With the rations of these tribes cut down more than one-third; the lease money, amounting to $70,000 a year, cut off; and the herds of the cattlemen, which have afforded them many a surreptitious meal, beyond their reach, now how are they going to supply their wants? It was urged that the border settlements were endangered by the irritation produced by the presence of the cattlemen and their herds. Will these turbulent Cheyennes be any less restive when incited to mischief by unfed stomachs?

It has been alleged that the Indians were cajoled into granting these cattle leases by their former agent, John D. Miles; that he was beneficially interested with the stockmen, and practiced the arts of collusion to procure the use of the Indian pasture lands for these intruders. Those best informed of the facts know how entirely untrue is this allegation. Agent Miles was sincerely devoted to the interest of the redmen committed to his charge, and was constantly employed devising measures to arouse them from their mental lethargy, and enlist their interest in some useful pursuit.

The life of a wild Indian on a reservation is a wearisome blank. He has nothing to do, nothing to occupy his thoughts, no plans to work out for the future. He loafs about his tepee smoking and whittling; he runs pony races in the hot sun till tired of the excitement, and then returns to his uncomfortable home and quarrels with his wives because they are less expert in housekeeping than the wives of the government employees. The Texas cattle range ran past the Cheyenne and Arapahoe agency, and Agent Miles would take frequent occasion to suggest to the most hopeful of his wards that they could raise Aspotted buffalo,@ like the pale faces, and gain many shekels by sending them to market.

During a stay of this writer at the agency about twelve years ago, a progressive Arapahoe chief, called Cut Finger, visited Agent Miles, to discuss the details of embarking in the cattle industry. The agent encouraged him all that was possible. He promised to procure a number of cows and yearlings to start the herd, to furnish lumber from the mill to put up necessary buildings, and to help them save as much hay as they wanted to tide over any stress in the winter. The chief went away highly elated with these propositions; but he could not stir up his young men to any interest in the enterprise, and it died out as so many useful projects expire, where you have intellectual dry rot for a foundation.

As the next best resort, the agent suggested cattle leases. This would bring money into their hands, which they all coveted so eagerly, and bring under their daily observation an example of white man=s ways, which Agent Miles thought might have wholesome and stimulating effect. As the suggestion imposed no labor or mental exertion on the redmen, they readily fell in with it. The leases were drawn up, the herds turned in to graze, wire fences put up; the rent for the pasture lands being paid regularly.

But the idle, profitless lives of these Indians still oppressed them, and in assigning a cause for their uneasiness, it was charged upon the cattle leases. Gen. Sheridan was sent to look over the ground, and finding that irritation existed, he also assumed it was the presence of the cattlemen, and recommended their removal with their herds. This was decreed by the president, and in two weeks from this date, if the executive order is heeded, the Cheyenne pasture lands will be depopulated of their bellowing herds. And then what will have been accomplished? Will the mind of the restive Cheyenne brave taste restful content? Will our border settlements be secure from inroad and violence? The statesmanship of the adminis-tration is resolute and Jacksonian, but what will the harvest be, will take no great while to declare itself.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 19, 1885.

Ex-Secretary Teller was in Washington a few days ago, and in an interview with an associated press reporter, denied that the leases to the cattlemen as first granted by the Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes, in 1883, had ever been sanctioned or recognized by him as secretary of the Interior. He says he specifically stated at the time, and incorporated his statement in his reports of 1883-1884, that the government reserved the right to interfere with the cattlemen and remove them whenever it became necessary, either of his own motion or from complaints of the Indians. In this connection he announced to the cattlemen that if such occupation proved agreeable to the Indians, the government would not interfere with possession. The Senator is of the opinion that much good has been done the Indians by meeting the cattlemen, having been taught how to herd cattle and in other ways made familiar with actual business.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 19, 1885.


Proclamation of the President Requiring the Fences Removed.

WASHINGTON, Aug. 10. The following proclamation by the president was issued today.

WHEREAS, public policy demands that the public domain shall be reserved for the occupancy of actual settlers in good faith, and that our people who seek homes upon such domain shall in nowise be prevented by any wrongful intervention from the safe and free entry thereon to which they may be entitled; and

WHEREAS, to secure and maintain this beneficial policy, a statute was passed by the Congress of the United States, on the 25th day of February, 1885, which declared to be unlawful all inclosures of any public lands in any state or territory to any of which land included within said enclosure a person, party, association, or corporation making or controlling such inclosures had no claim or color to the title made or acquired in good faith, or an asserted right thereto, by or under a claim made in good faith with a view to the entry thereof at the proper land office; and which statute also prohibits any person by force, threat, intimidation, or by any fencing, inclosure or other unlawful means, preventing or obstructing any person from peaceably entering upon a settlement or residence on any tract of public land, subject to settlement or entry under the public laws of the United States, and preventing or obstructing the free passage and transit over or through such public land; and

WHEREAS, it is, by the fifth section of the said act, provided as follows, that the president is hereby authorized to take such means as shall be necessary to remove and destroy any unlawful inclosure of said land and employ civil or military force, as may be necessary, for that purpose; and,

WHEREAS, it has been brought to my knowledge that unlawful inclosures and such as are prohibited by the terms of the aforesaid statute exist upon the public domain, and that actual legal settlement thereon is prevented and obstructed by such inclosures and by force, threats, and intimidation,

Now, therefore, I, Grover Cleveland, president of the United States, do hereby order and direct that any and every unlawful inclosure of the public lands, maintained by any person, association, or corporation, be immediately removed, and I do hereby forbid any person, association, or corporation from preventing or obstructing, by means of such inclosures or by force, threats, or intimidation, any person entitled thereto from peaceably entering upon and establishing a settlement or residence upon any part of said public land, which is subject to entry and settlement under the laws of the United States, and I command and require each and every officer of the United States upon whom the duty is legally involved, to cause this order to be obeyed, and all provisions of the act of congress herein mentioned to be faithfully enforced. GROVER CLEVELAND.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 19, 1885.


Fight Among Cowboys.

FT. RENO, INDIAN TERRITORY, August 17, 1885. A letter from Erin Springs to the press reporter furnishes the news of a desperate fight between cowboys which occurred yesterday at the ranch of Frank Murray, thirty-five miles southeast of here in the Chickasaw Nation. A party of twenty-five cowboys rode up to the ranch and fired a volley of about one hundred shots at the boys inside the cabin, with whom they had previously quarrelled over branded stock. The boys inside being well armed retaliated, dropping dead Dick Cavat and seriously wounding Dick Jones and Bob Woods, of the attacking party. It is known that serious trouble has been brewing between the two factions for many weeks, and this killing makes four persons shot dead at this ranch since last April. Cavat, the cowboy last killed, is said to have been a bad character, while Woods and Jones are equally as notorious.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 19, 1885.

Territory Cattle.

FT. SCOTT, Aug. 14. Two train loads of cattle from the Indian Territory, numbering 900 head, passed through this city tonight en route to Chicago, being the first to make their exit from the Territory under the president=s order. These cattle were brought over the St. Louis, Ft. Scott and Wichita railroad from the ranche of the Austin Cattle Company, 165 west of Anthony, Harper County. The trains made an average of nineteen miles an hour from Anthony to Ft. Scott. The St. Louis and Wichita road have secured a driveway from the Territory line to their stock yards at Anthony.

Arkansas City Republican, June 13, 1885.

Indian Postmasters.

In the Indian Territory, where the Government maintains about seventy-five post offices, some of the postmasters are Indians. They were appointed during the republican administration of affairs at Washington, and nobody appears to have questioned the eligibility of Indians for such places. Now that changes are contemplated, however, a question has arisen, and the Attorney General, to whom it has been referred, has decided against the Indians.

Mr. Garland holds that so long as an Indian preserves his tribal relation and remains subject to the jurisdiction of his tribe, he is not legally competent to take the oath of office required of postmasters. This view accords with that entertained by most of the courts and commentators who have considered the relation of Indians to the government.

It would seem, however, that Indians can readily qualify themselves to hold office. AWhen the tribal relations are dissolved,@ says Chief Justice Cooley, Aor when any individual withdraws and makes himself a member of the civilized community, adopting the habits of its people, and subjecting himself fully to the jurisdiction, his right to protection of person, property, and privilege becomes as complete as that of any other native-born inhabitant.@ It is possible, then, for an Indian to become a postmaster, but not while he remains among his own people.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, June 20, 1885.

An Indian Commune.

The writers on communism, socialism, co-operation, and kindred subjects appear to have overlooked the Indian Territory.

According to Senator Ingalls the Cherokee Nation has solved the problem of possessing all property in common. Through the sagacious management of some of the early leaders, the great fund belonging to the Cherokees, arising from the sale of their lands, has been kept together instead of being dealt out to individuals and frittered away. The money belongs to the Nation collectively. The same course has been pursued in regard to the soil. It has not been divided in severalty, but is the common property of the Nation. A Cherokee may use as much or as little as he chooses. The result has been that the Cherokees, as a people, are rich, and, individually, every man has enough, and there is no such thing as a Cherokee pauper. At Tahlequah there are two academies, one for males, and the other for females, and not only tuition, but board, clothing, and all expenses are furnished by the government of the Nation. The Auntutored mind@ of the Indian has found a method to abolish pauperism, and cracked a nut that white legislators and social economists have found altogether too tough.

Atchison Champion.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, June 20, 1885.


Senator Dawes, who was interviewed in Chicago by the Tribune, went all over the Oklahoma question. He says that the district named is occupied more or less by cattle men, who crowd their herds over from the surrounding leases, but that since the Indians have found out how valuable the lands of the territory are for the purpose of cattle leases have gotten their ideas away up and talk of $5 and $6 per acre for the Cherokee strip. The five civilized tribes say that they will never consent to the settlement of Oklahoma until the strip is bought, because the settlement of whites in a district surrounded by reservations would lead to trouble and finally to the extinction of tribal relations. Dawes says the only way out of the problem is to force the Indians to accept their lands in severalty and that the end of the Indian is near at hand. Thirty or thirty-five millions of dollars is more than the general government will ever pay for the Cherokee strip, which consists of about 6,000,000 acres.

Wichita Eagle.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, June 27, 1885.

The Southern Cheyennes on the War Path.

The war department has received reports from Fort Reno, Indian Territory, to the effect that great excitement prevails there over a threatened outbreak by the Cheyenne Indians, known as the Southern Cheyennes. They are making preparations to go on the war path. The cause of the trouble is from dissatisfaction with their agent, Col. Dyer, who had been instructed to enroll the name of every member of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe tribes that was on the reservation. The Cheyennes refused to allow this and withdrew from the agency. They threatened to kill Col. Dyer and to burn the agency buildings. The absence of troops from the fort placed the agency people in a perilous and almost helpless condition. On the 15th their anxiety was relieved. Three companies of cavalry arrived and later on three companies of infantry.

From the Associated Press dispatches concerning the trouble, we glean the following.

News was received at the war department late Monday afternoon to the effect that the difficulties with the Cheyenne Indians is becoming very serious. Gen. Augur has ordered four companies of the 5th cavalry to go to the scene of disturbance in addition to the companies at Ft. Reno, and additional companies are held in readiness to go at a moment=s notice.

The Southern Cheyennes are located in the western portion of the territory. The country is level and devoid of trees except along the streams. Owing to its great extent, it is very easy for the Indians to keep out of the way of troops. It is believed here that the Indians are well supplied with arms and ammunition.They are said to be good fighters and fight altogether on horseback.

The last trouble with the Cheyennes occurred about nine years ago and continued for more than a year. It was caused by the Indians of that tribe massacreing a portion of a family moving overland. The massacre occurred in Kansas. The father, mother, and daughter were killed and the four remaining children taken captive. The daughter who was killed, before she was captured, took the life of an Indian with an axe as he attempted to get into the wagon in which the children were gathered.

Prior to this massacre the Cheyennes became unfriendly towards the whites, and a number of men disguised had burned a bridge on the Kansas Pacific railroad for the purpose of stopping a train that they might plunder it. After the destruction of the bridge, the soldiers were sent to capture the men implicated. An officer chanced one day to see an Indian standing a long distance away. He drew nearer, fired, and killed him. The Indian was the son of Lone Wolf, the great Cheyenne chief. When he was buried four hundred ponies were killed above his grave. Though Lone Wolf himself did not participate in the outbreak which followed his son=s death, it was thought that the shooting of the young Indian greatly induced the tribe to go on the warpath. The massacre of the Georgia family followed and the one year=s fighting began.

[Note: Later reports state AAgent Dwyer.@ I have the story re massacre in Kansas.]

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, June 27, 1885.

Cherokee Politics.

HOT SPRINGS, ARKANSAS, June 19. Advices from the Indian Territory indicate that Cherokee politics are now at fever heat. At a recent convention of the union party of the Delaware district, there was adopted the following platform, upon which a lively campaign is being made.

AWe believe in a government of the people, by the people, in opposition to rings and syndicates. We favor an honest, economical administration of our government and declare that honest competency should be the only test in filling posts of public trust. We oppose the appointment of Philips as a resident at Washington, on account of his practices. We favor the protection of our rights to the soil, as guaranteed to us by patents from the United States, by removal of owners, squatters, and intruders, who are here without the authority of the law, by the United States agent. We favor the removal of Jno. L. Tufts, United States agent, because he has utterly failed to protect our rights to the soil, by refusing to remove intruders, though repeatedly asked to do so by petitions of our best citizens. We oppose the sale of our lands west of 96th meridian at 46 cents per acre because said price was arbitrarily set on the land by the president without any sanction of the law of treaty on our part. We favor the effort on our part, to obtain a revocation of the illegal sales of those lands entire, and in event of a failure in this, we ask for a revaluation of those lands at a minimum price of not less than one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre. We oppose the leasing out of our lands west of the 96th meridian to cattle syndicates, and favor the present permit law and oppose its repeal.@

Arkansas City Republican, June 27, 1885.

Senator Dawes.

United States Senator Dawes, of Massachusetts, arrived at the Grand Pacific Hotel yesterday from St. Louis. The senator is a member of the senate committee appointed to investigate and inquire into Indian affairs. The sub-committee, composed of Senators Dawes, Ingalls of Kansas, Morgan of Alabama, Maxey of Texas, and Jones of Arkansas, has just completed a tour of Arkansas, Kansas, Indian Territory, and Texas, the members departing for their homes at various points on the route. In conversation with a reporter of the Times, Senator Dawes yesterday gave some interesting information on the Indian question and the Oklahoma difficulties. He said the sub-committee had been very thorough in the pursuit of information, and the report to the senate would embrace voluminous testimony taken from the Indians and white men. The testimony differed in many respects. While some maintained that the condition of the red men was good, others gave the reverse opinion.

AI found,@ said the senator, Athat the Indians were in a fairly good condition, situated in a highly productive country. Some appreciated their condition and are willing to help themselves, while others are indigent, and expect the government to take care of them. They all appear to be friendly and peaceable. I think the only place we may fear trouble with the Indian is on the Mexican border.@

In regard to the Oklahoma difficulties, he said that Oklahoma was situated in the center of the Indian Territory and consisted of 1,200,000 acres. It was separated from Kansas by a piece of land known as the Cherokee Strip, which contained 6,000,000 acres. The territory was held in trust by the United States for friendly Indians, but the Indians did not occupy it. The Oklahoma Aboomers@ claimed that it was the property of the United States, and that therefore they had a right to pre-empt upon it. The Indians, he found, were willing that it should be so occupied, providing the Cherokee Strip, which is owned by the Indians, were purchased or leased by the United States. They were also willing that the Indians should occupy Oklahoma, but they objected that white men should live in Oklahoma and Indians in the Cherokee Strip. On the other hand, the Aboomers@ maintained that they had as much right to occupy Oklahoma as the cattle men, who lease lands from Indians in the Cherokee Strip, build ranches on the further border, and allow their cattle to feed in Oklahoma. The senator was asked what, in his opinion, was the best way to settle the difficulty, and he replied: AFor the United States to acquire a title to Oklahoma.@ The Indians had made several propositions to dispose of the lands, but the committee was not authorized to make any offers. The senator visited a camp of boomers numbering about 250. They were encamped on the Kansas side, within a stone=s throw of the Indian Territory. The United States troops were near them, and each appeared to be closely watching the other. Chicago Times.

Arkansas City Republican, June 27, 1885.

Attorney General Garland has decided that the Indian is not eligible for a postmastership. It has heretofore been the custom to appoint Indians to post offices in the Indian Terrritory. This custom will henceforth be discontinued, there being so many democrats in and out of the territories who Amust have@ the post offices that poor Lo stands no chance.

Arkansas City Republican, June 27, 1885.

The Indians.

The outbreak of the Cheyenne Indians, which was threatened Saturday last, has been brewing for a year or longer. Army officials at Cheyenne Agency attribute it to a dissatis-faction on the part of the Indians at the leasing of their reservation to the cattlemen. The Cheyenne reservation is one of the largest in the territory. It comprises about 4,279,000 acres, and of this amount more than 3,000,000 acres are controlled by those who are grazing vast herds. The Indians are divided on the question of leasing the lands, the majority apparently being opposed to it. It is said at the Agency by officials that cattle men have resorted to unquestionable methods in securing control of ranches. Reports on file at the office of the commissioner of Indian affairs indicate that the leasing of lands was the original cause of the trouble among the Indians. These reports are from Agent Dwyer, on the Cheyenne reservation, who ranks as one of the best agents in the Indian service. He was appointed to his present position about one year ago. Immediately after assuming his duties he informed the interior department that trouble was threatened and unless precautionary measures were taken, an outbreak would be inevitable. He asks that 1,000 cavalrymen be sent to the reservation. As a reason for his statement, Agent Dwyer on assuming the duties of the agency endeavored to control the Indians. He reports to the commissioner of Indian affairs that they laughed at the attempts and boasted that the government could do nothing with them. Agent Dwyer was in Washington some weeks since. He urged that 3,000 cavalrymen be sent to the reservation as soon as possible to scare the Indians and show them that the government had sufficient force to clean out the whole territory if necessary. He thought that if this method of influencing them was adopted, they would be controlled without bloodshed on either side. He said the Cheyennes were as war-like as the Apaches, that they were well armed, and could put 1,200 to 1,500 warriors on the war path at any time.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 4, 1885.

Interview with Senator Ingalls.

WASHINGTON, June 27. Senator Ingalls, who returned from the Indian Territory, whither he went with the sub-committee to investigate matters by order of the senate, speaks with enthusiasm of the condition of the civilized tribes. To a reporter of the Associated Press this afternoon he said the journey had enlightened him in regard to matters which seemed remarkable, of which he had no previous appreciation, although he once before passed through the territory.

The tribal government is democratic in form, with an elective chief magistrate and upper and lower house of legislature, which assemble annually. There are courts with elective judiciary, and convicted criminals are punished as in communities of whites. There are no laws for collection of debts, and as the standard of commercial honor is high, none are needed.

Fifty percent of the entire revenue of the Cherokees is spent for educational purposes. Wherever thirteen children can be gathered together, a schoolhouse is built and a teacher with ample qualifications employed. Two colleges, one for either sex, is maintained, and buildings built. The tribal government not only furnishes the buildings and pays for them, but clothes and feeds the pupils. A number of graduates are selected each year and sent at public expense to continue their studies at Yale, Dartmouth, and other places in the east. The utmost good feeling prevails toward the United States, but no disposition exists to change the relation between the tribes and the nation.

It was conceded that the treaties had been faithfully kept by the government, but there was a feeling of apprehension that the tribal forms of government might be overturned by admission of white settlers, to which the Indians were earnestly opposed.

On the other hand, they manifested no objection to the admission of other tribes of Indians to homes in the territory, and seemed to think it to be the policy of the government to concentrate the Indians there.

In the senator=s opinion, they seem to have reached the ideal solution of the land question. All the land belongs in common to the tribe, but a citizen may cultivate as much as he chooses, provided it does not come within a quarter of a mile of his neighbor. This provision is designed to break up the tendency to collect in small communities, which was thought to be provocative of idleness. The occupant of the land is its absolute possessor and may leave it to his children or sell it to another citizen, but he cannot sell it to outsiders; and if he ceases to cultivate it, it reverts to the public domain. This prevents the acquirement of large bodies of land by individuals and removes the danger of the evils which result from land monopolies.

The freedmen are better treated than among Anglo Saxons, and no civil right is denied them.

The senator thinks the advantages of the Indian Territory as to farming have been overstated. It is a beautiful country to look upon, with large forests of oak and other hard woods, which, being free from undergrowth, have the aspect of well kept parks, but much of the country is mountainous and rugged, and the belief prevails among the Indians that if they were to take to the plow universally, there would not be bearable land enough in the reservation to give them 160 acres each. Of 70,000 Indians inhabiting that country, there is not a pauper. No person is supported at public expense and no one lacks a home. Only one insane person was heard of. There is said to be no occupation of the Oklahoma country at all and as far as cattlemen are concerned, there never has been even an attempted occupation.

The senator is very glad to say that in recent interviews with the president and secretary of the interior, he discovered a vigorous determination to prevent the invasion of the rights of the Indians, or any infraction of the guarantees of the treaty under which the land was ceded in 1866.

The committee made a thorough investigation of the several matters into which they were told to inquire, traveling to all the principal places in the territories of the civilized tribes and examining all the principal men.

With regard to leasing the Cherokee Strip, the sentiment is generally favorable, though many were of the opinion the rates paid, which were fair, originally, were now too low.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 4, 1885.

No Indian Invasion.

TOPEKA, JUNE 27. The governor is in receipt of the following letter.


To the Governor of Kansas:

I have had the honor to receive your excellency=s letter of yesterday. In view of the late reports in the newspapers concerning the alleged breaking out of the Cheyennes, I am not surprised at your anxiety about the counties bordering on the Indian Terrritory. I am happy to answer you that, in my judgment, founded upon the latest reports from Fort Reno and Fort Cantonment, no immediate danger to any portion of your state is to be apprehended from the Cheyennes or any other Indians. There has recently been a good deal of excitement among the Cheyennes, and some of their young men have been insubordinate, and, in some instances, have acted very badly. This indicates, among Indians who have been quiet on a reservation so many years, that there exists somewhere what they conceive to be a grievance. The government has appointed a commission to ascertain whether or not they have just cause of complaint. If the commission find they have, the government will undoubtedly correct it. If the commission find they have not, it is equally certain the government will take efficient steps to reduce them to submission, and it is believed with sufficient force and confine [?] preparation to whatever trouble may result, to the limits of the Indian Territory. Should anything occur, which there is no reason to believe, which threatens danger to any portion of the cittizens of your state on the border, I shall not only inform you at once, but will do all in my power to avert it. I enclosed a copy of a telegram received last night, which shows that the Cheyennes will be glad to meet the commission.

I am, with the greatest respect, your excellency=s most obedient servant.


Brigadier General, commanding.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 4, 1885.

The Cheyennes.

WICHITA, KANSAS, June 10. The dispatches of Sunday morning and the assurances of the departments at Washington to the contrary notwithstanding, excitement is at a fever at Reno and Darlington in the Territory, and the attitude of the Cheyennes is very threatening. The special dispatches to the Eagle Saturday were read to some pretended friendly Indians on Sunday, and their grunts of disapproval were long and loud. The Eagle is in receipt of two more today in which it is asserted that the Indians will make a desperate fight if asked to surrender their arms, which could only have been successfully done under President Arthur=s orders, previous to the appearance of grass this spring. Darlington and Cantonment seem to be at the mercy of some 3,000 braves, and our specials say the streams are rising rapidly between the agency and the fort. Few Indians are to be seen about the post, the warriors all being gathered at a point twelve miles above, on the North Fork. A friendly Arapahoe brings in the news that three white freighters were murdered near Cantonment by the Cheyenne Indians. Scouts are riding the trails in all directions day and night. All the rivers between the border at Caldwell and the agencies are swimming. Ft. Reno is under a double row of sentinels and no Indian is allowed inside. Cantonment is sixty miles up the river, and is perfectly helpless if an attack is made. There was, when the last Eagle special was sent, nine companies of troops at Reno and one in Oklahoma, which had been ordered over, but before these troops could make any move, two companies would have to be sent to Cantonment and two left at the agency, which would leave but six companies for the post and for the field. The Indians are all superbly mounted and armed to the teeth with the best arms manufactured and a full supply of fixed ammunition. Our dispatch says that there is but one way and that is to disarm the Cheyennes. As to the movements of the large body of Indians in camp on the North Fork, but little is known, as neither agency people or soldiers have felt that it would be safe to attempt to find out by reconnoitering with so few troops at hand.




Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 4, 1885.

Oklahoma Must Remain Closed.

WASHINGTON, June 25. In the closing days of the last session of congress, the president was authorized in his discretion to appoint a commission to negotiate for the session of the United States of the so-called Oklahoma country. The commission has not yet been appointed, and it is understood no action will be taken in regard to its authorized appointment until after the August election shall have been held by the five civilized nations of the Indian Territory. Meanwhile, it is learned that the president and all the members of the cabinet are in accord, maintaining that no white settlement shall be permitted on the Oklahoma lands under any circumstances without the consent of the Indians under the terms of the treaty of 1866, and that the whole force of the government shall be employed if necessary to carry out the guarantees of that instrument.

Arkansas City Republican, July 4, 1885.

Fifteen Dead Outlaws.

DALLAS, TEXAS, June 25. News reached here last night that yesterday a citizen=s posse from Texas and the Indian Territory side of the Red River, in the neighborhood of Delaware Bend, who for several weeks past have been chasing a gang of outlaws who had been murdering and stealing horses and stock in that section so long, overtook the gang, captured eight and hanged them to one tree. They proceeded a few miles further and captured four others whom they served in a similar manner.

The news was also confirmed from Burlington and Gainesville that about three weeks ago three horse thieves were lynched, making a total of fifteen outlaws to the credit of this posse.

Fully twenty members of the gang have been slain since last spring and half a dozen good officers and citizens have lost their lives.

Arkansas City Republican, July 4, 1885.

The Indians have commenced their dirty work. The Emporia Republican of Thursday says: AC. L. Severy, who was just arrived here from Ninnescah, said that the Indians had surrounded the horse ranch of Smith Bros., in the Indian Territory, and had driven off about half the horses, and were endeavoring to get away with the remainder. A telegram was immediately sent to one of the brothers in Kingman, stating the facts, and a company of men was at once organized and started to protect the ranch. It was not known whether the Indians had done anything more than to drive off the stock or not. It looks very much as if an Indian war was about to break out along our southern border.

Arkansas City Republican, July 4, 1885.

WICHITA, KANSAS, June 30. A Daily Eagle=s special says that the Indian apprehending that there might be a demand for their arms have it is thought cached the best arms in the sandhill and only appear with their old squirrel rifles. It is believed that should the soldiers make any demonstrations looking to a movement that the more hostile element would strike out north through western Kansas to join the Sioux, but they evidently expect that the Kiowas and Commanches will unite with them in giving the troops a summer campaign. The situation is still one of anxiety and extreme danger. An associated press dispatch of last week having attibuted to Agent Dwyer sundry statements regarding the cattlemen being at the bottom of the Indian trouble, the Eagle=s correspondent called on that official today with reference to the matter. Col. Dwyer promptly answered that the statement that the grass leases to the cattle men of portions of the reservation are the cause of the present threatened outbreak is totally false. These Indians have been totally unruly ever since the dull knife raid, and the present trouble singly arises from the fact that for many years they have never been punished for crime, and are simply presuming and growing more bold and reckless.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 11, 1885.

The Cheyennes.

Special to Wichita Eagle.


Since the last dispatch to the Eagle, the Indian excitement here has increased to a certain extent. On this account troops have been quartered in the vacated Arapahoe school building at the agency, and the sentinels are stationed at all approaches to give the alarm, in case of an attack from the Cheyennes. The killing of an Indian in the medicine lodge seems to be increasing the uneasiness, and a renewal of their medicine dance has taken place. No Indians are seen about the agency, as they still keep closely within their encampment, and such heathenish practices as are now going on have not been known for many years. Old Indian fighters say they have a purpose for renewing at this date their old war customs, and, prompted by superstition, it is difficult to determine just when and how they will move. Although there are sixteen companies of troops here, the Indians realize their ability to give them a warm fight; but troops and officers are in readiness to give them a trial when the time shall come for them to do so. Realizing that the Indians are liable to break out at any moment, the Fourth was observed in a mild way hereCin fact, had it not been for the display of fire works in the evening, the day would have passed unnoticed. The agency people and those of the officers off duty were entertained at the house of Capt. and Mrs. T. Connell, from which the diplay of fire works were viewed.


Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 11, 1885.

Gov. Martin=s Letter.

TOPEKA, KANSAS, July 9. The following letter was sent by Governor Martin to Secretary of War Endicott today relative to the troubles with the Cheyenne Indians, and the exposed condition of the counties on the southern border of Kansas.

TOPEKA, KANSAS, July 9th, 1885.

To the Honorable Secretary of War, Washington, D. C.

SIR: For over forty-eight hours past a dozen counties in southwestern Kansas have been in a state of wild excitement and panic, thousands of settlers having abandoned their houses, their crops, and stock, and fled to the towns for a protection, which, if the supposed danger had been real, could not have been afforded them by the towns for the town people were no better armed nor better prepared to repel an Indian raid than were those of the country districts.

For weeks past the imminent danger of such a panic, if not of an Indian invasion, has been apparent. The Cheyennes were known to be discontented and threatening and our southwestern borders were exposed and defenseless.

More than two weeks ago, I called the attention of the honorable secretary of war to this situation of affairs and on the 26th of June last, I earnestly requested the general commanding this department to station a cavalry force on the southern border of Kansas, between Barber and Meade counties, in order to prevent an Indian invasion and give assurance of protection to our peaceful citizens. If the national government locates in the Indian Territory at large, numbers of savage, discontented, and dangerous Indians, its plain duty is to provide an ample force to restrain them within the boundaries of that territory and on their reservation. The state of Kansas cannot afford to maintain a standing army on its southern border and ought not to be compelled to maintain such an army in order to protect its borders from invasion by the Indians and to give assurance of safety and protection to its citizens. This is a duty which the general government, not the state, should discharge.

So long as the Cheyennes, or other turbulent and dangerous tribes, are in the Indian Territory, so long will the borders of Kansas be menaced by such dangers and disasters, such sufferings and losses to it as have resulted during the past forty-eight hours. This is the plain duty of the national government. It seems to us it should stage a permanent and adequate military force on the southwestern borders of Kansas. Posts should be located and maintained at convenient points from the west line of Barber to Seward County. These points should be so connected with each other by pickets or vidette outposts as to guard all that section of Kansas.

The troops stationed at Reno afford little or no protection to the borders of Kansas. The Indians have only to move westward a few miles on their own reservation and they are out of reach of the troops with the borders of Kansas exposed and within easy striking distance. Calling your attention to this condition of affairs, I request that prompt and adequate measures be adopted for the protection of the borders of the state against any possible invasion by the Indians of the territory. In the name of the people of Kansas I protest against a further continuance of the civil or military policy which has twice before permitted the Indians to invade our borders with fire and sword, which during the past forty-eight hours has sent thousands of people, men, women, and children, fleeing in terror from their peaceful homes. It may be that this panic is without reason, it may be that no Indians have crossed the line. It was, however, certainly true that more than one hundred Cheyennes, the worst of their tribe, have escaped from their reservation and gone, so the commanding officer at Reno believes, to the head of the Cimarron River, but whether this panic is baseless or not, so long as they are where they are and what they are, so long will Kansas be menaced and apprehensive, and so long will the citizens of our southwestern counties be liable to such panics with their resulting demoralization, loss, and suffering.

The commanding general of this department has just ordered eight companies of cavalry to our southwestern border. This force, if situated as I have indicated and permanently maintained, will be a plea to give the citizens of exposed counties assurance of protection, and I sincerely hope that permanent military posts will be established along the borders at the points I have mentioned, so that the people of this state may in the future be permitted to pursue their peaceful avocations with confident assurances that there is no danger, or possibility, by the Indians of the territory. I have the honor to be, with very great respect, your very obedient servant.

(Signed) JOHN A. MARTIN, Governor of Kansas.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 11, 1885.

Capt. Rarick received Wednesday from Topeka 68 U. S. Warrants for the arrest of as many boomers over at Caldwell.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 11, 1885.

Chas. Schiffbauer received word Wednesday to request our hardware men not to sell ammunition and firearms to the Indians.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 11, 1885.

On the War Path.

WICHITA, KANSAS, July 7. A special dispatch to the Daily Eagle, dated Kingman City, Kansas, 5 p.m., says: AJ. B. Wilson, living three and a half miles east of Lawndale, Pratt County, and whose character is vouched for by the president of the bank of Kingman, arrived at that place this afternoon and says that


nine miles west of Lawndale last night by a band of Indians. A son of the murdered man, about 12 years old, who escaped and came into Lawndale, brought the first news of his death. The boy further stated that he passed four wagon loads of women and children fleeing in the direction of Kingman, at which latter point the excitement was very great, the men arming and getting ready to proceed to Lawndale tonight. The news above reached Kingman about 4:30 this evening.

A later special to the Eagle says that three families had just arrived from the settlements beyond, and that they report that riders are passing rapidly through the country warning settlers that the Indians are moving swiftly north and burning everything before them.


TOPEKA, KANSAS, July 7. Early in the evening the citizens of this town were considerably aroused by the reported receipt of a telegram announcing the arrival of the Cheyenne Indians in the counties of Pratt and Comanche, and that they were doing great damage to life and property.

At 7 p.m., Gov. Martin received the following from Col. Quiff of the Santa Fe.

AThe day operator at Wichita says that an outbreak was reported in the southern part of Pratt County today. Several were killed and the balance of the people driven off. Stock all driven out. One man who came in from Pratt County today says he is the only one left in his family. The balance were killed, but the operator does not know how many were killed.@

All possible exertions are being made by the governor to protect the citizens of this state from outrages by the Indians.

A dispatch was received at the office of commissioner of Indian affairs from Inspector Armstrong reporting some of the Cheyennes have broken away from the reservation and gone into the Panhandle of Texas. Secretary Lamar sent a dispatch to the president.

Cavalry From Leavenworth.

LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS, July 8. Four cars of cavalry left Fort Leavenworth this afternoon for Kingman, Kansas, commanded by Major Sanford of the sixth cavalry. The train consisted of 28 cars, and horses for the command were shipped at the same time. It is expected they will arrive at Kingman Thursday morning.

Gen. Augur is in receipt of a number of dispatches, both from Major Sumner, in command at Ft. Reno, and Gov. Martin, of Kansas. Major Sumner says in substance that there is no disturbance in his immediate vicinity; and, while there are about one hundred Cheyennes absent from the reservation, they are not on the war path, but are hiding their arms and ponies for fear that they are to be taken from them.

Not an Indian has come into the state. But dispatches from Major Sumner at Ft. Reno say that 100 young braves with Chief Magpie have left the Cheyenne reservation and are now on the head waters of the Cimarron, southwest of Kansas.

The report made to Gov. Martin by Adjutant General Campbell of the state, also says that there is no reliability to be placed in the reports that are being sent over the country. The latter is now in the extreme southwestern part of the state and telegraphs that there are no Indians or any signs of them in that section. Gov. Martin also repeats to Gen. Augur the dispatch sent by the Santa Fe agent at Kingman, which was sent out from Topeka in the afternoon, accounting for the scare.

WICHITA, KANSAS, July 8. The Eagle=s special from Kingman, dated 6 p.m., says: AA reliable party who was sent out last night has just returned. He has ridden over the entire southern and western portions of Pratt and Kingman Counties, and reports no Indians and nobody hurt, and the further he went, the further away the Indians were reported to be. The usual number of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians were hanging about Medicine Lodge and other smaller towns trading. Some of these small bands had no doubt been seen crossing the prairies, which gave rise to the terrible scare of yesterday.@

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 18, 1885.

The Cattle Question Decided.

WASHINGTON, July 11. The Secretary of the Interior has sent the following telegram to W. A. Towers and Thos. A. Lee, committee for the stock association at Kansas City, Missouri.

AI have carefully considered your telegram of the 10th inst. The animal industry bill prohibits the driving, from one state or territory to another, of any live stock by any person knowing them to be affected with any contagious infections or communicable disease. Owners whose herds are forcibly stopped in the Indian Territory declare their cattle are not so affected. The people of Texas, Colorado, Missouri, and other states have equal, if not a greater right, to drive their live stock not infected with a prohibited disease through and over the trails of the Indian Territory and the neutral strip, as you have to occupy those lands without your leases from the Indian tribes. An inspector has been sent to open and keep open the trail for the passage of cattle. If the people who are occupying those lands with their herds continue their forcible obstruction of trails, measures will be taken to remove them and their herds at once.@

The following instructions were also telegraphed to Inspector Armstrong at the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency, in the Indian Territory.

AOwners of cattle, driving herds northward through the Indian Territory and public land strip north of the Pan-handle complain their passage on and over established trails in the vicinity of Ft. Supply is obstructed by parties holding cattle on these lands. Go at once to the origin of the disturbance and take active measures to open and keep open for all cattle having no infectious disease all established trails that may be found closed or obstructed in any way except by proper and competent authority of the United States courts having jurisdiction. Notify offenders that their stock will be removed from the territory at once if they continue the obstruction of established trails.

(Signed) L. Q. C. Lamar, Secretary of the Interior.@

Similar obstructions of trails under Secretary Teller=s administration last year existed, and action similar to the instructions contained in the above order was taken, trails being opened by Inspector Benedict, who led a number of droves over the trail.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 18, 1885.

The Cattle Trail Trouble.

DODGE CITY, KANSAS, July 11. The situation as between the Northern ranch owners and through Texas drivers remains unchanged. The matter has been by Commissioner Cook adjourned over until Monday morning, at which time the case will proceed unless amicable arrangement can be perfected. A very large number of cattlemen on both sides of the case are now in the city. Col. J. R. Hallowell and Charles Hatton, United States attorney and assistant, are both here for the government, and Capt. J. G. Waters is pitted against them for the Texas drovers on the defense. Fifty-four thousand cattle have been stopped on the trail in the Indian Territory and Cherokee Strip. The matter is assuming colossal proportions. The design of the cattlemen is to exclude all cattle from those parts in Texas liable to communicate Texas fever and the Texas drovers are as persistent in demanding a free passage to market for the cattle of that state. It is expected that something decisive would have been received from Washington today, but at this hour it has not come. The delays to the Texas drovers are costing them at least $1,000 per day for the mere detention.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 18, 1885.

Disaffected Cheyennes.

KANSAS CITY, July 11. The Times Ft. Leavenworth special says: ADispatches received today by Adjutant General Martin, from the commanding officers in the territory, indicate no change in the situation there. Preparations are actively making in the department and troops will be forwarded speedily. Gen. Schofield directs the movements in the department in the absence of any regularly assigned commander. President Cleveland=s instructions to Gen. Sheridan are interpreted by officials here as meaning that the Indians must submit peacefully or be summarily dealt with and it is generally believed they will not yield their arms without bloodshed. Light battery F, Capt. Woodruff, Second Artillery, which won fame during the civil war as Williston=s flying Artillery, has been ordered in readiness to move at any time. All recruits at Ft. Riley, of the Fifth cavalry, and men of those troops now in the field who remained behind on account of lack of order of movement will be ordered at once to join the regiment. All troops and companies will be filled to their full strength.@

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 18, 1885.

Families are leaving Caldwell to be safe in case of an Indian outbreak. Assurances come from the territory that towns in Kansas will be safe from Indian invasion even if a collision with the revolted Comanches should occur; but some people have an instinctive dislike to taking any chances on their scalps.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 18, 1885.

Interview with Senator Morgan.

The Post published an extended interview with Senator Morgan, who has recently returned from a visit of observation from the Indian Territory in company with Senator Dawes, Ingalls, Jones (of Arkansas), and Maxey, his colleague in the senate committee on Indian affairs. The most interesting portion of the interview is that relating to the Oklahoma situation, and upon that subject the senator expressed himself as follows.

AThis Oklahoma question is up and wants to be settled. The negro freedmen for whom that tract of land in the heart of the Indian territory was purchased don=t seem at all anxious or even willing to settle on it. They prefer to live on portions of land belonging to the Indian tribes where they stayed before emancipation, and where they are at present located.

ABut, I think the committee will not be in favor of letting the Oklahoma boomers seize and monopolize it. I cannot speak positively enough for the committee have not had a full conference upon the subject and will not until the senate meets, when they will hold a conference and report to the senate the result of their observations and deliberations.

AI would put the Indians in all the territory. There is, to be sure, more land than the Indians require; but I would encourage the concentration of all the Indians. I would even make it advantageous for the tribes now located in the state of New York and scattered over the continent to migrate to this territory, where they could have the benefit of the good example of the five civilized tribes.

AI now am in favor of having Payne=s Oklahoma boomers divide the Indian country by taking possession of the very heart of it.

AThen there are the disputes between the Indians and the two railroads that run through their territory. The Indians claim rights which the roads won=t admit. The agreement by which the companies secured the permission of the owners of the soil to run the roads over it are vague, and congress will be required to step in and settle the dispute.

AI am doubtful as to the validity of the contracts with the Indians by which the white lessees have recently acquired millions of acres of Indian reservations, and it will be the duty of congress to inquire and determine whether the lessees have any right to the land.

For myself, I don=t see how land reserved by the government for Indians could be disposed of without the government=s consent, and it is a question also as to whether the executive could allow such a disposition without the consent of congress.@

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 18, 1885.

Indian Sensation.

WICHITA, KANSAS, July 10. The Daily Eagle=s special from the Indian Territory this evening says that the excitement is hourly increasing. The Cheyennes for three or four days have been going on in bands from twenty to fifty. Some of these bands return in a day or two and then go again, so it is impossible to tell how many of them are away or how far they have gone. The bridge across the river between the fort and the agency is being pushed rapidly.


night before last stopped at the ranch of the C. & A. Cattle Company, having in their possession a herd of stolen mules and horses. They forced the ranchmen to get them something to eat. Another band was seen with a lot of stock within twenty miles of the camp supply. Stock stolen from the panhandle of Texas is already making their appearance among the home Indians. No doubt some of these roving bands get so far north as the Kansas line, and their presence gave rise to the late scare, as they appear to go north or northwest from the agency.


Col. Chapman, commander of Fort Supply, accompanied by his interpreter, has arrived at Darlington to act with Commissioner Armstrong. The Indians are anxious to discover the intentions of the government toward them and express more than usual desire for a Abig talk.@


A courier arrived at Reno Sunday from Silva with a report of a fight between the ranchmen at Johnson=s, and those of Murray & Wilson=s range over a burnt steer. One of Johnson=s men named Adam Ward was killed. Col. C. B. Campbell of Wichita had his horse shot from under him and several men had bullets shot through their clothes. Munford Johnson himself escaped through a shower of lead with Winchesters while only two of Johnson=s had six-shooters, one of whom it is stated was killed. The man killed fell from his horse before he had fired a shot.


An Eagle special from the Skeleton Ranche says that the mules ran away with the southbound United States Mail near that station, upsetting the stage and breaking the leg of E. W. Entz, the driver.


Fourteen coach loads of soldiers, principally of the Eleventh Infantry, passed through Wichita, going to the front, at 2 p.m. In one of the sections was a sleeper or special car said to contain Gen. Sheridan, but the trains did not stop long enough to gain particulars.


WASHINGTON, July 13. The war department is in receipt of dispatches from the Indian territory which say the dissatisfied Indians are becoming quiet and there is a favorable outlook for the settlement of the Indian troubles.


KANSAS CITY, July 13. Gen. Sheridan and Gen. Miles passed through the city tonight from Chicago, en route for Ft. Reno, Indian Territory, by way of Caldwell, Kansas.


WASHINGTON, JULY 13. Inspector Armstrong has succeeded in carrying out his instructions to open up the cattle trail through the Indian Territory. He telegraphed Secretary Lamar this morning that all differences between the drovers and ranchmen had been settled and that cattle from Texas are now moving without obstruction.

WICHITA, KANSAS, July 14. The Eagle=s special from Reno reports that the Indians are almost frantic in their efforts to discover what the government intends to do. They fear that their plans may be frustrated, although it is very evident that they really know about all that is going on about headquarters, knowing that the four companies which went north were for an escort to General Sheridan.

Reports at Reno say that Magpie and his band are encamped on the opposite bank of the North Fork, and that they had been traveling around and trying to intimidate the Arapahoes. The telegraph operator is in Cantonment.

Arkansas City Republican, July 18, 1885.

Capt. Couch, who struck the Oklahoma boomer last week, was arrested and fined $2.50 and costs. The press dispatches were off. He only knocked the man down, breaking his nose.

Arkansas City Republican, July 18, 1885.

Gov. Martin=s Protest.

TOPEKA, KANSAS, July 11. The governor today addressed a letter to the secretary of the interior, protesting against the proposed transfer of the Apache Indians from Arizona to ANo Man=s Land.@ The governor allows many reasons why the transfer would be dangerous to the public peace. In closing he says: AI sincerely hope that the suggestion said to have been made that the Apaches be transferred to ANo Man=s Land,@ will not be accepted by the authorities of the United States. I protest against its acceptance, as an evasion and violation of the clear purpose and spirit of the law of February 17, 1879. I protest against the location of these lawless and blood-thirsty Indians in a region contiguous to the homes of thousands of peaceful citizens of the United StatesCin a region from whence at any moment they could invade the borders of three states of the Union, murdering and desttroying all in their pathway.

Arkansas City Republican, July 18, 1885.

The Cattlemen=s Side.

KANSAS CITY, July 9. The following, which will be published here tomorrow, is the telegram to which Secretary Lamar replied today, as mentioned in the Washington press dispatches.

Kansas City, July 10. To Hon. L. Q. C. Lamar, Secretary, Department of Interior, Washington, D. C. The letter of Representative Sayers of Texas, July 2, also the telegrams of Sayers and Governor Ireland of July 3, concerning the Texas cattle trail obstructions, contain many wrong and misleading statements. The sketch showing the trail is decidedly wrong. The official Cherokee map mailed you proves this. The herds in question are not above suspicion. These cattle do impart fever. The opposition to the passage of the cattle is made solely from the fear of fever, all charges to the contrary notwithstanding, and can be clearly and satisfactorily proven. The same cattle have been repeatedly stopped and turned from passage across Texas by injunctions within the state of Texas by Texas citizens. Large numbers of cattle not infected have passed without opposition. The trail agreement at the Dallas convention was made solely on the part of the Texas men, who were not affected. Those on the border were decidedly opposed to it. All offers to establish a trail for this class of cattle from the south to the north line of the state of Texas were largely opposed and defeated by Texas men. The trails used heretofore are cut off at the Kansas line by the quarantine law. The land within these trails in the Cherokee Nation, composing nearly 1,000,000 acres, is paid for by the lessees. By suffrance Texas herds both infected and uninfected were allowed to follow these trails heretofore and ranchmen made no objection to the passage of cattle on these trails. But when attempts are made to push out sideways from these trails, through the pastures, opening new trails three to five miles wide, through lands for which rental is paid, and where no trail ever existed, spreading disease, decided opposition is met. That the opposers are perfectly right cannot be disputed when all of the facts in the case are known clearly. Hundreds of law abiding citizens occupying the country in question, with valuable herds representing a lifetime of savings, deserve protection more than a few traffickers in infectious cattle. The few northern Colorado speculators bought their Texas cattle, expecting to enter Colorado in direct violation of their own state laws. But the southern Colorado men are determined that the law shall be properly enforced, and the passage of these cattle through Bent and Las Animas prevented. Clearly then their getting through the Territory will avail nothing. Occupants of the country through which it is wanted to pass the infectious cattle have suffered enormous losses from year to year by Texas fever from the slight contacts with the before mentioned trails, and hence know full well the wholesale destruction that would result from permitting infectious cattle to pass over their ranges. The charge that the opposers of the passage of these cattle are doing so to depreciate prices in order to buy cheaply is a misrepresentation. Not one of them wishes to purchase such cattle. Reference is made to the recent unanimous opposing of the resolutions by their association. The driving of these cattle from one state or territory to another is a palpable violation of the animal industry law. The occupants of the country feel that the attempt of Texas to force infectious cattle upon them, involving losses of hundreds of thousands of dollars to themselves and parties throughout the entire country without remuneration, is an injustice and an outrage and demands that before the government sanctions it or becomes a party to it a full investigation be made in support of the facts as herein stated. The occupants ask only for a fair hearing. The reasonableness of their demand is shown by the quarantine laws of Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and the territories north, and also the fact that the same cattle cannot get passageway through the state of Texas, except by railroad.

(Signed) W. A. TOWERS,

T. A. LEE,

Committee for Live Stock Association.

Arkansas City Republican, July 18, 1885.

Another Protest.

KANSAS CITY, July 11. The following was telegraphed the Secretary of the Interior tonight.

KANSAS CITY, July 11. HON. L. C. Q. LAMAR, SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT INTERIOR, WASHINGTON, D.C. Your telegram of the 11 last was received. Our message seems to have misconstrued, and it is manifest that we have unfortunately failed to state the actual situation so as to be understood at Washington. We now wish to state most respectfully, but also most distinctly and positively, that there are and have been no obstructions to the passage of herds over any trails which have ever been used. No objection is made by ranchmen to the passage of cattle over old trails. Your inspector will not find them open. We desire to make ourselves clearly understood as stating to you that the owners of these infected herds are now attempting to drive and scatter them through pastures and over ranges where no trails have ever been made. We invite your special attention to this fact which we think cannot have been understood by you. Past experience teaches emphatically that this means the wholesale destruction of the cattle ranging thereon, and which have been placed there with leases made with, at least the tacit approval of the government, and in the belief that the established trails for the passage of cattle would continue to be used, and without any apprehension that herds would attempt to leave such trails and be driven through their pastures. The truth of the statements of this and our first can be established to your satisfaction, and we respectfully ask you a careful examination of them before any summary measures, intimated in your message, be adopted. The herds being driven up are infected and their owners know it, and their assertions to the contrary are simply pretenses. The experience of years must be ignored to credit such statements.

(Signed) W. A. TOWERS,


Committee for the Live Stock Association of southern Colorado, Kansas, Northern Texas, Missouri, and the Indian Territory; representing 2,500,000 or 3,000,000 head of

improved American cattle.

Mr. Lee, in an interview tonight, cites in support of the statement made to Secretary Lamar the resolutions adopted by the various cattle associations of southern Colorado, Kansas, the Indian Territory, and northern Texas, last spring, all uniting in a determination to prevent the passage of southern Texas cattle over their ranges. He asserts that the only interference which has been offered is in preventing infecting cattle from leaving the trail and crossing pastures where there is no trail. He also states that Secretary Lamar=s order today is similar to that of Secretary Teller, and the latter=s was an order to open an old trail which had been sometime enclosed within numerous fenced pastures, while Secretary Lamar=s order is to open a trail, which, as is maintained, the citizens have not attempted to close.

Arkansas City Republican, July 18, 1885.

A Falsehood.

KANSAS CITY, July 15. A telegram from Arkansas City last night says: ASeveral bands of Cheyenne Indians, numbering from five to fifty, have been seen south of the state line and a few have come into town, but not painted. The local militia has been ordered and ammunition provided them. They are under orders to be ready to move forward at a moment=s notice. A courier from the Cheyenne Agency to Arkansas City says the whole tribe is leaving the agency in squads of twenty-five and fifty, and spreading to the north, east, and west, forcing cattle men to provide them with rations.@

The above dispatch is highly sensational. There have been no Cheyennes in this vicinity for six months. The sender of the above evidently saw some Kaws who were camped south of town. The militia has not been ordered out. There is not an iota of truth to the above dispatch.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 25, 1885.

The Cattle Troubles.

WASHINGTON, July 18. The secretary of the interior has received a number of tele-grams in regard to the cattle trails through the Indian Territory, some from drovers com-plaining that the trails are still obstructed, and others from stock growers requesting that cattle be not forced through until judicial ascertainment of the rights of the parties to the controversy be had. They also request that a veterinary surgeon be sent to the Indian Terri-tory to examine the condition of the herds. Secretary Lamar today sent the following mes-sage to Indian Inspector Armstrong at the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency in the Indian Territory.

AThe trail leading from Fort Supply in a northerly direction, to and into the neutral strip, known as Camp Supply trail, must be opened for the passage of cattle, forcibly stopped, and for other purposes of interstate commerce. You will confer with Gen. Sheridan, who has instructions of every date herewith from the war department as to the adoption of measures best calculated to effectuate this order.@

A telegram was also sent to Towers & Lee, cattlemen at Kansas City, detailing the instructions sent to the inspector and concluding as follows.

AYou had a complete remedy. No acts of lawlessness, such as have been resorted to as the forcible and unauthorized detention of cattle, will be tolerated.

(Signed) L. C. Q. LAMAR,


Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 25, 1885.

The Cheyenne Situation.

Special Dispatch to the Daily Eagle.

CHEYENNE AGENCY, INDIAN TERRITORY, July 18. Gen. Sheridan is now at Ft. Reno making himself familiar with the situation and deciding on a plan of action. Very few Indians are about the agency or post now, but have dispersed over the reservation. An Arapahoe (friendly) Indian came in last night with the news that a large band of Cheyennes had turned their horses into his corn field and ruined his corn crop. The war correspondents of the Chicago Tribune and Herald and Kansas City Times are here, and find by investiga-tion that the trouble at this agency originated long before the advent of the present agent or the grass leases, but that the department refused to listen to the reports; and finally, finding it was no use to complain, the wrongs were


Had it not been for the timely action of Col. Sumner and his troops, the trouble would have culminated in a massacre. Since then the Indians have been kept more or less inactive watching the troops stringing in, then waiting for Commissioner Armstrong, and finally awaiting the arrival of Gen. Sheridan. Magpie=s band, recently raiding out west, had 147 horses and two large, fine mules when they passed Cantonement coming in. They kept the north side of the river.@


Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 25, 1885.

Another Protest.

KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI, July 18. Messrs. Towers & Lee, the committee represent-ing the anti-Texas cattlemen, sent a dispatch to Secretary Lamar tonight, saying that they had used the legal remedy open to them, and that only, and it is their intention to press the matter into the courts. They charge that the action of the department is such as to invite a violation of the animal industry law by all drovers of infectious Texas cattle, and state that already the Texas fever is spreading near Cantonment in the neighborhood of the herds in controversy. In conclusion they say: AWe can only regret that our earnest appeal to you as the high official of the nation, who had the power, if he had the will, to protect us in our right, and save us from financial disaster, should have been in vain.@

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 25, 1885.

As a mild specimen of the atrocities perpetrated by Indians upon white settlers of the west, the Washington correspondent of the Cincinnati Gazette relates of the Apaches, against whose transfer from Montana to the Indian Territory Gov. Martin protests.

AThese are the cheerful gentlemen who with their knives cut out the eyeballs of Tom Pugh, of Cincinnati, while he was yet alive, and committed such other atrocities upon him that one shrinks in horror from the thought of them.

AThey are the same pleasant >wards of the government= who hung white women in Lake Valley up by the heels and bored their bodies through with the linch-pins of the emigrant wagons, heated red hot, after horribly outraging them and torturing and mutilating their husbands and children before their eyes.

AThey are the same jolly companions who cut off the heads of Mrs. Hayes= infant and rolled it down the steep mesa amid yells and dancing before taking the mother in hand, who was forced to witness the act, as she had been forced to see the fire burning on the naked, prostrate form of her husband, with the long, sharp sticks driven into his eyes by the squaws, and hot wedges driven in his toe-nails.

AThey are the same estimable citizens who butchered Judge McComas, wife, and son, and have in the last few years, committed many hundred atrocities of the kind I have little more than hinted at.@

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 25, 1885.


General Sheridan has induced the Cheyennes to assemble at the agency. They fear that they are to be disarmed and are unanimous in their opposition to such a procedure. They claim that they paid a big price for their arms, spot cash, and that should the government take their guns and revolvers, it would be months and maybe years before the accounts could be verified and properly audited, the appointment made, and the Indian get his money back, which money they had got in payment for freighting and selling their stock.

A Kansas City Times special dispatch from Ft. Reno, Indian Territory, of the 21st inst. says.

AThe Arapahoes number 1,500 instead of 2,000; and the Cheyennes will not show over 3,000 people. The Indians offered to give up all their arms and horses to the commissioner, who refused them, because if they received money, they could go to Caldwell and buy more. Agent Dyer [THINK HIS NAME IS DWYER???] has tendered his resignation, claiming that he has not had proper support from the department in enforcing the law and order on refractory Indians. Should his resignation be accepted and a new agent appointed, it is uncertain whether the Indians would be obedient to his orders or not. The troops are being gradually withdrawn from here to their proper stations. Troop I of the Fifth cavalry has gone to Fort Supply, and A of the Fourth infantry for temporary duty at Cantonment. Others will start in a day or two.@

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, July 25, 1885.


After mature consideration the president and cabinet have reached the conclusion that the leases of land in the Indian Territory held by cattlemen are invalid, and it has been determined to take steps to have them set aside. Gen. Sheridan has reported that no permanent settlement of Indian Territory troubles can be effected while the cattlemen are in possession of the best lands, and it is the intention of the president to remove the disturbing element and reserve the territory for the exclusive occupation of the Indians. The method of procedure has not been determined. A presidential proclamation may be issued, but it is regarded by well informed persons as more probable that action will be begun in the United States courts of the western district of Kansas, having jurisdiction over the territory, looking to a declaration of the invalidity of leases.

It was a bad day for the cattlemen when Gen. Sheridan entered the territory, and it will go pretty hard with a good many.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 1, 1885.

A Letter From the Seat of the Indian Trouble.

CALDWELL, July 21, 1885.

To the Editor of the Eagle.

Having returned I will try and fulfill my promise to you. An insight into the Cheyenne and Arapahoe trouble as I saw them, including all the time of Sheridan=s presence up to the day I left. During the last year Indian Inspector Gardner spent considerable time, off and on, at the agency and became well posted with the actual feeling among the Cheyennes. In support of Agent Dyer=s continued calls for military support, Gardner reviewed the situation and recommended that 3,000 troops be sent there to enforce obedience. This is on record at Washington. Every time the Indians were guilty, Dyer would write up the circumstance and ask respectfully whether the department intended to sustain him, saying it was worse than useless to make any attempt at punishing crime until he was sure of being sustained, as a failure after such a move would only make matters worse.

You have gone over the ground (in your editorial) of how the president ordered them disarmedChow Sheridan pigeon-holed the movement; how Dyer=s, Rev. Haury=s, Capt. Bennett=s, and all the other old officers= reports agreed: ATroops, and disarming, or war.@ How Sumner, the new commander and Inspector Armstrong said the same thing upon arrival. The situation was dangerous, or all of these men would not have kept calling for more troops. You know how the troops were blockaded by Col. Potter and Gen. Augur until raiding parties actually left the agency and the Kansas scare resulted. Then troops commenced to move until 4,000 were in motion. Then Sheridan was sent, we thought then, to take charge and act. Now, we know better.

It is only too true now that Sheridan was detailed to make the first move of the Indian patronage for his party. Sheridan did this because he was only too glad to get a chance to repay old scores on the Camp Supply cattle herd that the present grass rentals crowded off that reservation.

Sheridan arrived. After he had been there three days, he had had but a short interview with Dyer, had entirely ignored Sumner, had not allowed either Ben Clark, post Interpreter, and Geo. and Robert Bent, and Ed. Guerrier, leading agency interpreters, to talk for the agency Indians or for themselves. Instead, he went into caucus with Col. Potter and Interpreter Chapman and Col. Mike Sheridan, and during those three days took Stone Calf, Little Robe, and other leading discontented Indians, had Chapman represent to them that they would neither be punished nor disarmed if they would act according to instructions, and went into private council with them, allowing them to talk without allowing anybody to be present to hear or dispute their statements. (Now read your last two dispatches from their agency giving the Indian version of that council.)

You can easily see that the Indians were only speaking their little pieces as instructed by Chapman. None of the cattlemen, who have lost thousands of dollars in cattle killed by these Indians, were allowed to speak. Not an Indian opposed to Stone Calf and Chapman was allowed an audience. Finally when the agent protested against such an unheard of state of affairs and asked for a hearing of other Indians, Chapman was allowed to select the Indians who denied in toto all that the others said, and finally in despair they gave up the situation and left with their case not stated.

Nothing had been done yet when I left to disarm the IndiansCon the other hand, 200 of them had been enlisted as scouts and given government arms and ammunition. (What for, I wonder, to kill Kansas settlers?)

Matters culminated in the attempt to count the Cheyennes. The Indians had been instructed by Agent Dyer to form their village and take their stations and remain stationary when counted. They did not wish to be counted and in consequence when the time arrived, they rushed wildly about on foot, in wagons, and on horses, all in confusion, and refused to hear orders or instructions. Armstrong, who was present and intoxicated, made a beastly attack upon Agent Dyer, accusing him of not having control of his Indians and cursing him in a brutal manner. Dyer replied in a quiet manner, what all creation now knows, that the Cheyennes have been beyond control for years, that he had asked for troops to make them mind, that the troops were here, but that he had not been sustained. Prominent cattlemen and reporters standing near told Armstrong they would sustain Dyer if he would slap Armstrong in the face. A Kansas City Times reporter present afterward attempted to give the scene to his paper by wire and Gen. Sheridan refused to allow him to use the wire.

Agent Dyer has taken steps preparatory to resigning, the whole investigation by Sheridan has been a farce, his information has all been obtained from strangers (the Camp Supply outfit); and his recommendations all hatched out before he left Washington. One thing is apparentCthe Indians will not be disarmed as long as they are in charge of a civilian agent, but the necessity will be used as a lever to have them turned over from the interior to the war department.

Of course, it is Dyer=s misfortune that he is a civilian and a republican. If the department would sustain him in this crisis, he would have an after influence with these Indians that would enable him to advance them in one year where it would take a new agent (also unsupported) ten years. On the other hand, if turned over to the military, they will be a tribe of drunkards.

Four thousand troops have been put in motion. Kansas has been the subject of an expensive scare, and immigration has been affected. The general of the army has come all the way from Washington, and what is the result. The Indians are still armed to the teeth, they have ponies that can out travel the cavalry, and they are able to cross the Kansas line in one night and a day from starting. They can then murder and steal and be back home in two days. They are lamblike now, in the face of the military; but unruly and dangerous when they are gone. Instead of their ring leaders being made an example of, they have been elevated above the level of all the whites and other Indians in the country. Is this the way to control Indians? To Sheol with such a policy!


Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 1, 1885.

Cattlemen=s Dilemma.

ST. LOUIS, July 4. A meeting of the cattlemen leasing land in the Indian Territory was held this morning at the rooms of the National Cattle Growers Association to discuss the president=s proclamation declaring the Arapahoe and Cheyenne leases void and ordering all cattlemen removed from the reservation within forty days. The proclamation was warmly discussed and another meeting will be held tomorrow, when the committees from Kansas City and St. Joseph will be present, and a course of procedure adopted. The cattlemen claim that it is impossible to move 300,000 or 400,000 head of cattle inside of forty days, and say they have no place to move to, as all ranges in the Territory and Texas are now crowded and Kansas and Colorado are quarantined against Texas cattle, while in New Mexico there is a strong public feeling against the cattle, even if there were room there. Missouri has about $800,000 invested in cattle in the Indian Territory. The St. Louis interest is about $500,000.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 1, 1885.

The Two Policies.

The proclamation of President Cleveland declaring the cattle leases in the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservations void, and ordering the cattle removed in forty days, is simply the entering wedge to the general policy of maintaining the Indian Territory as sacred ground, never to be polluted by the tread of a white man, but to be held for the exclusive isolation and admiration of the half civilized and savage tribes, which use it as a skulking place to shield them from their crimes and to draw rations from a too generous people.

This policy, carried out, amounts to an indefinite postponement of the establishment of that territory or any part of it by white people, at least until the policy is changed.

The demand of a portion of the Cheyennes and Arapahoes to clear their reservation of cattlemen who are paying to them large sums of money for merely grazing privileges; and this demand having been considered favorably by the government, will result in like demands from other tribes, which, taking this as a precedent, must be granted, and thus, in the course of a short time, this and all other interests of white men will be barred out, and the Indian left monarch of all he surveys, supported by the taxes of white people and encouraged to adhere to his tribal traditions and habits. This policy is not one calculated to force him to habits of industry and the arts of peace; but on the contrary to reverse the policy of the Republican party, which was intended to bring the Indian to see the necessity of learning at the earliest possible day to support himself by the cultivation of the soilCto allot the lands in severalty, in limited quantities, and to open the remainder to more intelligent cultivation by the law abiding white man, whose example and methods would be daily instruction to his less industrious and less skilled neighbor, who, from necessity, ambition, and pride, would soon become a self-supporting and conscientious citizen, instead of remaining as now, a pauper on the government and a murderer at heart.

Aside from the policy of the administration in throwing the strong arms of the government around these painted savages, the proclamation overrides the rights of white men, who are there under such authority as the courts have declared to be legal and binding not only as to the Indians, but as to the government itself, and if the proclamation shall not be modified, great damage must result to a large number of white men whose vast interests have been assured by former administrations and the Indians themselves.

The interest of the state of Missouri in this matter is estimated to be about $8,000,000, while that of the citizens of Kansas and Colorado cannot be much less. From interviews with prominent gentlemen, reported in the Kansas City Times, it is stated that at least nineteen-twentieths of all the Indians on the reservation are in favor of the leases. It gives them $75,000 to $80,000 a year that is used in buying the necessities of life.

Now, if the government deprives them of this income, is it prepared to make it good out of the public treasury? Will the people stand it? On the other hand, can the government be justified in running the business interests of Missouri and Kansas, in the face of a decision made in the district court of Columbia at Washington, declaring the lease of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservation valid? Does not the government lay itself liable for a claim amounting to millions of dollars in damages if the order of removal be enforced? The cattlemen simply ask for time to lay before the president and cabinet their side of the question, and then if decided against them, they are perfectly willing to go.

The action of the government in the order of removal of cattle from the reservation is to be deplored. If enforced, it will be a great injustice to the men who have invested their money in the cattle business, and as it will affect many Missouri and Kansas parties, the country at large will eventually see the folly of such a course. There are now on the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservation 150,000 to 200,000 head of cattle, and if it be true that the government intends forcing them off the ranges, they will have to be thrown on the market. It requires but little study to see that such a state of affairs would be liable to create a panic, and every farmer who is fattening a few cattle for the butcher market would realize that he, too, was a sufferer from this unjust act. Again, the forcing of that number of immature cattle on the market would so cut down what should be the supply of the next few years that the consumer would necessarily have to pay a high price for beef.

The lease had been decided a legal one by the United States courts, and it certainly would not be justice to enforce the order and bring ruin on those who have every dollar invested without having a chance to present their rights in the premises.

Thus it appears from any point which the action of the administration in the premises can be viewed, it must be regarded as hasty and inconsiderate, unjust to the cattlemen, and against the policy looking to the future opening of the Territory to white settlement or throwing the Indians upon their own resources.

Emporia Republican.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 1, 1885.

ABoss@ CLEVELAND=s cattle edict shows him up in all his bull-headedness. He has declined to modify the order requesting the cattlemen to remove their herds in 40 days from Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservation by extending the time. The cattlemen interested in leases have held meetings and adopted resolutions asking Cleveland to extend the time until

other grazing grounds can be obtained, and he has refused. By this action he does a great injury to the cattle interests. Parties holding leases have no alternative. They must remove their cattle within 40 days, whether or no.

A gentleman residing at Fred, Indian Territory, informs us that cattlemen are down-spirited. They recognize the fact that Kansas has a quarantine law, also Colorado and the territory of New Mexico. To Texas and Arizona they must look for sustenance for their cattle. The available land that Texas affords are owned by the State University. They would probably accommodate all the cattle in the southern portion of the Territory. But the principal objection urged is the taking of the cattle to these lands. They would have to graze on the way and the last herds would have poor pickings.

It is estimated that there are 300,000 head of cattle, worth $8,000,000, that have to be removed. This will cause great hardships. While the REPUBLICAN concides with the president in his action declaring the cattle leases invalid, yet he should have given the cattlemen sufficient time to go without such great loss.

Arkansas City Republican, August 1, 1885.


The Osage Indians will receive a payment of four dollars per capita today, being the receipts from cattle leases on their reservation. As an instance of the advancement of this tribe, we cite the fact that this payment is conducted wholly among themselvesCthe making of the payrolls and handling of the money being done by their secretary and treasurer, with no assistance from the agent other than advice. At the June payment the Osages numbered 1,551.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 8, 1885.

The Southern Cattle.

TOPEKA, KANSAS, July 29. [Special.]

At this time there is much interest manifested in the movements of cattle in the Indian Territory, caused by orders from Washington, which means the practical destruction of the cattle trade, or at least the business of many who are now engaged in that trade. Desiring to get an expression from men who had made this question a study, your correspondent called on governor John A. Martin, who consented to be interviewed when his attention was called to the deep interest manifested, not only in Kansas City, but in the entire West and South. The first point was the leases and the question was asked:

AWhat do you think of the order concerning the cattle leases in the Indian Territory?@

AI regard it as arbitrary and unjust. The United States Government has insisted on preserving the Territory as a home for the Indians, and has treated it, in all its laws and its dealings with them, as their property. The Indians leased the grass, on certain lands, to cattlemen. Whether the cattlemen made a good or bad bargain with the Indians, I do not know, but it is certain that for the first time in their lives the Indians received something for the grass on their lands. And for this time also the vegetation of the Indian Territory has been of use to the human race. For centuries it has simply gone to waste, blooming and blossoming in rank luxuriance, but of no value to and used by no human being on the face of the earth. The government says, in effect, that it shall continue to be so wasted, and to be used for the benefit of nobody. The Indians don=t use itCthe government says the whites shall not use it. Thus, the Indians are deprived of the reserve they received, and the cattlemen, who have been acting under what they supposed to be legal leases, for which they have paid the stipulated price, are seriously damaged, if not ruined.@

ABut has there not been considerable opposition to the occupancy of the Indian lands by the cattlemen?@

AIn some quarters, yes. But it was a thoughtless opposition, or grew out of a dog-in-the-manger spirit, which influences many men. People saw the cattlemen; they thought they had what is called a >good thing,= and so those outside, who couldn=t get inside, growled and declaimed. Yet, the occupancy of these lands for grazing purposes, injured nobody. The Indians were benefitted in the money they received; the cattlemen were benefitted in securing pasturage for their herds; and the people, generally, were benefitted, because occupancy in these lands aided in the work of supplying beef for public consumption. A dispatch from Dallas, printed in the Kansas City Journal the other day, stated that Texas cattle have decreased fully 25 percent since the president=s order was issued. Is an increased price of beef a public benefit?@

ADo you anticipate any trouble from the attempts of the Texas cattlemen to drive their cattle into or through Texas?@

AI hope none will occur. Our laws are explicit, and I have directed the live stock sanitary commission to see that they are rigidly enforced. Kansas shall not be desolated by the Texas fever if I can prevent it. The presence of a Texas steer from south of the thirty-seventh parallel, in any section of Kansas, means the destruction of every head of native cattle in that section. Texas fever is far more dangerous to the cattle of Kansas than pleuro-pneumonia. Texas cattle poison the grass, the water, the earth, wherever they go, and Kansas cattle grazing on the grass, drinking the water, and moving over the highways where Texas cattle have been, are doomed to certain destruction. Texas cattle have no legal right in Kansas; their presence is fatal to the stock of our own people, and it is our plain duty to protect our own stock interests against such losses as the Texas cattle spread to their trail.@

ADo you think the sheriff and other officers of the Southwest can and will enforce the law?@

AI have no doubt of it. They will have the whole population of their counties to sustain them, for every Kansas man realizes the necessity of excluding Texas cattle.@ [Boomer related story.]

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 8, 1885.

How to Settle It.

The following from the Atchison Champion expresses our sentiments in regard to the Indian question.

AGov. Martin=s letter to the secretary of War embodies all there is to the Indian question. The United States has undertaken to care for the Indians. It is in the position of a man who owns a vicious dog. The dog may be everything to its owner; but the neighbors want him tied up; they neither desire to be bitten nor be scared to death by him. If the dog=s collar and chain is not strong enough, then he must go and get a more efficient dog restraining apparatus. If part of the United States army is not enough to keep the Cheyennes and Arapahoes on their territory, then bring the whole army. The Champion has never advocated any invasion of the Indian Territory by white men. It has always denounced the Oklahoma Aboom@ as a piece of folly, not unmixed with rascality on the part of its leaders, and this doctrine ought to be announced and enforced; Indians on their side and white people on their side. This done, and there will be no trouble. If white men make trouble among Indians, kick them out of the Territory; if Indians come into Kansas even peaceably, send them back home. If they come armed and hostile, kill them; if they commit robberies and murders on the soil of Kansas, and escape into the Territory, then let their surrender be demanded that they might be punished like other robbers and murderers.@ ]

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 8, 1885.

If the cattle lease system now in vogue is to be broken up, we hope no more leases will

be allowed, but that it will be understood that the Indians will be supported like invalid paupers. The Indians owned the land; were not using it themselves; were getting nothing from it or for it and had a right to lease it; did lease it, and have realized a large sum of money, cash in hand paid, for it. This looks reasonable, and it is, but a constant howl has been raised ever since the lease system was adopted. Let, then, the old system be tried again of giving the Indians money and rations for nothing, and see if that gives any better satisfaction. Champion.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 8, 1885.

Despatches from Ft. Worth, Gainesville, San Antonio, and other cattle centers in Texas represent great consternation among the cattlemen of that state because of the president=s edict expelling cattle from the Indian Territory. The result will be to largely shut off northwestern Texas cattle from market, and this will in turn prostrate values and business generally. The university board of Texas, however, has an immense landed endowment and offers to lease that to Indian Territory cattle companies for grazing purposes, though it is not probable that it can be had at the yearly rate of two cents per acre.

Arkansas City Republican, August 8, 1885.

The Outrage Premeditated.

We hope the cattlemen will have some success with the conciliatory policy towards Mr. Cleveland, but we must say that our confidence is not supreme, and we have no prodigious hopes of success.

We do not believe that any government other than a despotism ever undertook such an infamous scheme of confiscation. It is the worst kind of dishonesty, for the reason that it is being perpetrated by a powerful government upon private citizens. It is rank robbery on the part of Mr. Cleveland, and we have no hesitation in calling it by the right name. Political rulers have been deposed for conduct not more obnoxious than that of Mr. Cleveland against cattlemen. When the president turns the guns of the government on the industry of the nation, it is time for people to reflect. If cattlemen must submit to the destruction of their property, other interests are in like danger from the whims and ignorance of powerful officials.

Look at the situation of the case. The cattlemen have expended nearly $300,000 in protecting their property in the Indian Territory with wire fences. On lands thus guarded they have property valued at about $5,650,000. They have paid the Indians pasturage up to November of the present year. This is simply the record of investment. But last winter brought tremendous losses to the cattle interests, and more serious than all, radically disturbed the credit of the cattle owners in money centers. Instead of being rich and powerful, there are hundreds of ranchmen who have been brought to the edge of ruin, and their only hope was in a favorable and undisturbed season.

With all these unfavorable conditions in existence, the president of the United States, for whom many people voted in the hope of better times, promulgates his forty day confiscation order.

The order was made with a cool premeditation, but without knowledge or even decent attempts at investigation. As will be seen elsewhere, the president had determined the matter before Gen. Sheridan left Washington.

What had he determined? He had resolved, for reasons best known to this remarkable specimen of statesmanship, by pushing men representing investments aggregating about $6,000,000 to the wall in the space of forty days.

What business has the president of the United States to place the property of citizens in jeopardy? Where is the constitutional provision that declares the doctrine, that contracts not suitable to the fancy of the executive, shall be voided without reference to the courts? Where is the constitutional provision that authorizes the president to be court and jury, and to issue execution on an ex parte statement made by his own commands? Where is the constitutional law that gives the president the power to destroy one dollar=s worth of property on his individual judgment to the validity of the contract?

Supposing his judgment to be correct, what moral or legal right has the president to unnecessarily injure any person=s property rights? We are told from Washington that an investigation has been made. With all due regard for presidents, generals, and military Indian agents, we insist that an investigation has not been made.

On the contrary, we assert that the so-called investigation was a fraud and a farce, originated for the purpose of sustaining a policy already agreed upon in Washington, and without reference to the facts or equities in the situation.

If it has been determined to make changes in the territory; if it has been determined to take lands away from the Indians and confine them to closer quarters, then there was no shadow of excuse for the precipitate move on the cattlemen. It is for congress to say what future disposal shall be made of the lands in question. It is not for the president to drive cattle owners out of territory at the point of the bayonet in forty days, without even a hint of congressional action.

The methods of the reformers are past comprehension, unless reform means the destruction of all things previous to the present administration. Kansas City Journal.

Arkansas City Republican, August 8, 1885.

The Cattle Leases.

From the Fort Scott Monitor.

The Topeka Journal says the Monitor is in favor of the dishonest leases. There is no truth in that. The Monitor believes the leases illegal. If they are legal, the government is bound by them and to eject the leases is an outrage. If they are illegal, and their existence caused the Indian trouble, then annul them out in forty days. The order is the act of tyrants clothed with a little brief authority. The cattle cannot be moved out in forty days, nor in 100 days, and the editor of the Journal knows it, and to attempt it is to destroy millions of dollars= worth of property, and we say to the Journal what the country will soon understand: that the order was issued through ignorance or from bull headed cussedness and will recoil with the force of a cyclone upon the administration, if it is enforced.

Arkansas City Republican, August 8, 1885.

The Indian Land Leases Invalid.

WASHINGTON, August 1. Attorney General Garland, to whom the secretary of the interior referred the question of the power of the interior department to authorize the Indians to lease their lands for grazing purposes, has transmitted to Secretary Lamar an opinion, in effect that no such power exists under the law.

The questions referred to the attorney general were whether there was any law empowering the interior department to authorize the Indians to enter into a contract with any parties for the lease of Indian lands for grazing purposes; also whether the president or interior department has any authority to make a lease for grazing purposes of any part of any Indian reservation, or whether the approval by the president or secretary of the interior would render any such lease made by the Indians with other parties, lawful and valid.

AThe questions,@ writes the attorney general, Aare propounded with reference to certain Indian reservations, namely:

AFirst. The Cherokee lands in the Indian Territory west of 96 degrees, longitude, except such parts thereof as heretofore have been appropriated for and conveyed to friendly tribes of Indians.

ASecond. The Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservation in the Indian Territory.

AOur government has even claimed the right and from a very early period its settled policy has been to regulate and control the alienation or other disposition by the Indian nations or tribes of their lands. This policy was originally adopted in view of their peculiar character and habits, which render them incapable of sustaining any other relations with the whites than that of dependance and pupilage. There was no other way of dealing with them than that of keeping them separate, subordinate, and dependent, with guardian care thrown around them for their protection. Thus, in 1873 congress in confederation by proclamation forbade >all persons from making settlements on lands inhabited or claimed by Indians without the limits of jurisdiction of any particular state, and from purchasing or receiving any cession of such lands or claims without express authority and directions of the United States in congress assembled,= and declared >that every such purchase or settlement, gift or cession not having the authority aforesaid null and void, and that no right or the title will accrue in consequence of any such purchase gift, cession, or settlement.=

ABy section 4 of the act of July 22, 1790, the congress of the United States enacted that no sale of lands made by any Indians or nation or tribes of Indians within the United States shall be valid to any person or persons, or to any state, whether having the right of pre-emption to such lands or not, unless the same shall be made and duly executed


held under the authority of the United States.

ASimilar provisions were again enacted in section 8 of the act of March 1, 1793, which by its terms included any >purchase or grant of lands, or of any title or claim thereto, from any Indians or nation, or tribe of Indians within the bounds of the United States.=

AThe provision was further extended by section 12 of the act of May 19, 1796, so as to embrace any purchase, grant, lease, or any other conveyance of lands or of any title or claim thereto. As thus extended, it was re-enacted by the act of March 3, 1799, chapter forty-six, and also by the act of March 30, 1802. (Chapter 30, section 12.)

AIn the above legislation provision in terms applied to purchases, grants, leases, etc., from individual Indians, as well as from Indian tribes or nations, but by the twelfth section of the act of June 30, 1834 (chapter 164), it limited to such as emanate >from any Indian nation or tribe of Indians,= and the provision of the act of 1834 just referred to, have been reproduced in section 2,116, Revised Statute now in force.

AThe last named section declares: >No purchase, grant, lease, or other conveyance of lands or any title or claim thereto from any Indian nation or tribe of Indians, shall be of any validity in law or equity unless the same be made by treaty or constitution.=

AThis statuatory provision is very general and comprehensive. Its operation does not depend upon the nature or the extent of the title to the land which a tribe or nation may hold, whether such title be fee simple or right of occupancy, merely, is not material. In either case the statute applies. It is not therefore deemed necessary or important in connection with the subject under consideration to inquire into the particular right or title to the above mentioned reservations held by Indian tribes or nations respectively which claim them, whatever right or title there may be, these tribes or nations are precluded by the force and the effect of the statute from either alienating or leasing any part of its reservation, or imparting any interest or claim in or to the same, without the consent of the government of the United States. The lease of the land for grazing purposes is as clearly within the statute, as a lease for any other, or more general purposes, and the duration of the term is immaterial. One who enters with cattle, or other live stock, upon an Indian reservation under a lease of that description is made in violation of the statute, is an intruder, and may be removed therefrom as such, notwithstanding his treaty of consent with the tribe. Such consent may exempt him from the penalty imposed by section 2117, revised statutes, for taking his stock there, but it cannot validate the lease, or confer upon him any legal right whatever to remain upon the land, and to this extent, and no further, was the decision of Judge Brewer in the United States vs. Hunter, 21, Fed. Rep. 615.

ABut the present inquiry in substance is whether the department of the interior can authorize these Indians to make leases of their lands for grazing purposes, or whether the approval of such leases by the president or secretary of the interior would make them lawful and valid, and whether the president or the department has authority to lease for such purposes any part of the Indian reservation. I submit that the power of the department to authorize such leases to be made, as that of the president or secretary to approve or make the same, if it exists at all, must rest upon some law and therefore be derived from either treaty or statutory provision. I am not aware of any treaty or provision applicable to particular reservations in the Union that confers such powers. The revised statutes contains provisions regulating contracts or agreements with the Indians and prescribing how they shall be executed and approved in section 2,103. But these provisions do not include contracts of the character described in section 1,116, hereinbefore mentioned. No other power appears to have been conferred by the statute upon either the president, the secretary, or any other officer of the government to authorize or approve leases of lands held by Indian tribes.

AThe absence of such power was doubtless one of the main considerations which led to the adoption of the act of February 18, 1885, chapter 90, to authorize the Seneca nation of New York Indians to lease lands with the Cattaragus and Alleghany reservation and confirm existing leases.

AThe act just cited, moreover, is significant as showing that in the view of congress, the Indian tribes cannot lease their reservations without the authority of some of the United States.

AIn my judgment, therefore, each of the questions proposed in your letter should be answered in the negative. I so answer them.@

Arkansas City Republican, August 8, 1885.

Kansas To Be Protected.

Gov. Martin received yesterday morning the following dispatch from Lt. Gen. Sheridan.


Gov. John A. Martin: I have your letters of the 16th and 20th. They have been referred to Gen. Miles, who starts from here for Fort Supply tomorrow morning, and will make an examination of the country and points you mention as military stations. There need be no fear on the part of the settlers of southwestern Kansas from hostilities by the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians. I have gone down to the bottom of affairs here, and know that the irritation was the result of bad control and oppressive measures. I hope for a correction of the evils and am confident that when I leave here, the people in Kansas may gather their crops and sleep peacefully at night. Gen. Miles is an officer of good judgment, who will do all that is necessary to restore confidence from a panic so paralyzing in its effects as this one has been to the industries of your state.

P. H. SHERIDAN, Lieutenant-General.

The press dispatches of July 22 show that the interior department has turned over to Gen. Sheridan the entire control of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservations.

Arkansas City Republican, August 8, 1885.

The Cattlemen=s Protest Of No Avail.

WASHINGTON, Aug. 1. The president today informed a delegation representing the cattlemen, that he would not modify his recent order for the removal of the cattle from the leased lands on the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservations within forty days from the date of his proclamation.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 15, 1885.

The Payne Oklahoma colony at Caldwell has broken camp in compliance with instructions from Capt. Couch. He says Attorney General Garland=s legal opinion that all leases made with Indians are illegal sustains the claims and arguments of the colonists in every particular. The president=s action ejecting all trespassers from the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservations doubtless is but the beginning of the end of justice, and the obliteration of discrimination.

Capt. Couch believes the administration is acting in good faith towards all, that though seemingly slow, the grand result of the opening of Oklahoma will soon be attained. With a desire to in no way be any embarrassment in the good work now being vigorously prosecuted by the administration, Capt. Couch has requested his colony to break. Some will do freighting from Caldwell to Reno. Others have taken hay contracts. An office has been opened up in Caldwell by Capt. Couch and Secretary Blackburne, by whom all correspon-dence will be answered. Samuel Crocker is again at Caldwell from the Cowley County jail, having given bond for his appearance at the September term of the United States District Court.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 15, 1885.

A Boomer on Our Officials.

Col. Sam Crocker turns away from his galling thoughts of martyrdom in Cowley=s bastile to tilt his faber in the Oklahoma War-Chief thusly.

AWhile it is humiliating to be incarcerated within the walls of an American prison for exercising the rights of free speech and free pressCsomething to be abhorred, detested, and despised by any and every person with the least spark of pride and good breeding, who may have the sense of shame left as a heritage of manly or womanly birth; yet, for all this, there is one thing connected with our confinement and treatment that we feel thankful to acknowledge; and that is, no manlier, humane, or courteous set of officials, from the deputy

U. S. marshals down to the sheriff and jailor ever contributed more to the needed comfort of an innocently incarcerated prisoner (Deputy United States Marshals Reed and O. S. Rarick, Sheriff McIntire, and Frank W. Finch, jailor). It always affords us pleasure to speak of governmental officials great injustice to speak of them in any other light.@

Winfield Courier.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 15, 1885.

A Clean Sweep of the Territory.

WASHINGTON, Aug. 7. The understanding here is that every cattleman and every other individual who is occupying lands in the Indian Territory, who is not a bona fide resident there under the law, must get out.

The recent order of the president, however, applies particularly to those having stock on the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservations. The attorney general, in his decision, contemplates a clean sweep of all cattlemen from the Territory. And Secretary Lamar and the latter will urge it upon the executive to push things to that end, which, of course, will necessitate further orders. Attorney Polard, of St. Louis, representing Hunter & Evans, says that they will go with their cattle into the Cherokee country, or somewhere else, and that before the end the matter will be taken into the courts. By what means he intends to proceed, he does not say.

Further word to vacate may be expected at any time.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 15, 1885.

The cattlemen on the Cherokee land propose, if the president orders them to abandon their leases, to apply to the supreme court for an injunction. The herds on the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservations are being removed, partly to the Cherokee lands, to Kansas, Colorado, and other ranges, and a large number will be thrown upon the market to sell for what they will bring.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 15, 1885.

Gov. Martin has again written President Cleveland, asking that in addition to the military posts General Sheridan has established near Kiowa, Barber County, and Deep Hole, Clarke County, Kansas, that a third post be maintained on the Cimarron River, near the 106th meridian, which runs through Ford and Clarke Counties. He also insists that the Indians should be disarmed, as the only permanent safeguard to southwestern Kansas.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 15, 1885.

The election in the Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, next month, promises to be one of the most exciting of any had yet in the history of the Cherokee people. The main question is the disposal of surplus lands to the United States to be made subject to the pre-emption and homestead laws. The Cherokee, Seminole, and Creek surplus lands are the bone of contention under consideration. The new council will be elected, each member representing views either for or against the scheme, hence the preparations for a hard fought political battle.

Garden City Irrigator.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 15, 1885.

The discrepancy between the Indians fed and the Indians that showed up at the late countCa difference of two thousand personsCfurnishes something new for investigation. If the discrepancy exists at the Darlington Agency, is it not probable that all does then? Here is a wide field. The difference at Darlington runs up to over a hundred thousand dollars a year since 1874, when the last round up was made, previous to the Sheridan count. This is eleven years, and amounts to $1,100,000. It offsets the two cents balance at the treasury, which so tickled the Pubs. Dodge Democrat.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, August 15, 1885.

In speaking of the president=s reiterated determination to drive the cattlemen from the Indian Territory, the Philadelphia Inquirer has a right conception of the situation when it says:

AAs was anticipated, the government=s decision to drive stockmen out of the Indian Territory does the Indians more harm than good. It was reported a few days ago that the Indians could lease their lands for double the amount hitherto paid them, but Attorney General Garland has decided that the Indians have no right to lease their lands at all. So the $60,000 income they have been receiving is cut off and they are left to depend on the charity of congress and the tender mercies of the Indian agents and contractors. Verily, this is a white man=s government.@

Arkansas City Republican, August 15, 1885.

The Governor and Cleveland.

In his remarks to the cattle committee, the president of the United States not only insulted his visitors, but made his conduct still more shameful by deliberately misrepre-senting the governor of the state of Kansas. Mr. Cleveland was apparently willing his visitors and the people should draw the inference that Governor Martin approved his policy.

Had Mr. Cleveland produced Governor Martin=s letter, he would have been compelled to read to the committee a complete refutation of his attempts to justify his forty day outrage from a man who knows more about the Indian question than Mr. Cleveland and his cabinet could learn during the balance of their lives.

The people of Kansas have a governor who is fit to be president, and it is humiliating indeed to see his futile efforts to beat a grain of sense into the presidential head in regard to western affairs.

Governor Martin requested the retention of the military on the borders of Kansas for the very reason that the policy of the administration is liable to aggravate instead of remove the Indian troubles. He wishes the military post retained for the reasons that the Indians had been encouraged in their lawlessness and left with arms and ammunition. He asks military protection because the Indians have been deprived of part of their rations and all of their income, and thus offered inducements to extend their raids. The governor=s arguments are unanswerable. The Indians should be disarmed. That is the proper solution of the question, as far as peace and safety to the settlers are concerned.

The other question could be easily settled. The president would simply have to say to the cattlemen that by the next grass season they must have their cattle out of the land in question, and all who did not would be assisted out in short order by the government.

The method is simple, fair and equitable, and a president with ordinary business sense ought to comprehend the situation. But the man who occupies the presidential chair is not a president. He is Stephen G. Cleveland, ex-sheriff, ex-mayor. Kansas City Journal.

Arkansas City Republican, August 29, 1885.

The cattlemen on the Cherokee lands propose, if President Cleveland orders them to abandon their leases, to apply to the supreme court for an injunction. The herds on the Cheyenne and Araphahoe reservations are being removed, partly to the Cherokee lands, to Kansas, Colorado, and other ranges, and a large number will be thrown upon the market to sell for what they will bring.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, September 12, 1885.

The Indicted Boomers Told to Go Home.

Tuesday Capt. Couch and the other boomers indicted for a resistance of the United States Army in Oklahoma last spring appeared in Wichita for trial. They were told by the district attorney that they might as well go home as nothing would be done with their cases. Regarding their arrest on this occasion, Capt. Couch said to an Eagle representative that they came out of the Territory under an agreement with Gen. Hatch and were not under arrest at all, but Hatch wired the secretary of war that he had prisoners and asked what disposition to make of them. He was ordered to turn them over to the civil authorities, but he had none in charge to turn over; and in order to get out of the dilemma, he came to Wichita and had Lieut. Day swear out warrants against a big batch of them, charging them with crimes that would, if proven, send them higher than a kite.

The boomers have spent many a dollar going to Wichita for trial, but they never got any and probably never will. The suit against them will probably die a natural death.


Arkansas City Republican, September 12, 1885.

Indian Commissioner Atkins, at Washington, has received a telegram from Capt. Lee, agent at the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indian reservation, in which he states that up to the present time 60,000 cattle have been driven off the reservation. About 50,000 yet remain, but they are all moving with a single exception, where the owner has not been able to secure another ranch. The agent believes that this individual means to leave, but says that if his sincerity is doubted, his stock will be moved by the government. Altogether Commissioner Atkins says he is satisfied with the condition of affairs on the reservation.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 2, 1885.


Senator Dawes in behalf of the Senatorial committee, who visited the territory lately to inquire into the operation of the cattle leases, has written a letter in which he takes sides with the administration in its war upon the cattlemen. Secretary Teller is made the target of severe criticism, the Massachusetts statesman declaring that Athe late administration of the interior department is as much responsible for the present demoralized and deplorable condition of affairs on the leased Indian reservations as if it had set directly about producing it. That department is the only responsible author of it, and its files are full of the evidence.@ Senator Dawes avows his faith in the purpose of President Cleveland to manage the affairs of the Indians wisely and equitably, and thus surpass his republican predecessors in his conduct of that troublesome race.@

As Mr. Dawes= personal inquisitions into the condition of the red race were confined to the Indian Territory, we wish to ask where he found the condition of affairs so Ademoralized and deplorable@ as he would have us believe. Certainly not among the five great nations. They have their national councils to remedy and adjust any wrong that exists, and their law courts to punish offenders. As a matter of fact, the leases granted by the Cherokees, the Creeks, and the Chickasaws are satisfactory, the lease money is paid promptly, and all are benefited.

It is true trouble exists with the Cheyennes; but when was that turbulent tribe ever without trouble? A portion of the members grew uneasy at the presence of the cattlemen, and Gen. Sheridan recommended the president to order the herds and the cowboys to leave. But this was against the wishes of the entire Arapahoe tribe and the greater portion of the Cheyennes; and it is clear to see that yet worse trouble impends now the rations of both tribes are cut down one-third, and they have no lease money to help out short commons with the trader. It is known that the former agent of the Cheyennes and Arapahoes negotiated the leases in the interest of those tribes, it being his belief that the presence of the herds and their attendants would wean the Indians from their devotion to their worthless ponies, and cure them of their antipathy to Aspotted buffalo.@ And the sound judgment of Agent John D. Miles and his philanthropic interest in the advancement of the red race are too well known to need insisting on.

If we go to the inferior tribes, we see no demoralization there. The Poncas have sent a petition to the president, signed by every male member, asking that their lease be undisturbed. Not long since we published a letter (couched in original phrase) from a Ponca to B. F. Childs, offering him upwards of thirty Acattle-cow@ for sale. It is a fact that the more progressive Indians raise little herds of their own, which they sell with all the avidity of their white rivals. The Cheyenne Transporter tells of two Arapahoe chiefs, Powder Face and Left Hand, who are putting up neat two-room dwellings. The materials they paid for out of their own means, and the money was derived from the cattle industry.

Senator Dawes is not a sound authority on the Indian question. He is possessed of the idea that the unscrupulous stock-raisers are oppressing and defrauding the unsophisticated reds, and because he spent a week in the territory he thinks he knows the whole thing. We give the president credit for acting in good faith; but we venture this prediction, that before his present term is expired he will have the affairs of the territory in such a hopeless mix that he will curse his unlucky stars he ever laid hands on it.

See the ruin impending over the Chilocco school as an evidence.


Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 9, 1885.

Senator Dawes, in his letter to the New York Tribune, talks quite pathetically about the relapse of the Cheyennes, and attributes the recent trouble at that agency to the demoralizing influence of the cowboys. If the Massachusetts senator desired to state his case honestly, he would attribute the outbreak to the turbulence of a portion of the tribe, who refused to be enrolled on the order of Commissioner Atkins, as a basis for the issue of rations. They had been reporting to the agent all the births in the tribe, but had withheld all information about the deaths. When Agent Dyer attempted to enumerate the Cheyennes, the more war-like became menacing, and the danger of an outbreak was so imminent that Gen. Sheridan was sent there to overawe the recalcitrant reds with his authority and illustrious name. They submitted to enrollment under such constraint, and then assigned the presence of the cattlemen and their herds as the cause of their discontent. The truth is the Cheyennes have always been troublesome, and Agent John D. Miles had frequent and serious trouble with the tribe before the leases were made. There is some personal feeling at the botttom of the senator=s spleen, and his ill temper (consciously or unconsciously), betrays him into a gross misstatement of facts.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 9, 1885.

Opening the Territory.

When the Times some years ago first directed the attention of the public to the importance of opening Oklahoma and ultimately the whole Indian Territory to white settlement, the idea was sagely pronounced impracticable by the wiseacres. But public opinion has since undergone a decided change, and the position of the Times now receives the hearty endorsement of the entire west and, indeed, of nearly the whole country. The preposterousness of allowing thousands of square miles of fertile land to remain practically unoccupied has gradually forced itself into the understanding of the people, and later events, especially the expulsion of the cattlmen from the Cheyenne and Arapahoe lands, have more forcibly than ever brought the question before the public.

The history of the five civilized tribes of the Indian Territory has demonstrated what the Indian can do in his own behalf. It is in his power to support himself; he has shown himself capable of grasping the problems of a useful life under the rules and laws of civilized society, and it is not probable that an enlightened public opinion will allow him to continue indefintely to monopolize such a large and fertile portion of the country. The conviction that the hundreds of thousands of acres of unoccupied land in the territory must be thrown open to white settlement is rapidly crystalizing into a powerful public pressure which the government cannot much longer ignore. And not only must the unoccupied lands be officially declared a part of the public domain, but there is a growing feeling throughout the east as well as the west that the tribal relations of the Indians must be broken up and land allotted to them in severalty, the remainder to be made accessible to white settlers on the usual government terms. That such a policy will be finally adopted and executed by the government is not questioned.

Kansas City Times.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 16, 1885.


The Redmen Declare Their Approval of the Cattle Leases.

AUGUST 24, 1885.

To all whom this note comes before:

We, the members of the Osage Indians, do not use any intention to go against the rules and ways and customs of the white people. We have our wishes in leasing out our surplus lands to good honorable stock men, and we have a livestock association in our own country, and we have members of both half-breed and full-blooded Indian members of the Association, and we all learn and appreciate the good of it, and we, the Indian people, would like to carry the custom to good extent. We, the Indian people, thinking it to our benefit, willingly leased our surplus lands, and we have promptly paid our tax, which amounts to about twenty thousand dollars a year.

We are a nation of people who have paid down the cash for every foot of land we possess, and we claim the same as a warranty deed as any citizen of any state claims the land he has paid for, and we still wish to rent out our farms and unoccupied lands to good farmers, who can teach our people, in time to come, how to farm and raise stock of all kinds. And to accomplish this great effort with an uneducated people like the Indian, we must allow white people to live with us and farm our lands and our children go to school and associate with them and learn the habits of the white people by experience. The Indian is a human being and do not wish to be driven to civilization, but they have that to learn by moderate treatment and good experience; the bayonet is a poor school. The Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws have white people among them for years, and they are a people governing themselves. But it appears that we, the Osage people, are about the wealthiest nation of Indians on this continent. But it appears we have more trouble with a few government officials and speculators than any tribe going. It appears a few Indian traders rule the day, by monopolizing our country and by their unreasonable prices, and if our people should get cheap goods in the states these merchants and officials won=t allow them to collect their honest debts, as the traders first gobble all the cash and allow the others the [? dreanens ? NO SUCH WORD?] of their merciless hands. We have long looked for a change and hope to get our wishes. We are happy today to think and believe the government will not go back on us, and we still look for the great protection promised us by treaty stipulation.

W. B. MATHIS, Attorney, Osage Indians.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 16, 1885.


The declaration of the Osage Indians in regard to the cattle leases (given on our first page), will be interesting to many inquiring statesmen, who have been anxious to learn from first sources how the tribes are affected by those contracts. It has been represented by some writers that the unsophisticated red men are sorely oppressed by their pale face tenants, that the price paid for the use of their land is grossly inadequate, and that the example and influence of the cowboys are debasing to the untutored mind. Senator Dawes, in his recent letter to the New York Tribune, goes yet further in his arraignment of these contracts, declaring that the money paid by the cattlemen for their leases is worse than thrown away, because it is expended by the recipients in the purchase of arms, and renders the tribes more dangerous and lawless than ever.

The Osages unwittingly meet most of these allegations in their curiously worded manifesto. They first assert their right to lease their surplus lands because they are owners of the soil, having purchased the reservation they live on with their own money.They express a desire to rent their land to good farmers, Awho can teach our people in time to come, how to farm and raise stock of all kinds.@

Experience has shown from the age of the Patriarch Abraham downward, that the pastoral age precedes farming industry, and as the Osages have not yet emerged from the blanket stage, the stock raising pursuit is clearly best adapted to their present tastes. They offer a useful practical suggestion as to the plan to be pursued in advancing the red race. AThe Indian is a human being,@ they say, Aand do not wish to be driven to civilization.@ The schoolmaster and the missionary they are not so ready to receive as Awhite people who live with us and farm our lands.@

Those who have labored among the blanket Indians have been most perplexed to devise some method to draw them out of their stolid apathy, to infuse some interest into their minds in the affairs of life, and present to them an object to live for. Evangelization has been tried, and the arts of the schoolmaster, but the labors of neither class of teachers have met with reasonable success. Their domestic and social habits must be changed first; they require to be taught that the bread they eat must first be earned, and that labor is not a hardship but a positive enjoyment. This must be imparted to them in easy lessons, and, as the Osages admit, they must be taught by object lessons. The example of cattle owners and their employees devoting intelligent care to the raising of stock, building necessary houses for the shelter of men and animals, putting up hay and grain for the winter, and spending their time in a rude industry which is not beyond the attainment of the progressive savage, would do more to arouse him out of his lethargy and impress him with the belief that he has power to be useful, than all the moral precepts that have been formulated since the days of Confucius. This is the missionary work unconsciously performed by the rude cowboy, and we have no doubt that Secretary Teller foresaw some such result when he gave his tacit consent to the cattle leases.

The violent reclamation against the exactions of the traders who are licensed to deal with the Osages is simply amusing to those who know the facts. There are seven trading houses doing business with that tribe, and the competition between these rival tradesmen is said to be keen and unremitting. Not infrequently a run will be made on a staple article, and it will be dealt out to the dusky consumers at a lower price than it can be laid down at the trader=s store. Then the Osages make good use of their opportunity of running in debt, first getting all the credit they can at one store, and then opening an account with another trader who is always on the lookout for business. When the semi-annual pay day comes around, the debts of some of these shrewd red men amount to double and treble what is due to them, and the trader finds sums of money on his books which are likely to be counted among his permanent assets. But this is the same story everywhere. In one of Coleman=s inimitable farces, we have a fashionable spendthrift declaring that he never paid his tradesmen because it only encouraged them; and these lofty Osages lift their voices against the burden of having white men in their midst who dispense supplies to all who ask for them, and who at a future time have the greed and rapacity to ask payment for the same.

We commend this Osage manifesto to the reader as a document worthy of his attention.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 16, 1885.


The truth should always be borne in mind that there are two sides to a case. Hitherto in the war of the administration upon the cattlemen who held leases on the Cheyenne and Arapahoe lands, we have been told of the demoralization caused by the presence of the cowboy and his herds, and how that violence and bloodshed could only be averted by driving the intruders out on the shortest notice. The fact was known that the majority of the Cheyennes were desirous to have the cattlemen remain, and the further fact also, that the ire of the more turbulent Indians was aroused against the order of enrollment. This humiliation was forced upon both tribes by the pressure of so great a war chief as Gen. Sheridan with a big force of troops; then the worst dissatisfied took their revenge by declaring that their cattle owning leases were the cause of their restlessness. This complaint fell in quite readily with Gen. Sheridan=s humor, because he still had fresh in his mind the explusion of his brother, Mike, from these same pasture grounds, and it is only human nature that he should seek to get even.

But now we have the other side of the story as told by Mr. Nimmo, late chief of the bureau of statistics of the treasury department, who has been over the ground inquiring out the facts for himself. On another page the reader will see a report of his conversation as given by the Chicago Mail. He shows that this raid upon cattle owners grew out of the spite of army officers who were herding droves of cattle on the Cheyenne reservation and paying nothing for the privilege. The system of leasing and fencing, which has since grown up, spoil that little game, and now they think the whirligig of time has brought about its own revenges.

This would all be very well if it were a mere game of ins and outs between the civil and military stockraisers. If furnishing a supply of beef to feed the hunger of 60,000,000 people were a contraband industry, like the business of the moonshiner in the Tennessee mountains, then this war on the bovine race would be a matter of indifference to all except those who are beneficially concerned. But every working man and poor widow in the eastern cities, who purchases a soup bone when they have the money to indulge such a luxury, will suffer from this senseless crusade, in the increased price they must pay for their morsel. Political dudes, like Senator Dawes, of Massachusetts, have had much to say about the wrongs inflicted on poor Lo, and Athe demoralized and deplorable condition of affairs on the leased Indian reservations.@ When the fact is that the money paid to these sorely wronged red men for the use of their lands helped out the scant supply furnished by the government; and the most judicious friends of the Indians favored these contracts as tending to remove their prejudice against domestic cattle, and familiarize them with a profitable industry. The president has been misled, is Mr. Nimmo=s reasonable conclusion, and the popular clamor that has been excited against cattlemen has led him into a serious executive blunder, which will rebound to the injury of his administration.

Arkansas City Traveler, September 16, 1885.


How Gen. Sheridan Misled the President Into His Executive Order.

Mr. Joseph Nimmo, Jr., late chief of the bureau of statistics, is now stopping in the city, a guest of the Leland House. He is en route to the states and territories embraced in the range and ranch cattle, horse and sheep growing area of the interior, with a view of writing a book upon that subject. To a reporter he said:

AI=m devoting special attention to the Indian and public land questions. I came to this city direct from the western portions of Kansas and the Indian territory, the scene of the recent troubles regarding the cattlemen and the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indian tribes. As the result of very careful investigations my views have been radically changed in regard to the merits of the whole subject since I left Washington. It appears to me that the whole difficulty has had its origin in the fact that a number of army officers, with their friends, were formerly largely engaged in the herding of cattle on the Cheyenne and Arapahoe lands, without paying a cent for the privilege, which was terminated in the leasing of the lands. Hundreds of thousands of other cattle were also grazing on the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservations without any compensation whatever to the Indians. These latter cattle were ostensibly passing through the Indian territory on the two trails extending from Texas to the northern ranges, but, in fact, being held on the Cheyenne and Arapahoe lands, where they were fattened, and thence shipped in large numbers to the markets of Kansas City, St. Louis, and Chicago.

AThe army officers stationed at Fort Reno, who appear not to have been in the army ring which had its headquarters at Camp Supply, 100 miles away, and twenty-five miles north of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservations, as well as the Indian agent stationed at Fort Reno, declared that it was utterly impossible for the army to keep these cattle off the Indian lands. To have done so, it would have rendered necessary the erection of a fence around the entire Indian territory, and also have rendered necessary the fencing of the two trails running through it. Fifteen hundred miles of fence would have been required, and then it would have been necessary to have stationed guards all along these lines to keep the cattlemen from cutting them.

AFinally, after mature discussion of the whole subject as between the army officers at Fort Reno, the agent, and the tribes, assembled in council, it was decided to be best to lease the lands to responsible parties, not one-twentieth part of which lands were occupied or needed by the Indians for any purpose. Secretary Teller at first stoutly refused to accede to this proposition, but he was finally prevailed upon to do so on arguments showing that such leasing would be protective of the interests of the Indians and promotive of their welfare. The strongest argument of this sort was made by army officers stationed at Fort Reno. Gen. Pope, commander of the department, wrote a long and very earnest appeal in favor of the plan of leasing, and Gen. Sheridan cordially endorsed all that was said by Gen. Pope, and the secretary of war transmitted the entire correspondence to Secretary Teller, of the interior department. Upon this earnest appeal Secretary Teller relented, allowing the Indians to lease as much of their land as they had no use for to responsible parties.

AI will mention as one of the amusing features of this business the fact that seven eighths of the lessees were democrats, and that they secured the approbation of the secretary of the interior almost entirely through the influence of democratic senators and members of congress; so that the leasing was in fact an army arrangement, backed up and carried out almost entirely by democrats. I am of the opinion that a thorough investigation of the recent difficulties will disclose the fact that they had their origin in the discontent of certain contumacious Indian leaders of bands who kept themselves aloof from the main bodies of their tribes, certain squaw men, and certain army officers and their friends stationed at Camp Supply, outside the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservations. During the last two years the latter have in connection with the bad Indians and the squaw men, been using all their efforts to stir up discontent and to poison the mind of the lieutenant general against the cattlemen. The animus appears to have arisen from the fact already stated that their business of cattle raising was cut off at the time of the leasing of the lands, and that they were compelled to drive their herdsCbelieved to have amounted to about 20,000 headCover into the pan-handle of Texas, where the grazing was neither so rich nor so extensive. Besides this they had previously been paying considerable sums of money to the outlaw Indians who make their abode along the northern line of the reservation, and also for a considerable portion of the time at Camp Supply.

AI believe it was these Indians who made all the trouble, and Gen. Sheridan was grossly deceived in regard to the whole matter, and unintentionally misled the president. I believe further that the leasing of the lands by the Indians had, up to the final denouement, the approbation of nine-tenths of the tribes, and that it proved to be beneficial to them, as it was a very large and valuable source of revenue, the lease money having invariably been paid promptly and in advance.

AI will add that the raising of cattle, horses, and sheep in this country, on wild lands belonging to the United States as well as to the Indians, has been practiced ever since the country has been in existence, and that at the present time millions of cattle are ranging gratuitously on free lands of the United States throughout an area thirty or forty times as large as the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservations; and that for the life of me I can=t see what harm was done in permitting cattle to graze on the unoccupied land in those reservations, especially when such occupancy was a source of revenue to the Indians, and prevented a like occupancy by cattle whose owners paid nothing whatever, an evil which Gen. Sheridan and Gen. Pope both declared could not be cured except by the leasing of the lands to responsible parties.@

Mr. Nimmo will start on Thursday for St. Paul and the Pacific coast over the line of the Northern Pacific railroad, along which route he will study the cattle question. Chicago Mail.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 16, 1885.

A Washington dispatch of the 12th inst., says a commission consisting of Capt. James Kinnannon, of Mississippi, and Mr. Wood, of Tennessee, has been appointed by the secretary of the interior to go out to the Indian Territory and open up negotiations with the Choctaw, Creek, Cherokee, and Seminole Indians, for the purpose of having their undivided lands thrown open to settlement.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 23, 1885.

GLOBE-DEMOCRAT. The action of the President in ordering the removal of the cattle from leased lands in the Indian Territory within forty days has caused a shrinkage of about $10 per head in the market value of that class of stock. This loss is a general one, and falls upon the whole cattle interest of the west. And the order has not been carried out, after all, for the simple reason that it was physically impossible, to begin with. In point of business sense, such an exploit is not calculated to reflect much credit upon Mr. Cleveland, to say the least of it.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 23, 1885.


In our issue last week we made brief mention of the appointment by Secretary Lamar of a commission to visit the Indian Territory, and enter into negotiations with the five great nations (so called); for the determination of the title to their undivided lands, and opening them to white settlement. The commission consists of Captain James Kinncannon, of Mississippi, and Mr. Wood, of Tennessee. This is the commission provided for by congress at its last session, but which the president delayed having appointed at the time, as the appropriations made to pay its expenses would not be available till the present fiscal year, beginning July 1st.

The purpose of this commission, as we understand, is to inquire into the status of the Oklahoma tract and the Cherokee strip, which contain an area exceeding 10,000,000 acres. The ownership of the Cherokee strip is a subject of angry debate in the Cherokee nation. The government has paid to Cherokee agents, at different times, a sum aggregating about $668,000; a portion of this, $368,000, for the purchase of land on which to settle friendly tribes (as provided in the treaty), the Poncas, the Nez Perces, the Otoes, the Missourias, and the Pawnees; but what the other payment of $300,000 was made for is still under discussion among the Cherokee statesmen. One party declares it was a supplementary payment for the land ceded to the tribes above named; while others declare it was a fraud perpetrated upon Congress by the Cherokee agent, Col. Phillips, and others acting with him, and that a large share of this money found its way into their pockets.

The title to the Oklahoma strip is claimed by the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles in common; but this is based on an indefinite proviso in the original treaty of purchase setting forth that the territory thus acquired should be utilized in the form of locations for other Indians and freedmen. Whether this title has been extin-guished by any payments made to the Indians by the government, is left for this commission to determine.

It has been thought that the policy of the present administration is to open the territory to white settlement. That wide strip of country interposing between Kansas and Texas, and in its present unpeopled and unprogressive condition, forming a bar to profitable trade with the gulf region, has long been a cause of jealousy to the aggressive settler, and to the trading community, just as desirous for an extension of its field of operations, and there is no question but the removal of the barrier which holds that region apart as a terra inhibita, would be a very popular measure and gain a multitude of friends for the administration.

If it shall be found that the title to the land in question inheres in the Indian tribes above named, it will be proper for the president, through the secretary of the interior, to recommend that their national councils pass laws authorizing the government of the United States to sell the land in trust for the owners, and become depository of the money realized, as it is for the Osages and other tribes whose lands it has sold. But these red men are not willing to have it sold at the minimum price of $1.25 per acre. The intervening sections in railroad grants, retained by the government, are sold at a double minimum rate, or $2.50 per acre; and congress, in framing a law for the disposal of these tracts, might fix this price upon the cultivable portion. But the Cherokees set $4 an acre as a reasonable price for their agricultural land, and it is doubtful whether congress would consent to have the government act as a land agent for that tribe, if the soil is to be disposed of at fancy prices.

Secretary Lamar has chosen two of his southern brothers for the commission, but if they are discreet and fair minded, it matters little what their political proclivities. It is to be supposed they will make thorough search into the land titles, take testimony of the Indians, prepare a voluminous report, and lay it before congress. No doubt they will find a strong sentiment in the red tribes in favor of admitting the pale face, and there is no doubt but congress will find a way to satisfy their claims, and render this large area of land available to white industry.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 23, 1885.

The Globe-Democrat considers that the cattlemen turned out of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe lease, will have cause of action against the government through the court of claims for cattle lost and killed at the hands of the Indians during the process of removal.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 23, 1885.


Iola Register: Wallace Duncan returned Tuesday night from the Territory, having resigned his position as superintendent of the Ponca schools. AThey ought to all be dead,@ is his solution of the Indian problem.

A Wichita dispatch says: United States District Attorney W. C. Perry has received instructions from Washington to make a personal investigation of the cases now pending against the Oklahoma boomers; and if in his judgment he shall find that all the boomers have left the territory, to dismiss all of the indictments found against them, at the next term of the United States District Court at Wichita.

Arkansas City Traveler, September 23, 1885.

Territory Items.

Prof. L. D. Davis, former school superintendent at the Pawnee Agency, has been rotated out of office, and will take up his residence in this city, on the completion of his new house, near the fourth ward school. The professor had charge of the Pawnee school three years, and his performance of duty is highly commended.

Miss Eva Woodin, teacher in the same school, has also been displaced, her position being filled by Mrs. Mackenzie, wife of the chief clerk at Otoe.

Dr. Scott, former U. S. Indian Agent at Ponca, passed through the city last week, to rejoin his family, who some time ago returned to their home in Iowa.

Agent L. D. Miles has finally been released from his charge of the Osage Agency, and has removed with his family to this city, with the intention of making his abode here.

Superintendent Branham, at the Chilocco school, is building two corn cribs, 10 x 10 feet each, to store the summer=s crop. The yield has been quite abundant.

J. W. French is another of the exodusters from the Ponca Agency. The house he built for the occupancy of his family is rented, and accordingly he is constructing another residence in the second ward, where he will make his home. His employment at Ponca expires on the 30th inst.

Major Armstrong, whose report of the condition of affairs at the Cheyenne Agency, brought about the executive order requiring the cattlemen to leave that reservation with their hands, has been staying in the city for a few days. He expresses himself not altogether satisfied with some of the removals made from the agencies in the territory, but absolves the agents from blame as having no hand in the disturbing work. The fault seems to rest with Secretary Lamar, who is one of the rule or ruin class of politicians, and is bound to provide places for his friends at whatever cost to the public service. It has been the custom in the Indian bureau to give heed to the recommendations of the agents in the matter of removals and appointments, as they are responsible for the conduct of subordinate employees, and

should certainly be consulted in their choice. But the Georgia statesman has set himself up as a wholesale dispenser of patronage, and spoils must be provided for his needy southern brethren without regard to fitness or consequences.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 30, 1885.


The policy of the president with regard to the Indian Territory is the subject of much comment. Intimations are made by officials in the Indian service to an intention to place the red wards of the nation more on their own resources, and address their energies to the task of supporting themselves. This has been the ultimate object of the so-called peace policy, inaugurated by President Grant, but the means adopted were of a mild and ineffective description, and the progress made during the fifteen years it has been on trial, has not been satisfactory to the nation. It is true the conditions have been greatly changed during this period. Before the Northern Pacific road was built, there was no way of dealing with the powerful Sioux nation, and the murderous Apaches had it pretty much their own way in Arizona and New Mexico. Indian wars were desolating and costly, and the terrible experience of several campaigns with the savages in the Northwest led Grant to utter his much quoted apothegm, AIt is cheaper to feed Indians than to fight them.@ This being accepted as a true statement of the case, radical measures in dealing with the savage tribes were not ventured upon, and they were allowed a license, which those communities who were subject to their incursions, condemned as national cowardice.

But three or four trans-continental railway lines traversing the northwest enable the government to transport troops with all the munitions of war to any objective point; and the more powerful tribes, although at a fearful expenditure of blood and treasure, are now so broken up and enfeebled that warlike opposition from them is no longer a subject of dread. This clears the way for a radical Indian policy, and the steps already taken by the present administration lead to the belief that such is about to be adopted.

The commission recently appointed by the president is now inquiring into the condition of affairs in the Oklahoma tract and the Cherokee Strip, with a view to opening them up to white settlement. The present uncertainty that exists with regard to the title to these tracts of land will be cleared away by negotiation or an act of congress, and then they will be disposed of as public domain. This will be the entering wedge. When the paleface once has the doors opened to that much coveted country, it will be a hard matter to restrict him to any one locality. The rules of equity and justice do not often prevail in a struggle between races. The surplus lands of the Indian tribes will be an object of uncontrollable desire, and the next concession required of the aborigines will be the relinquishment of all the land they cannot cultivate or profitably use, to be parceled out among settlers, who will teach them the road to industry. Sentimentalists may exclaim against such usurpation, but in this utilitarian age such an outcry will not avail.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 30, 1885.


We are likely to have a busy session of congress. The tariff laws will be brought up for revision, an effort will be made to repeal the coinage law, the Indian question will be thoroughly overhauled, and it is expected the Utah saints will receive further attention. The question that most directly affects this city and locality is the policy to be pursued in dealing with the red man. Major Armstrong, who is as well informed on the subject as any man in the Indian service, is in favor of dealing with the Indians as responsible beings, rendering them amenable to law, and imposing on them the necessity of self support. Such a mode of treatment would necessitate the dissolution of tribal relations, and the allotment of land in severalty. Each man will then feel that he is left to his own resources, and this will be the most effective way of penetrating and infusing that stolid apathy in the aboriginal mind which has defeated so many attempts to arouse the noble red man into usefulness.

Mr. J. P. Leedem, sergeant-at-arms of the house of representatives, who accompanied the Holman committee on its trip though the agencies, found a new social study in these sons of the forest and plain and has been quite communicative to press reporters since his return to Washington. He expresses his belief that the committee in its report will recommend that the authority now exercised by the chiefs be replaced by a rule more conformable with law and more conducive to advancement; that the young men be brought out from the inert mass that now constitutes the tribe, and be charged with the duty of preserving the peace, and taught to do their own thinking. Mr. Leedem further says that the committee will recommend the division of the Indian lands, a quarter section being given to each member of the tribe old and young, and rendered inalienable for a term of years. The committee would have the Indians placed in one section of the country, and those that need aid assisted by the government with farm implements and other needed supplies, until they are able to support themselves.

This may be described as the common sense of the whole business. There has been much weak sentiment mixed up with the administration of Indian affairs, and the fear of doing the wards of the nation injustice has defeated many a useful measure for their improvement. The plea has been set up that the Territory has been set apart by solemn treaty, confirmed by repeated acts of congress, for the exclusive use and occupancy of the red tribes. History has been appealed to to show that the two races cannot co-exist, and as this is Athe last home of the red man,@ humanity demands that it be retained to them free from intrusion by the paleface, that time and opportunity be afforded them to work out their own destiny.

But this is too slow a process for our utilitarian age. Our population is increasing and extending, and this tract of country, which half a century ago was ceded to the southern tribes with the pledge that the lines of no state or territory should be cast around its borders, is now hemmed in between two populous commonwealths, and thousands of hardy frontiersmen are chafing to enter in and take possession.

This brings the question down to its practical merits, and sentiment must give way to present necessity. We find the influence of civilization diffusing itself through this Indian country, inciting the more progressive tribes to exert their energies in the way of self support, to send their children to school that they may learn white men=s ways, and rendering them dissatisfied with the life of inactivity they now lead. The Cherokees and Chickasaws are about equally divided on the question of allotting their lands, and among the Creeks and Choctaws a large element favor the same policy. This is believed to be the purpose of the national administration, and since its wisdom and necessity are so plainly demonstrated, there is hardly room for doubt that Congress at its next session or in the near future, will adopt the necessary legislation to this end.

Arkansas City Republican, October 3, 1885.

Senator Plumb informed the editor of this paper, the other day, that bills for opening the Neutral Strip to settlement passed both houses of congress last winter, but as each bill was separate, neither became a law. The senator had no doubt that a bill of that kind will become a law next winter. A law was passed attaching the strip to Kansas for judicial purposes in the federal courts, which is now in force. The senator says that the pre-emption and timber culture laws will be repealed by congress next winter. The land on the Neutral Strip will be subject to homesteading. Whenever this land is opened to settlement, there will be a great rush thither and every quarter section will soon be claimed. There are now probably two hundred thousand head of cattle, which, like their predecessors, the buffaloes, will have to seek other claims upon the approach of civilization. Senator Plumb says that the government concedes no claims to this strip by the Indians. Cowboy.

Arkansas City Republican, October 10, 1885.

Moving the Cattle.

A special dispatch to the Globe-Democrat from Trinidad, Colorado, tells an incident connected with the removal of the cattle from the Indian Territory.

Rube Baldock, of this city, returned today from the Indian Territory, where he went some two months ago, to help Hunter, Evans & Slattery, of St. Louis, to remove their cattle from the Cheyenne and Arapahoe agency. They had 14,000 head of cattle on the leased lands, which they moved to Kiowa, near the line of Kansas, Texas, and the Indian Territory. The stock was moved in four herds, and Mr. Baldock had charge of them, numbering 2,180 head. He had the advance herd and had no guards or other protection except his own driver. When he camped overnight at a little town on the North Canadian, or Beaver Creek, some sixty miles west of Fort Reno, some Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians ran into his herd and stampeded it. The next morning he moved such cattle as he could gather readily to water at the river and proposed to remain till he could gather the remaining scattered ones; but that morning his outfit was surrounded by thirty or forty Indians, the same that Gen. Sherman had armed for scouts, who demanded money and beef. Mr. Baldock refused the demands, and called on Capt. Randall, United States Army, who was camped not far away with a few colored infantry, for protection. The captain readily responded and immediately went upon the ground with some twenty soldiers, who drew up in line and ordered the Indians to leave. The Indians were stubborn, but the captain brought his men to a ready and advanced about a hundred yards, and gave them a final warning to disperse, instanter, whereupon the hostiles= courage left them and they retreated. Mr. Baldock then moved his outfit some six miles further west, which took him off the reservation, where he camped until he got together, such as he could of the scattered herd, and from there proceeded to his destination without further hindrance. Mr. Baldock=s herd was the only one of the outfit that went off the reservation with the protection of a military guard.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, October 17, 1885.

Homer Deets is a barber by occupation, but Homer will at times wander away from his laborious means of gaining a livelihood. He has a love for the softer sex, and a liking for the manly sports. Last week he determined to tear himself loose from the apron string of his fond dulcina and hie away to the hunting ground of the Indian Territory for a chicken hunt. Thursday morning, bright and early, the would-be-mighty nimrodCif could beCshouldered his (t)rusty Queen Ann rifle, and a bottle of the best bologna to aid digestion, and was gone no one knows where for the space of two days. He came home Saturday morning. During the day a representative of the REPUBLICAN, being without a fortune in his vest pocket, called at the Red Front to obtain a stand-off shave. Homer was giving a recital of his hunting exploits, and the following remarks smote upon our ear as we started to enter: AIf I had killed the one I shot at and the five other chickens I saw, I would have brought home a half-dozen, but you see when the gun went off it scared the first one and it flew away just as I was going to pick it up. Oh, how I wished for a handful of salt. If the gun hadn=t made such a noise when it went off, I would have had that chicken, sure.@ We turned sadly away, preferring to remain unwashed to hearing a continuation of AHomer=s hunting adventures.@

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, October 7, 1885.

GLOBE-DEMOCRAT: Gen. Miles= recommendation that the Indian Territory be turned over to the military authorities and that the lands not needed by the Indians for farming purposes be opened to white settlement, is in harmony with western sentiment and with the dictates of common sense. The time has come to abandon the fallacy of trying to civilize the Indians by furnishing them great tracts of land which they do not make any use of, and dealing with them as if they were independent nations, when they are in fact nothing but so many paupers whom the taxpayers of the country have to feed and clothe.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, October 7, 1885.


The Cherokee Advocate, commenting on the appointment of a mission by the president Ato open negotiations with the Cherokee, Creeks, and Seminoles for the purpose of opening to settlement, under the homestead laws, the unassigned lands in said Indian territory,@ refers to the convention held last summer at Eufala, to consider the very same question. AThe meeting was composed,@ says the editor, Aof some of the ablest and purest men of the three nations, and they gave their reply in an emphatic manner, ANo, we will not sell for white settlementCwe dare not.@ This Mr. Daniel H. Ross, the Advocate editor, seems to regard as a definitive answer to the demand of the American people for more room. We remember among the reasoning set forth by Athese ablest and purest men,@ was that the great nations never sell their territory. The sale of the Louisiana purchase by France and of Alaska by Russia seems to have skipped the memory of these Indian statesmen. And for weak tribes of aborigines, numbering in the aggregate less than 40,000 souls, to assume the size of great nations, because that designation is accorded them by courtesy, is weak and frivolous in the extreme. In the Eufala conference there was some grandiloquent talk about the future growth and expansion of these tribes, and every foot of territory being needed for their occupancy. Exclusive of these unassigned lands, ten million acres in extent, the Cherokees, Creeks, and Seminoles have millions of acres in their reservations which they put to no profitable use. There is said to be valuable mineral in the mountains about Tahlequah, but the Cherokees have not the enterprise to exploit them, and prospecting by palefaces is not allowed. This cautious and selfish policy cannot be tolerated while progress and development prevail. The statesmanship of the day deals with the needs of the present generation; what may be useful when the millennium dawns is left for remote posterity to consider.

The more sensible Indian policy now advocated by general approval, is to give every member of the red race a farm, and start him in life with provisions to subsist on for a season, and seeds and implements to render his soil productive. If they have sense enough to avail themselves of this liberal offer, there is an even chance for the redskins to bustle with their paleface brethren; if they continue obstructive, and persist in playing the dog in the manger, the logic of events will gently thrust themselves aside and painless extinction awaits them. The opening of the unassigned lands in the Indian territory is one of the necessities of the hour.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, October 14, 1885.

Another Pointer Towards the Territory.

Gen. Miles has forwarded his report to the Secretary of War, and its contents have been made public.

AThe Indian Territory is now a block in the pathway of civilization. It is preserved to perpetuate a mongrel race far removed from the influence of civilized people; a refuge for the outlaws and indolent of whites, blacks, and Mexicans. The vices introduced by these elements are rapidly destroying the Indians by disease. Without courts of justice or public institutions, without roads, bridges, or railways, it is simply a dark blot in the center of the map of the United States. It costs the government hundreds of thousands of dollars to peaceably maintain from sixty to eighty thousand Indians there, when the territory is capable of supporting many millions of enlightened people. I am convinced that the time has arrived for a change; and I therefore recommend that congress authorize the president to appoint a commission of three experienced, competent men, empowered to treat with the different tribes; to consider all legal or just claims or titles; to grant to the Indian occupants of the territory a sufficient quantity of land in severalty required for their wants and support, but not transferable for twenty years; that their title to the remainder be so far extingushed as it may be held in trust or sold by the government, and a sufficient amount of the proceeds granted them to indemnify them for any interests they may possess to the land; that enough of said proceeds be provided to enable the Indians in the territory to become self-sustaining. The land not required for Indian occupation to be thrown open for settlement under the same laws and rules as have been applied to the public domain.@

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, October 14, 1885.


A writer in the Indian Chieftain sees a hidden hand in the general demand of the American people that the present tribal relations be dissolved and land allotted to each Indian in severalty. It is a common thing, we may remark, for these aborigines to see Aa lion in the way,@ whenever the path of progress is pointed out to them. Not long since a sage Cherokee informed us that every foot of land contained in the reservation of that tribe would be required to provide homes for the generations yet to be born. This is seeking trouble a long way ahead. The census tables do not show the Indians to be a prolific race, their tendency is rather to die off and seek the happy hunting grounds of the spirit world, than to increase and multiply on this earth. The rapid expansion of the pale face, and the pushing forward of the area of civilization, bring the two races in juxtaposition, and before many ages pass away what remains of the red man will be found in admixture with the blood of the dominant race.

The danger that now scarces this Cherokee writer is the absorption of the entire Indian country by the railroads, under their conditional franchises a quarter of a century old. During the war when the entire attention of the country was devoted to suppressing the rebellion, railroad charters were hurried through congress, a considerable number of them granting the right of way through the Indian territory and conveying large subsidies of land on the condition that the Indians, through whose reservations the roads were to pass, should dissolve their tribal relations, or voluntarily abandon their homes.

The recent recommendation of Gen. Miles and the general clamor throughout the land that each red man be put on his own farm and be required to strike out for himself, this prophet of evil regards as a scheme to satisfy railway rapacity. He says: AWhen this scheme is consummated, what will hinder the railroads from rushing through our lands and claiming, as they have done on all other occasions, the choices of them by virtue of the grants which they now hold from the government of the United States?@

The hindrance will be found in the simple fact that these grants are outlawed. Since congress was so profuse in its land grants parceling out the public domain to every swindling corporation that asked a slice, there has been a complete revulsion in public sentiment. A conditional grant made in a past generation would have a distressingly slim chance of becoming operative now. Before any railroad company could obtain the assent of congress to the validity of its charter, the land claimed would be overrun with settlers; and as possession is nine points in law, the railroad company claiming title would find itself thrust hopelessly aside.

As we have before remarked, the Cherokees are about evenly divided on this perplexing land question; and when the impetus of an outside pressure is applied, those cautious souls who are always seeing breakers ahead will have to step out of the path of the more adventurous and progressive.

Arkansas City Traveler, October 14, 1885.

From Our Exchanges.

Darlington Transporter: The ranges, as far as known, have been abandoned by this time, some delay having been occasioned by the stock cattle being left in the pastures while the owners and men were absent with the beef herds, shipping to market from Kansas shipping points. The stock cattle have mostly moved into the Cherokee strip pastures, the owners of these ranges having shipped most of their stock previously. As the southern drive this year has been put off, being confined mostly to contracted cattle, the strip men had not restocked their pastures, and hence were able to accommodate the Cheyenne and Arapahoe grass lease men with winter range for their stock cattle.

The National Cattle and Horse Growers= Association assembles in St. Louis on Monday, November 23rd.

The cattlemen who have driven their herds from the Indian territory have suffered considerably from the Indians, who seemed to think that the Great White Father at Washington was down on the cattlemen, and that it would please him to have his red children steal their stock. [Source unknown.]

Indian Chieftain: AGrass on the staked plains is knee high.@ Such is the report of all trail

drivers who have come over that section this season. The staked plains are in extent 300 miles long by 200 wide, and there are but few cattle on this grazing area. All that is necessary to take advantage of this magnificent range is to procure water, which can be found, it has been demonstrated in many cases, at a very short depth, and by means of artesian wells flowing water could be had on every range.

Arkansas City Traveler, October 14, 1885.


A Route to that Country Being SurveyedCSettlers Already Flocking in.

On Saturday morning a small surveying party of four men, under charge of J. T. Stafford, of Caldwell, started out from this city to survey a wagon route from Otoe to the Oklahoma country. The object of this expedition is to make a direct route from Arkansas City to the coveted Indian country, so that when the time comes that that land is open to white settlement, the approach thereto may be facilitiated, and this city be chosen as the point of departure from the states.

It may not be known to our readers that at this present time there is an active immigration into that long-coveted country. Almost daily small trains of canvas-covered wagons, each composed of from two to half a dozen vehicles, pass through our streets traveling southward. The outfits have a battered look generally, and seem overflowing with children. They will stop awhile to purchase a few necessaries, then take up their line of march and head for Athe last home of the red man.@ It is reported that already hundreds of trespassers have taken up a temporary abode there, their purpose being to be first on hand when congress shall declare it public domain and throw it open to settlement. This invasion is likely to be carried on until the attention of the government is directed to it, and then the military, stationed on the ground, will be ordered to drive them out.

It is generally expected that congress at its next session will pass a law opening the Cherokee strip and the Oklahoma tract to settlement. The commission appointed to inquire into the title to this land is now pursuing its investigation, and when the national legislature meets next December, the report of the commission will be laid before it. Nothing in the way of legislation will be done till after the Christmas holidays, and this being the long session, such a bill as we speak of may not be passed till along in the summer. But there will be a gathering of the clans in eager anticipation of such an enactment, and when the land is declared open to settlement, the rush to get in will beat any such movement since the crusades of the middle ages.

The party of enterprising citizens who have collected money to pay the cost of this survey act on the knowledge that Arkansas City is the most advantageous point for Oklahoma colonists to enter the territory. They propose to provide a cheap and commodious boarding house for those who come without wagons, where they can stay at trifling cost while they purchase their outfit. Pamphlets will also be published giving useful information to settlers and containing a map of the Oklahoma country and the road leading there.

This will open up a useful trade for Arkansas City, and be of great benefit to the strangers who will flock hitherward. Beside the money spent in fitting out for settlement in the territory, supplies will have to be furnished for the ensuing twelve months, and this trade should be secured to this city. It is gratifying to know that our businessmen, with their customary forethought and enterprise, are fully awake to the opportunity that lies before them, and are taking time by the forelock to secure all the advantages that are to be gained. May success attend their laudable efforts.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, October 21, 1885.


Chief Bushyhead in Washington Looking After the Interests of His People.

A recent Washington dispatch says: Chief Bushyhead, of the Cherokee nation, arrived here tonight, having come on direct from the territory. He laughed when asked if there was any special significance to his visit, and said he should have to look round a little before he could answer that. The fact is, the administration of the Cherokees is involved in a financial snarl with the United States Government. Representatives of the anti-administration party of the Cherokees have been here some time looking after the interests of the tribe. Some months ago they succeeded in getting from the Interior Department an official statement showing how their nation stands on the books of this government. From this it appeared that they had received $300,000 on account for the sale of their lands west of the Arkansas River, the long stretch of territory embracing over 6,000,000 of acres, and known as the Cherokee strip or outlet. It had been suspected by a few Cherokees, and charged by them, that such was the state of the case, but this was not believed in the nation. There the impression was that $300,000 was an additional sum allowed them on the lands transferred to the Nez Perces, Pawnees, Poncas, and Missourians. The official statement, obtained a few months ago, has aroused the Cherokees to the real situation. They see now that they are in the position of having made a sale of the strip to the United States, and received $300,000 of the purchase money. It is true that there is a stipulation in the sale that the lands thus purchased shall be used only for the settlement of Indians. But this government no longer has that use for the land, and already commissioners have been sent to the nation to negotiate for terms under which the condition may be waived and the lands opened to white settlement. The recent election in the Cherokee nation turned in part upon this question of letting the strip go, and the party opposed to that policy was largely in the majority. It is apparent to the Cherokees now that they must get this sale reconsidered, and the arrangement of a plan by which this may be accomplished is receiving attention. The section under which the $300,000 was paid to the Cherokees is as follows.

AThat the sum of $300,000 is hereby appropriated, to be paid into the treasury of the Cherokee nation out of the funds due under the appraisement for Cherokee lands west of the Arkansas river, which sum shall be expended as the acts of the Cherokee legislators directCthis amount to be immediately available; provided, that the Cherokee nation, through its proper authority, shall execute conveyances satisfactorily to the secretary of the interior of the United States, in trust only for the benefit of the Pawnees, Poncas, Nez Perces, Otoes, Missourias, and Osages, now occupying the same tract, as they respectively occupied the same before the payment of said money.@

The portion of lands occupied by the Pawnees had on the 23rd of June, 1879, been appraised at the value of 70 cents per acre. Another portion of the same occupied by the Nez Perces, had been appraised at 70 cents per acre. Another portion, occupied by the Poncas, was appraised at the valuation of 47-49/100 cents per acre, and still another portion occupied by the Otoes and Missourias was appraised at 47-49/100 cents per acre, the money for all of which had been paid over to the proper owners and accounted for. At the special council of the Cherokee nation, called at Tahlequah, the matter of this $300,000 appropriation was called up, and Phillips, the attorney for the nation, was called upon for information as to where this amount was to be found as a credit to the Cherokee nation. He explained that he had obtained another valuation upon the above-named land, that the excess of $300,000 was found in the increase from the valuation of 70 cents and 47-49/100 cents per acre he had, as their attorney, succeeded in obtaining for the benefit of the Cherokee nation. So the matter rested until the anti-Bushyhead faction got to stirring up matters, and succeeded in getting the official information that $300,000 was entered on the books of the interior department as so much paid on the purchase of the strip. The anti-administration Cherokees have insisted all along that the nation was intentionally deceived in the matter. They say now that this obligation was incurred at the instigation and in the interest of those who want the strip to pass out of the possession of the Cherokee nation. On the strength of the representation made to them about this $300,000, the Cherokee council allowed their attorney to retain a fee of $22,500. It is very apparent that this situation is not at all pleasing to the Cherokees.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, October 21, 1885.


The title to the unoccupied Indian lands is being actively discussed before the opening of congress. The commission now examining into the matter keep their discoveries all to themselves; but their statements and the conclusions drawn therefrom will be in the hands of the president in a few weeks, and then the controlling facts in the case will be made known. We give on our first page some Washington talk elicted by the visit of Chief Bushyhead, of the Cherokee nation, to that city. As we have before mentioned, there is a confusion in Cherokee counsels over the purpose of the sums expended by congress, and which found their way into the treasury of that nation. The last payment of $300,000, the Cherokee administration organ, the Advocate, quite positively asserts, was to complete the purchase of the lands upon which the Ponca, the Nez Perces, the Otoes, the Misourias, and other friendly tribes were settled. While the opposition organ, the Chieftain, quite as confidently affirms that the money was to extinguish the Indian title to the Cherokee strip, and that the agents of the nation, of whom Col. Phillips was the leading spirit, swindled and deceived his clients in the negotiation. Chief Bushyhead, to arrive at the facts of the case, made a journey to Washington, and the statement we publish, written by the correspondent of the Globe-Democrat, pretty conclusively shows that the money was paid for Athe Cherokee lands west of the Arkansas rivers.@

There is another complication that causes great uneasiness to the Cherokees. Chief Bushyhead, in an interview with Secretary Lamar, complained of a horde of intruders upon the lands of his nation, which he estimated at 2,000 persons, who have no right to be there, and who have taken up their residence in defiance of the law, quite stringent in its provisions, which prohibits intruders holding such occupation. He appealed to the secretary to cause their expulsion, by the use of United States troops, if necessary. These unauthorized residents are constantly increasing in number; and that they cause serious alarm is shown by the argument of the Indian Chieftain, which insists that if the lands of the nation are not allotted in severalty without much longer delay, these intruders will gobble up so large a share of it that there will not be enough to go around among the members of the tribe.

Chief Bushyhead, in his talk with Mr. Lamar, said that those people who claim to be entitled to a residence in the nation, in the event of a division of the lands and other belongings of the Cherokees, would be alloted their proportion, in money or kind, to the amount of $4,000 cash. He said further the Cherokee government had proclaimed these people intruders, and as they would not depart, he now wanted the United States government to do the expelling.

Secretary Lamar replied that the proper plan to pursue would be to follow the course laid down by law, and if this proved inadequate, then to make his appeal to the general government. But the chief said individual prosecutions would be too slow a process to meet this case. Many of these intruders held permits from United States agents or other representatives of the government, and a judicial process was not effective against them. But the secretary was not impressed with the emergency of the case, and Chief Bushyhead will have to carry his appeal to the president.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, October 21, 1885.

A Washington dispatch says: AChief Bushyhead, of the Cherokees, wants to have an interview with Secretary Lamar for the purpose of making a plea against the probable action of the department relative to all the leased lands to cattlemen in the territory, similar to that which were taken in regard to the lessers in the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservations. The Cherokees have made a very favorable lease of six million acres of their unoccupied lands

for $100,000 yearly for a period of five years, and they want these cattlemen to stay. The Secretary may determine otherwise.@

Arkansas City Traveler, October 21, 1885.

It is talked on the street that Trader Hodges, at the Ponca Agency, has got himself into trouble buying cattle from the Indians that were issued by the government. A letter from a government employee at that agency has been shown us, which gives the following details of the affair. The agent has made an investigation of the business, and sent his report on to Washington. The Indians went clear back on their trader. They said he bought the cattle of them, and knew they were of government issue when he bought them.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, October 28, 1885.


In another column we give a brief report of the survey just made of a route to Oklahoma, and the chief points reached on the travel thither. Mr. N. Stafford of Caldwell made the survey at the instance of a number of our enterprising citizens, a man well qualified for the task because of his experience as a surveyor and his intimate acquaintance with the country traveled over. Arkansas City is beyond compare the best point for entering the territory because of its connection with a trunk road communicating with all points east; and the heavy stocks of goods of all kinds carried by our merchants commend it to the settler as an excellent place to procure their outfit. The road from this city to Red Rock, 43 miles, is already opened, and a heavy traffic has been carried over it for many years, in travel and transportation. The other portion of the distance, 107 miles, required to be surveyed and located, bridges built where streams are to be crossed, and slews filled in where such are encountered. It is the intention of our citizens to open as good and direct a road to Oklahoma when that country shall be declared open to settlement as any to be found in the state. And it only requires this fact to be made known to the country to bring the tide of emigration this way and secure to the settler the advantages of a good outfitting point and a direct route to his destination. Already the wave of colonization is in movement. Oklahoma settlers are arriving in our city every day, some of whom propose to remain here during the winter and take their chances of obtaining work, while others push on to the ground, thinking by the selection of a homestead to have the better chance of obtaining a title when the land comes into market.

A question of great interest to the many thousands who have their gaze on that coveted region is what action congress is likely to take during its approaching session. If the territory is to be retained for the exclusive use of the red race, and the military are to be again employed to eject all trespassers, it is clear that these colonists, flocking thither by the thousands are seeking ruin, because the spring will find them with their means nigh exhausted, and turned adrift in the states to seek homes where all the best land has been taken up.

It is said that history repeats itself. Not more than fifteen years ago, all the best portion of Southern Kansas, six million acres in extent, was Indian reservation. The Osages wandered over this fertile tract, fishing in its streams and hunting their savage prey, living in their tepees set up in sheltering groves, and professing a sentimental devotion to the burying grounds of their fathers. But the aggressive settler crowded in and multiplied so extensively, that the noble red man found himself inconveniently crowded, he complained to his great father and pleaded the sacredness of the treaty which pledged this magnificent domain to his own people; but there was the paleface settler outnumbering him threefold, and setting forth with his prevailing logic that the people who put the land to the best avail, are those best entitled to its occupation. The government was perplexed over the situation, but was compelled to make a virtue of necessity. The land was taken in trust for the Osages to sell in their interest, and out of the proceeds of the sales, a home was purchased for them of the Cherokees, where they now live and thrive, and find themselves the richest tribe of all the Indian population. It is said the national treasury contains $12,000,000 of their money, and the interest off this vast sum paid to them semi-annually, keeps them all in clover, and turns their forced departure from their homes into a permanent advantage.

It is clear that this proceeding is about to be re-enacted. The Oklahoma country is unassigned land. There is a commission now at Tahlequah, the capital of the Cherokee nation, hunting up its title. Portions have been purchased of the Cherokees for the settlement of friendly Indians, but the purpose of the last payment by the government, of $300,000, is still in dispute. This will be determined by congress, and justice done to the dusky claimants. But the policy of the administration is clearly foreshadowed, and the needs of the time justify its statesmanship. That is to throw open the Cherokee strip and the Oklahoma country to settlement, and in due time allot the remaining lands in severalty to the Indian occupants and dispose of the remaining portion for their benefit. We advocate no injustice to the Indian tribes, nor do we understand that any is contemplated. A quarter section given to every Indian occupant, old and young, male and female, and rendered inalienable for a term of years, should certainly provide them with the means of living; what is left over can be sold to the white settler, and furnish homes for thousands who now find themselves crowded out. This disposition of the soil meets with a feeble opposition from the least progressive of both races, but the necessity of the times demands it, and we are satisfied that when the parties in interest have adapted themselves to the change, they will find the stimulus imparted conducive to their permanent advantage.

Arkansas City Traveler, October 28, 1885.


Special Survey and Itinerary of the Route.

N. Stafford returned from his surveying expedition into the territory, last week, bringing a profile of the road he has laid out to North Fork and itinerary.

This opens a way into the Oklahoma country, along a direct road, with streams, bridges, and slews filled up, rendering travel and transportation practicable at all times of the year. The point of departure for settlers seeking the Oklahoma country is Arkansas City; thence he follows the present road to Chilocco creek, then to Willow Springs, and on to the Ponca Agency. Crossing the Salt Fork at this point, the road runs to Red Rock (better known as Otoe), and thence south to Greasey [? Itinerary shows Greasy ?] Creek, where there is good camping ground. The next water reached is Black Bear Creek, and five miles distant Summit Spring is attained. Camp Boomer is the next resting place, and one mile beyond this the Stillwater is reached, where there is quite a settlement. At Wild Horse, five miles beyond, a foot bridge is laid, and a further drive of five miles brings the traveler to the Cimarron, the crossing of this stream being at the mouth of Meridian Creek. Rattlesnake Mound is next made at a distance of four miles, where there is a spring and good ground for camping. Eagle Point is next passed, and then Council Creek, where there is good pasture and a pleasant place to rest. A drive hence of 12 miles brings the traveler to Antelope Springs, where there also is abundance of pasture. Council Grove is the next place made, at a distance of 15 miles, with one creek to cross. The entire length of the road from the Cimarron to Council Grove, Mr. Harper marks down in his itinerary as good, the route being laid along a ridge, and thus free from bogs and pitch holes. The following is the table of distances as given in the survey.


To Chilocco Creek: 7-1/2 miles

Willow Springs: 10 miles

Ponca Agency (or Salt Fork): 18 miles

Otoe Agency (or Red Rock): 8 miles

Greasy Creek: 4 miles

Black Bear Creek: 6-1/2 miles

Summit Spring: 2 miles

Camp Boomer: 7 miles

Stillwater: 1 mile

Wild Horse: 5 miles

Cimarron River: 5 miles

Rattlesnake Mound: 1 mile

Eagle Point: 3 miles

Council Creek: 9 miles

Antelope Springs: 12 miles

Council Grove: 13 miles


On the map Council Grove is marked a short distance west of the road running south, and in the itinerary this road is pursued due south from Council Creek to Coffee Creek, 8-1/2 miles, thence to Deep Fork, 1-1/4, and on to the North Canadian, 3-1/2 miles.

This is the road leading into a country that is the object of desire to tens of thousands of men now seeking homes. It is unassigned land; Indians have no homes there, and settlers are prohibited from taking possession of the soil. Cattle companies have leased ranches surrounding this unoccupied region, and their herds roam over it at will in utter disregard of all executive edicts. Cattlemen represent this tract of country as well adapted for grazing, but they say it is not fit for tillage, and the man who attempts to raise grain there would lose his labor. But others, whose judgment may be less biased, speak of it as good farming land; the soil rich, well watered, and fairly supplied with timber. But whatever its specific character, the hand of the eager settler is stretched forth to grasp it, and as no solemn treaties with Indian tribes, confirmed by vote of congress, can be pleaded to bar him out, its speedy opening to occupation by the pale face may be set down as manifest destiny, and already thousands are on hand to avail themselves of the moment when a fiat of the government shall add this rich portion of territory to the public domain.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 4, 1885.


The Relations of the Cowboy and the Indian Discussed.

Senator Dawes= Lies in the New York Tribune Exposed.

A Few Facts in Regard to the Former Cheyenne Cattle Herd.

If the Prairie is for Men, Where is Your Beef to be Raised?

No industry in the world is more closely allied with our everyday life than the cattle business. The rich and the poor are equally interested. No branch of industry is more entitled to the fostering care of government, and yet there seems to be a prevailing sentiment against those engaged in it.

Why is this? The lumber men of the north, the cotton men of the south, the iron men of the east, and the silver men of the west, all have strong organizations and friends to advocate their rights; the press comes promptly to their defense when their interests are jeopardized. But where is the paper that speaks with force and dignity in behalf of the pastoral resources of our country? Where is the public man, who, in the halls of legislation, or in the presence of his constituents, lifts his voice in fearless defense of this industry which brings us daily food and is fast swelling our domestic and foreign commerce?

The manufacturer whose sagacity and frugality ensure him success and fortune is not looked upon as a public enemy. The producer everywhere is respected as a valuable citizen by his industry and enterprise, contributing to the needs of mankind, adding to the aggregate weatlh of the country, and stimulating trade at home and abroad.

The millionaire farmer on the Red River of the North with miles of golden grain, or the cotton-planter on the Red River of the South with acres of fleecy white harvest, are not condemned as monopolists. They may absorb section upon section of land and parish upon parish in their magnificent enterprise, until they exercise dominion over countless acres, and they are not regarded as enemies to our social or political institutions.

Not so with the cattle man! Let him go out upon the arid plains of the west, where agriculture can never flourish, and purchase or otherwise acquire honorable possession of a range for a few thousand cattle, and immediately the alarm is trumpeted throughout the land that the public welfare is threatened and the peace and morality of the Indians endangered. Should he graze his herd upon the public domain, whose sole tenant is the cayote or prairie dog, and where the prairie fire gathers the only harvest, he is consigned to everlasting perdition as an outlaw. Should he by proper and legal means effect a lease with the Indians, whereby their means of support may be greatly augmented and their grass crop utilized to their benefit, then the Indian Ais being wheedled out of his heritage more artistically than ever in the palmiest days of Indian warfare.@ Ill advised and misconceived philanthropy may pose before the public in such an attitude, and political ambition parade itself in the presence of its constituency in this disguise, but the honest, conscientious friends of the Indian whose experience entitles their opinions to weight when speaking in behalf of these children of the forest, will not mislead public opinion by such misrepresentation of the facts. Even the New York Tribune, with its boasted candor and fairness, has ventilated such utterances through its columns.


It is high time the naked truth was told, the Awhole truth and nothing but the truth.@ The cattle men ask only justice, simple and exact justice, and this a fair minded public will not only accord, but demand, where the true situation is made known and thoroughly under-stood; and in so far as the business relates to the Indian or involves his welfare or civilization, present or prospectively, the cattle men are ever ready to accord the same considerations as fortify and strengthen honorable dealings between man and man every-where. The Indian reciprocates this feeling and when he is not tampered with by designing and officious white men, or instigated to make trouble by meddlesome and zealous half-breeds and squaw-men, he is the sincere and fast friend of the cow man ninety-nine in every hundred. He believes he has the undoubted right, legally as well as morally, to sell his grass. To be sure his legal status is poorly defined and in an anomalous condition at best, but the courts and departments in Washington have accorded him the rights of a Atenant by courtesy,@ and as such he has the undoubted privilege of enjoying the benefits of his possession without let or hindrance so long as he does not Acommit waste.@ No one would question his right to sell the pecans or chestnuts on the trees, or the blackberries on the bushes. Why, then, his grass? He is wholly unable to harvest it, or to purchase mowing machinery to gather a tithe of it. White men make scanty wages putting up hay at one dollar and twenty-five cents per ton, and in some cases less.

In light of all this shall we deny the Indian the rightCprivilege, if you choose to call it privilegeCto utilize this crop to his benefit rather than see it perish annually by the flames?

It is said he receives but a Apaltry@ sum for it. On the contrary he receives about the average price paid in Texas and elsewhere for wild land. The Apaltry@ sum of eighty thousand dollars a year paid the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, contributed largely to their maintenance, and under proper legislation should lessen by that much the tax upon the public for their support, notwithstanding the absurd statement that this fund enabled Aevery male Indian to purchase a Winchester rifle in Kansas.@ Were this true, the law provides a punishment for selling arms and ammunition to Indians. Why not punish the offending white man rather than curtail the Indian=s limited means of self support. Is the law impotent? Are the officers of the law powerless? Or is it more reasonable to conclude that this charge against the Indians is entirely unwarranted. Let an unprejudiced public decide.

These leases insure to the Indians an income from a source which has brought nothing heretofore; as a rule, they have been entered into without a dissenting voice. Many tribes have petitioned the president that they be not disturbed in leasing their lands. Owing to the scarcity of water on many of the ranges, much of the land is practically worthless for hunting, yet the Indian receives compensation under the terms of these leases for every acre, whether good, bad, or indifferent.


The first great requisite to success in the cattle business is roomCroomCroom. Beef cannot be produced profitably without it. It is true that the genius of our institutions demands that the public domain be settled in small tracts, that as a people we are opposed to landed aristocracy; that our prairies Ashall be dedicated to the raising of men, and cattle,@ and every American is proud of this sentiment. But whence shall come the countless herds of cattle to feed these men? Step by step agriculture has taken possesssion of the territory until recently occupied by the herdsman; the land throughout the middle western states has become too valuable to raise beef; agriculture has crowded her sister industry from the Ohio to the Mississippi; from the Mississippi to the Missouri; Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas are dotted all over with populous towns and cities, and their fair prairies are a net-work of railroads, fences, fields, and orchards. We may profitably ask, where will our beef come from even twenty years hence to feed our seventy-five or one hundred million of people?


In the all wise economy of nature, which has abundantly supplied our continent with every blessing essential for human want, different sections are called upon to contribute their just quota to the general good. Conditions of soil and climate have been provided for the cereals in one part of our favored land; to another part is allotted the sugar, the cotton, and the cane; while in other localities are deposited iron, lead, and coal, and products hidden beneath the surface. In like manner it may be argued that certain portions of our country have been specially provided for the raising of our meat, set aside and forever to remain the exclusive field of this product. This theory is supported by the fact that every requisite necessary to successful cattle raising exists upon our distant prairies where altitude, climate, nutritious grasses, and every condition contributes to this industryCare its chief features and support; where, owing to the character of the soil and the absence of rain, agriculture can never flourish and advancing civilization meets a barrier it cannot overcome.


The last scientific authority confirms the theory that along the back bone of the continent there exists a wide stretch of country suitable only for the herdsman. And yet when he attempts to occupy it quietly and honestly, there appears in the public press articles condemning his leases in language, the Tribune is pleased to call Aa strong indictment demanding immediate attention.@ It is charged that it is an illegal and illogical policy Apernicious and demoralizing in the extreme,@ that the Alaw required the money to be paid into the treasury,@ etc. If Aillegal,@ what money could properly arise from them? What law requires money accruing from illegal sources to be covered into the treasury? It is charged that the distribution of the rental per capita has been the most demoralizing feature. The public should understand that all moneys and goods distributed to the Indians are distributed in this manner, in accordance with the law and the only method which can insure absolute fairness and satisfaction, and the cattlemen, in adopting this policy, as it is called, simply followed the law governing in such matters and the instructions of the Indian department itself. The government has for years granted these same privileges to cattlemen. The Indian department is doing so today, and in some instances upon terms far less remunerative than the Indian has made for himself. The question does not seem to be on so much of policy as to who shall spend the money. If this part of the financial programme can be executed in Washington, it seems to be legal; but for an Indian to receive and disburse his own money, according to his own wishes or needs, and after the manner of those who assume to give him a pattern, then it is all wrong. To be sure one of the most important lessons of life is the proper use of money, and the only way to teach it to a white man or Indian is to allow him the use of itCa lesson the Indian learns with far more alacrity than he gets credit forCand there is no reason why he should not be permitted to spend his own money in his own way.

In this Astrong indictment@ referred to, it is charged that Aconflicts with the cowboys, brought on to their reservation under those leases, are filling the land with terror, * * * that recently the war department found itself unable to furnish a safe escort across the reservation to a congressional investigating committee, and yet five years ago these Indians were as peaceable as any in the land. The legitimate inference is (and so intended no doubt) that the cowboy and the presence of the cattlemen are the direct cause of this deplorable state of affairs. Without comment on the depleted condition of our study, which rendered the war department powerless to provide an escort for a half dozen men, the facts are that seven years ago the Indians referred to were raiding through Kansas and Nebraska, headed by Dull-Knife, Little Wolf, and Wild-Hog, and that for the past five years while men, whether cowboys or others, have crossed their reservation with impunity without fear or molestation.

It is related that Athe agency itself then owned a herd quietly and securely grazing on the reservation, which with proper care with its increase would now number several thousand cattle, * * * that the scholars in the agency school, saving from their rations and investing in cattle, had also a little herd of their own. How is it now? The agency herd has been eaten up, the school herd has been sold, and the only conclusion is that the presence of the cattlemen is directly and solely responsible.

The facts are (as shown by the records of the Indian office) that some three years before leases were even thought of, these herds were disbanded and issued out under direct orders from Washington, and that, too, in the face of the agent=s most emphatic, though respectful protest, and his earnest recommendations and entreaties that they be preserved and increased, commenting at length upon their present and prospective value in dollars and cents, but above all on their value as a civilizing influence among the Indians. The cattlemen had no more to do with the destruction of these herds than the Cannibal Islands; and yet the public is made to believe they were directly responsible therefor.

It is from such unfriendly and untruthful statements that public sentiment is formed into prejudice against the cattlemen, and it is time the truth was made known.


The most humane theory of Indian civilization is to induce him to industrial pursuits, by peaceful means if possible, by coercive measures if necessary. The records of the Indian department bear testimony that this has been the policy of the government, and is still. Officers and employees are instructed to deny him rations that thereby he shall learn the lesson that Aby the sweat of his brow he must earn his daily bread,@ and there is no reason why he should be made an exception to this inexorable law.

The Indian who has sufficient energy and enterprise to go out upon the prairie and make hay, haul it to market, and obtain money to help support his family, is complimented by the authorities in Washington and praised before all other Indians as a man whose example is worthy their emulation. Let this same Indian sell this same grass, while growing, for grazing purposes, and he is as speedily condemned for doing what it is claimed he has no right to do.

In justice to the Indian it must be remembered that his means of subsistance are circumscribed and very limited; he has not the same chance in the race of life the white man has. The march of civilization has forced him in most instances to locations wholly inproductive in an agricultural sense, the game upon which he subsisted is gone, and the resources at his command are few. It should be remembered also that the declaration of common humanity, if not the declaration of independence itself, guarantees him the same title Ato life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness@ as the white man; and if the amendments to our constitution have any meaning, Awithout regard to his race, color, or previous condition.@

Divest the whole subject of sentimentality, eliminate the political factor from the prob-lem, and if we are really in earnest in our desire to civilize the Indian and make a man of him, stop nursing him as a motherless infant, pull down the Chinese wall which excludes him from civilization, and let the light of the nineteenth century in upon his benighted vision. Throw him more upon his own resources, test his own strength more, and it will be found nine times out of ten that in all the practical affairs of life, he will do better for him-self than experimental legislation or ill-advised and misdirected philanthropy can do for him.

Years ago it was thought best for prudential reasons, to shut him away from the contaminating (?) example and influence of his white brother, who was forbidden to set foot Awithin the charmed circle@ of his reservation. With the advent of the railroad, schools, and churches in the western country, this is no longer possible or wise. It has been truthfully said; universal progress has the right of way to his continent and the demand is made that every avenue of trade shall be thrown wide open, that the arts of peace and civilization shall abound from ocean to ocean. Then lift the Ablockade@ that shuts away from him the influences of civilization, and let the Indian fall in and keep step with the spirit of the age, or find himself a stranger at the end of the advancing column.


Arkansas City, October 30th.


Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 4, 1885.

THOMPSON McKINNEY, the secretary of the Choctaw Nation, has been nominated for the position of principal chief of his nation. He is backed by his present chief and nearly every prominent man of his country, and his election is regarded as certain.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 4, 1885.

GLOBE-DEMOCRAT: A democratic orator in Massachusetts boasts that nearly all of our acquisitions of territory have been made under the rule of his party. He forgets, however, that it was also the party which made a desperate attempt to rob the country of these acquisitions after they were made, and that the republicans came to the rescue and upset the scheme. If the Democratic party could have had its way from 1861 to 1865, our nation would now be a good deal smaller than it is.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 4, 1885.


The article discussing cattle leases, which appears on our first page, was written by a gentleman fully competent to deal with the question, and his statements rest on the solid basis of truth. He shows that the Indians exercised their best judgment in granting the leases, that by the rulings of the courts and the departments of Washington they have a perfect right to sell their grasses, and that they are perfectly content with the operation of the contracts into which they have entered. A number of our citizens, regarding the raising of herds to feed the hunger of the nation as a useful and legitimate industry, embarked in the cattle business, devoting all their available means to procuring cattle for grazing and fencing in ranches for their safe keeping. And some finding the business growing on their hands, borrowed sums of money at a high rate of interest in the belief that the profits on their investment would in no great time enable them to pay off their obligations.

But a democratic administration has brought about a change in the spirit of their dream. We have no criticism to make on any policy the president may adopt in his treatment of the red race, and the policy he proposes to recommend to congress of the allotment of their lands in severalty; and the sale of the surplus portion to the white settler is not only calculated to gain strength for his administration but we regard it as sound statesmanship. Still this could have been done without any rude shock to a staple interest, and certainly all resort to false charges and demagogy should have been avoided.

A revolt of the Cheyennes against the enumeration of their tribe, ordered by the Indian commissioner, brought the military into the field, and General Sheridan was dispatched to quell the trouble. Inquiring into the cause of the turbulence he found some ready to lay their dissatisfaction to the presence of the cowboys and their herds, this being used as a disguise to their revolt against the authority of their great father. We have all due love and respect for the brilliant hero of Winchester, but there is no disguising the fact that he had an old grudge of his brother Mike=s against the cattlemen in his mind, and he made avail of this opportunity to recommend that all the cattle herds on the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservation be removed, and the leases with those tribes vacated. It is well known here, and it was known at the time, that the majority of the Cheyennes were well contented with the leases, and held the $80,000 annual rental in due esteem; but there are always some restless members in that tribe, and this truculent portion it was that made the fuss. The Arapahoes are a more stolid people, and unless their toes are trodden on, they do not wince.

This disturbed state of things gave an opportunity to the Massachusetts statesman, Senator Dawes, to put in his oar. He is a philanthropist, one of that pestilent class which abandons itself to a crotchet, and seeks to shape nature and truth to its own distorted views. Our correspondent points out some of the egregious misstatements he ventilated through the New York Tribune, and could have pointed out a dozen others if they had been relevant to his argument. The writer of the paper is well known to our citizens, and the candor and ability with which he discusses his subject will commend it to general attention.


Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 4, 1885.


A Leavenworth dispatch, dated the 29th, reports information received at Fort Leavenworth to the effect that Oklahoma boomers, under Capt. Couch, have entered the Indian Territory and are bound for Oklahoma. The dispatch writer gives the following details.

AThe advance guard have already arrived in the forbidden territory and have proceeded to stake out choice claims and place thereon signs warning everybody to keep off. The main body have not yet reached Oklahoma, and are under command of Capt. Couch, who has organized a staff and equipped them with all the paraphernalia of war. Couch=s party is well armed and equipped, and the announcement is boldly made that they are going to stay. It is estimated that the boomers now inside the Indian Territory number about 4,000.@

This riotous defiance has naturally attracted the attention of Gen. Miles, and that officer has ordered Major Sumner, at Fort Reno, to take sufficient force with him and eject the invaders. There are six companies of troops at Fort Reno and a similar force at Fort Sill who can be used to chase out the boomers. If the above report states facts correctly, it would seem that Couch and his followers are alike lacking in brains. It is pretty evident that it is the intention of the government to throw open the unassigned land in the territory to settlement, and a quiet occupation of the ground until that time arrives, might have been winked at. But this hurrah and noisy parade are an invitation to the authorities to intervene, and the threatened ejectment is a proper response to the defiance. How Couch and his fellow speakers can declaim against the monopoly of cattlemen and syndicates, when they set up a worse monopoly by attempting to drive everybody away who does not belong to their gang and pay tribute to their chieftain, is not obvious to common sense.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 4, 1885.

One of our citizens just in from the territory says last week he encountered on the Cimarron a train of fifteen wagons, each wagon containing a family heading for Oklahoma. They were colored people from Tennessee, and their outfits were new and of the best quality.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 4, 1885.

The Republican affords us the cheerful reminder that Athe Indian Territory is now solidly democratic,@ and it adds with ill concealed sarcasm, Aowing to civil service rules.@ There is suggestiveness in this simply stated fact. The pressure for office is so irresistible the subordinate employees (to teach school and till the soil, for instance) are appointed in Washington, and thrust on the agent whether he likes it or not. Hitherto this official has been allowed the choice, and properly too, because the responsibility rests with him, and the persons through whom his duties are performed should owe accountability to him. Before Cleveland=s term has expired, it is safe to say the administration of affairs in the Indian territory will be in a state of chaos.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 4, 1885.

Live Stock Notes.

Caldwell Journal: W. J. Newbold=s public sale on Tuesday was a success. Cattle and horses sold well. His stock hogs brought about four cents a pound and other things sold equally as well.

Indian Chieftain: The Saginaw Cattle Company, which has a lease of the northern portion of the Sac & Fox reserve, has suspended its fencing operations ostensibly until next spring. Their contract with the Indians provided for the completion of this work long ago. It is not improbable that this announced temporary suspension is induced by the Asigns of the times.@ Prospects for Indian leases are certainly far from favorable at present.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 4, 1885. [From exchanges.]

South Haven News: A large and enthusiastic Oklahoma meeting was held here last Saturday, at which was organized the Rock Falls branch of Payne=s Oklahoma colony, and the following officers were elected: Pres. Capt. Lewis Weythman; Vice President, John Koller; Treasurer, Col. Thomas Hunter; Secretary, Dr. W. S. Chenoweth. A constitution and by-laws will be adopted by sections at the next meeting, which will be duly advertised.

The Indian Journal, published at Muscogee, makes the following admission: Notwithstanding the action of the council at Eufaula during the summer in regard to the Oklahoma country, it is said that a good majority at least, of the present Creek council, are willing to sell, fearing that it will be taken from them if they do not, and that the commission to be sent here by the president to treat for that much talked of country will be successful.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 11, 1885.


The Cherokees have long been sorely exercised over that payment of $300,000 made by the government to their nation, after the land for the occupation of the friendly tribes had been bought and paid for. The price paid was 47-49/100 cents per acre, which aggregated about $357,000. The additional sum of $300,000 was procured by Col. Phillips, then employed as agent by the nation, and he declares it was a further consideration for the land set apart for the Poncas, the Nez Perces, the Otoes, and the Missourias. But shrewd suspicions are entertained by a number of Cherokee statesmen that this payment was made upon the entire strip or outlet, and that their agent misled his principals in order to acquire his commission on the sum paid. Chief Bushyhead has lately been in Washington inquiring into this matter for the information of the national council, soon to hold its session in Tahlequah; and now we learn that other Cherokees, representing the anti-Bushyhead faction, have visited the national capital for the purpose of prosecuting inquiries on their own account. Their first application was to the secretary of the treasury to learn what for that money stood on the books of the government; whether it appeared as having been allowed in addition to the appraisal on the lands transferred to the other tribes, or whether it was a general payment on the entire strip. Secretary Manning, to satisfy these querists, ordered an examination of the Cherokee account, and assistant Secretary Fairchild makes the following statement.

AIn reply to your letter of the 20th last, concerning the appropriation of $300,000 to be paid into the treasury of the Cherokee nation out of the fund due under appraisement for Cherokee lands west of the Arkansas river, I have to inform you that the second auditor reports that the records of his office afford no information upon the subject of the inquiries submitted by you. It is suggested that application be made to the honorable secretary of the interior for the desired information.@

Acting on this suggestion, application was then made to the interior department, which procured an endorsement from Secretary Lamar certifying to the correctness of the statement made last spring, that the payment in question was considered by the department a credit toward the purchase of the whole strip. This is no way determinate, and the section of the appropriation act by which the money was voted does not throw any clear light on the subject. The language is as follows.

AThat the sum of $300,000 is hereby appropriated to be paid into the treasury of the Cherokee Nation out of the funds due under the appraisement for Cherokee lands west of the Arkansas river, which sum shall be expended as the acts of the Cherokee legislature directCthis amount to be immediately available; provided that the Cherokee Nation, through its proper authority, shall execute conveyances satisfactory to the secretary of the interior of the United States, in trust only for the benefit of the Pawnees, Poncas, Nez Perces, Otoes, Missourias, and Osages, now occupying the same tract, as they respectively occupied the same before the payment of said money.@

As mentioned above, this matter has disturbed the Cherokee mind for some years, and at a special counsel called at Tahlequah to get at the truth of the matter, Col. Phillips made this statement.

AIn 1879, the portion of land occupied by the Pawnees was appraised by the government at 90 cents an acre, and the same value was set upon the land occupied by the Nez Perces. The area set apart for the Poncas, the Otoes, and the Missourias was appraised at the lower value of 47-49/100 cents per acre, and the money was paid on these appraisements.@

Col. Phillips says the last appropriation of $300,000 was made on a reappraisement of all the land occupied by these friendly tribes at a uniform value of $1.25 per acre. This very plausible explanation was accepted at the time, and Mr. Phillips was allowed to retain his fee of $22,500 as commission on his very deft transaction.

But the story is not believed now. Subsequent investigation begets the suspicion that this well paid agent was trifling with his clients, and that, in the interest of those who want the strip to pass out of the possession of the Cherokees, he procured the money as a general payment on the entire outlet. This seems to be the understanding of the treasury and interior department people at Washington; and a similar belief in the Cherokee mind is so general, that at the last election in that nation, every member elected to the council was pledged to the discharge of Col. Phillips from his office as agent of the Cherokee Nation.

AI love thee, Cassis; But never more be officer of mine.@

The commission appointed by Secretary Lamar to inquire in the title of the unassigned lands, made a very thorough search into the national papers at Tahlequah, and in their report, they will probably give their conclusions on this vexed subject.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 11, 1885.

The Creek Indians have decided that they will not sell the Oklahoma lands at any price; but on the other hand, the government of the United States has determined to buy the property, and consequently, there will be a trade.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 11, 1885.

Life in a Tent.

One of our city Galens tells a good story at his own expense. Being called upon to attend an accouchment case in the west part of town, he was conducted to a boomer=s tent pitched on this side of the west bridge. On entering this frail tenement, he found a young wife, barely seventeen years old, about to become a mother, with nothing on hand for the occasion and her husband as inexperienced as herself. They were from Indiana on their way to Oklahoma, without money or worldly goods. The straits the doctor was reduced to in performing his duties must be heard from his own lips to be properly enjoyed.

AI sent the husband out to hunt up some good mother,@ the doctor said, Abut when she came, she had a perplexing time, as the clothes the poor thing had provided were only fit to cover a Hop-o=-my-Thumb, and there wasn=t a pair of scissors or even a pin in the tent.@

ADid you get your pay?@ some practical minded listener asked.

AOh, there was no chance of that,@ was the reply, Abut I took it out in romance.@

Some of these boomers who are simply crazy to get on to forbidden ground are having rough experiences.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 11, 1885.

A Troop of Cavalry.

A company of the Fifth U. S. Cavalry rode into town yesterday, and went into camp a short distance south of the depot. Fifty-five troopers composed the command. The officers are J. M. Hamilton, captain; and J. B. Bellinger, second lieutenant. The first lieutenant is absent sick. The company marched hither from Fort Riley, with instructions to watch the boomers, but we cannot understand from Capt. Hamilton that he is assigned to any command. Of course, this officer keeps his own command; but from the fact of his going into camp here, it would seem that while Major Sumner is chasing out the trespassers who have entered on the coveted soil of Oklahoma, a company of mounted troops scattered here and there along the border of the territory would do good service in keeping others out. It will be remembered that Agent Osborn, at Ponca and Otoe, reported boomers going past his agencies in a steady stream, many of them armed as though prepared to resist expulsion. It was expected that a military force would be dispatched to guard the road leading past the above named agencies, and we venture the prediction that Capt. Hamilton is here to perform that service. This officer laughingly says he is a novice in this boomer war, but his junior officer did valorous service in the recent Cheyenne uprising, so he is not without experienced counsel. Both of these officers are very pleasant gentlemen, and we trust their stay will be prolonged in our midst that they may enjoy the hospitality of our citizens.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, November 7, 1885.

Probably Sensational.

It is talked that the new Oklahoma raid is led by Captain Couch, who has become tired of waiting for the government commission to determine boomers= rights, and has decided to force an issue on the government. A letter was received by the acting commissioner of Indian affairs from the agent at the Ponca and Pawnee agency adjacent to the Oklahoma country saying that bands of armed men daily pass his agency in the direction of Oklahoma and they do not return. The agent thinks that their mission means mischief. The acting commissioner of Indian affairs at once telegraphed to the agency to send without fail all possible details as to their movements and to make what arrangements he can to drive the intruders from Oklahoma. It is understood also that additional orders will be at once given to the military to forcibly eject all trespassers. The boomers claim to have sixteen thousand men enrolled, of whom ten thousand are old confederate and union soldiers.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, November 7, 1885.

The Creeks have decided not to sell Oklahoma at any price. Last summer there was a wish to get the sentiment of all the Indians on the subject. A council was held at Eufala, and it was then decided not to sell. On Tuesday this action was brought up for ratification by the Creek council. The bill quietly passed the house of kings, but when it came to the house of warriors it hung fire. The vote was finally taken, which stood 42 to sell, 42 to hold, when Speaker Tom Adams cast the deciding ballot in favor of retaining. Consequently, the boomers will have to stay out. The Seminole council has appointed a delegation to treat with the United States commissioners, but it takes the action of both nations to dispose of the country.

Arkansas City Republican, November 7, 1885.

If the census of the Indian Territory was to be taken now, the population would be found to be greater now than any other time in its history, as there are Aboomers,@ hunters, and government officers in it without number. Just tell your neighbors that the Aboomers@ must come out until the proper time arrives.

Hunting parties are being made up in Bolton to start out in a few days; they are all heading for Oklahoma, its plain enough.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, November 14, 1885.

Determined Boomers.

NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, November 6. A Litttle Rock special to the Times-Democrat says: AAdvices from the Indian Territory say that the >Boomers= have secured a foot-hold in Oklahoma and that it will take the U. S. Troops some time to clear the country. The intruders are widely scattered. There are numbers of armed men, and the possibility of a fight between the Boomers and soldiers is by no means remote.@

The statement is made that the leaders desire to bring about a conflict on the eve of the assembling of congress, so that congressional action may be had and Oklahoma be legally opened to settlement. The Indians are reported as becoming restless under the situation, though they anticipate no outbreak.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, November 14, 1885.

In conversation with Hon. Thomas Ryan, last week, he gave it as his opinion that the Indian Territory was bound to be opened to settlement within a few years. That in spite of the eastern prejudice against further encroachment upon the Apoor Indian,@ the demand for homes in the west and lands to cultivate would force such lands as the Indian should not need to be opened. He expressed himself in favor of giving each Indian all the land he or she needed or could utilize, and protection in the right to that land forever, and to the tribes a fair price for the remainder to be opened to settlement. He further intimated that the present administration would keep all would-be settlers out of the territory until its settlement is authorized by law, if it had to use the entire military force at its command. Ex.

Arkansas City Republican, November 14, 1885.

Drury Warren is home from his stock ranch in Arizona on a visit. A week or so ago Mr. Warren had some ponies stolen by the Navajo Indians, and in trying to capture the animals, a small battle was waged between his herdsmen and the Indians. Mr. Warren came out victorious.

[Note: Drury Warren was the father of Ward and Senator Joe Warren of the Warren Ranch. Ward is now dead...Joe is still alive. Drury was a most colorful character, I gather. He almost froze to death during one hard winter and had both ears so badly affected with frost bite that the doctor feared he would not make it...believe this affected him as he fell on a rock, hit hard, became unconscious, and died some days later. In knife fights he usually came out the loser. Got many of his cattle the hard way...he grabbed them if there was no brand on them. Ranch was practically in Indian Territory and he leased land later from the Indians...belonged to Cherokee Stockhholders group. He was a Civil War soldier with the South. When he came to Kansas with his wife, they really worked hard to get ranch going. Two of his small children drowned in creek near house...Mrs. Warren almost died with them but her older daughter grabbed her in time. Drury I gather got tired of all the government nonsense and decided to try raising cattle in Arizona. Gather that another child got very sick [may have died...can=t remember off hand] and he left Arizona for good. Hope to have a story concerning him in next book. MAW]

Arkansas City Republican, November 14, 1885.


The return of the Oklahoma boom is here. Hundreds have crossed the river, Treaty, into the promised land while hundreds more are on the way. Are these men crazy? Can sober men expect to obtain homes in disregard of solemn treaties and in defiance of law and the authority of both the United States and Indian governments? I am persuaded that the people are ignorant of the legal difficulties to the settlement of Oklahoma.

When the Indian owned all the land west of the Missouri River to the Pacific coast, the U. S. Government entered into treaty relations with them and it was provided in that treaty that a white man should not be permitted to invade the Indian country for the purpose of commerce or settlement, without the consent of the Indians, and, if any person did so invade this country, he should be summarily ejected. The Indian Teritory is all that is now left them of this vast domain and this permit law, of course, remains in full force within its limits.

It is time that the Seminoles and Creeks ceded Oklahoma back to the general govern-ment, but the permit law was not repealed and it is plainly stipulated that those tribes retain full control and possession of said land till the wild Indians and freedmen thereon are settled.

It is by the operation of this law that the boomers have been so often ejected from OklahomaCnot from Oklahoma only, but the law is enforced in every nation in the territory.

For so entering Indian lands, if a man commits no act of depredation, he is not a trespasser, but is no more than an intruder, and this is not a crime for indictment. Hence the boomers and the many who are ejected from the jurisdiction of every tribal domain of the territory are not punished. I am no friend to the Redman or to that policy of the government that encourages them to indolence, but it is the law and it must be respected. But the cattlemenCwhy is it that they can remain and graze their herds and the poor boomer must come out? Why? It is plain enough. The cattlemen have obtained the consent of the Indians to remain and the boomers have not. Nor are we not friendly to cattle syndicates and denounce their assumption of preeminence to the soil to the prejudice of agriculture, but law is on their side. They have the Indians= consent to remain and some of them have paid dear for it, too. T. D. ROSS.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, November 21, 1885.


The right of the Creeks and Seminoles to prevent the opening of Oklahoma is not any too clear. The people of the United States demand the settlement of these vacant lands. The Indians who are trying to play a dog-in-the-manger game would do better for themselves by accepting liberal terms while they can. The Seminoles are willing to treat. The Creeks are evenly divided upon the question. The sensible ones are inclined to follow the Seminoles. The authorities at Washington should endeavor to bring the rest to terms before congress takes up the matter. Peaceable means are best, but Oklahoma must be opened.

Kansas City Times.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, November 21, 1885.

More About the Boomers.

Secretary Lamar has sent the following letter to J. Wade McDonald, counsel for the Oklahoma boomers, at Winfield, Kansas.

SIR: I have read your letter of the 4th inst., stating that none of the persons against whom indictments were pending in the United States court in Kansas, have gone again into the Indian Territory or in any way broken faith in respect to the agreement in pursuance of which the dismissal of protection was ordered, also that Capt. Couch had, at your request, gone quietly into the Territory with a view of ascertaining the number of prisoners there, etc. The persons against whom the criminal proceedings were pending were the representatives of a class of persons bonded and associated together for the purpose of unlawful invasion of the Indian Territory and upon a settlement and promises made by yourself and others to this department and the department of justice that the Oklahoma boomers, Couch=s cavalry colony, or any of the persons associated therewith, would make no further attempt at unlawful settlement in the Territory, and that they had disbanded their organization, etc.; criminal proceedings were stopped, and it is with great disappointment that the department learns of the renewal of the attempts of unlawful invasion of the Territory by these same persons, whatever may be the name or title under which they are banded or organized. This will make the government more cautious in any further dealings with them. Mr. Couch should not go into the Indian Territory for any purpose and if he does go without a permit, he would be guilty of an open violation of the law.

[Note: J. Wade McDonald...boomer lawyer...was at this time a law partnerof W. P. Hackney. They later went their separate ways. Believe McDonald was a Democrat while Hackney ever remained a Republican.]

Arkansas City Republican, November 21, 1885.

Indian Inspector, Gardner, was in the city the first of the week. He was on his way to the Territory to visit the various agencies. While here he received a message from the depart-ment to clear the Indian reservations of all persons having no right on them. When asked if the order referred to the cattlemen, he replied that it included all intruders. Mr. Gardner, in company with the soldiers that have been stationed here, left Wednesday morning to execute the order. [Reckon this applies to boomers also.]

Arkansas City Republican, November 21, 1885.

The soldiers are having a glorious time expelling the boomers. The latter are scattered all over Oklahoma and the soldiers are compelled to hunt up each individual and take him to Ft. Reno. At last report 120 boomers had been captured and were held prisoners because they refused to sign an agreement not to invade that country anymore without leave of congress. Uncle Sam furnishes food for these boomers now three times a day.

Arkansas City Republican, November 21, 1885.

The cattlemen throughout the Indian Territory are very much discouraged. From dispatches we learn that large quantities of the range have been destroyed by fire and for many miles in all directions from Vinita, a man can travel and find no grass whatever. The hay that was put up is in many cases destroyed, and whole fields of corn, as well as houses, fences, barns, etc., have succumbed to the flames. It is feared that there will be a large loss of stock in consequence.

Arkansas City Republican, November 21, 1885.

Capt. Lee, agent at the Cheyenne and Arapahoe agency, sent the following message to Commissioner Adkins, Tuesday. All of the cattle have been removed from the reservation. Thousands of cattle have been turned loose in Oklahoma to graze. One hundred and twenty boomers have been arrested and brought to Ft. Reno within the past ten days and the troops are still out.

Arkansas City Republican, November 21, 1885.

Stone Calf, the Indian chief whose death is reported from Cheyenne Agency, was one of the malcontents, or Aunreconstructed@ Indians of that tribe. He was an Indian Bourbon, and opposed all efforts at educating or teaching his people in the ways of white men. He headed the discontented last spring, when war was nearly precipitated; and has always been ready to go on the warpath. In 1874 he headed the outbreak of that time, and he was leader of the band which captured the German family from Georgia en route to Colorado, near Danver=s station on the Smoky Hill Route. The family consisted of father and mother, a married daughter and her husband, a son about 14, and four single daughters, the eldest about 18, the next 13, and two little girls. The father, mother, married daughter and her husband and the boy were killed outright, and the four other children, girls, were carried off into captivity. Gen. Miles was in command of the troops operating against the Indians at this time, and was indefatigable in his pursuit of them to rescue these girls. Two of them were recovered from the Indians after a fight on McClellan Creek, Lieutenant Hobart K. Bailey, of the Fifth Infantry, rescuing them, but the two others were spirited away. They were finally surrendered after the Indians were driven by General Miles into their agency. Subsequently, congress appropriated $20,000 to be devoted to the education of these girls, and they were consigned to a Catholic institution in Leavenworth, Kansas.

Stone Calf=s death has removed a stumbling block, and the government=s efforts to educate and civilize the Cheyennes will be attended with greater success since he is dead.


Arkansas City Republican, November 21, 1885.


The article on Oklahoma in last week=s Republican provoked some unfriendly criticism to the writer=s loyalty to the boomer cause. I say in self-defense that all my interests are identified with the labor class, and it would be best to lay a foundation for settlement in Oklahoma. But I am far from going into spasms about it. I have no faith in fits as a preliminary to the opening of the Territory for settlement.

Before Oklahoma can be settled, congress must first actCrepeal the permit law or procure the Indians= consent to settlement. Stockmen have procured it. Their leases are evidences of it, but the Indians can revoke those leases at will and the lessees must move off as seen in the recent order moving stockmen from the Cheyenne country.

Whether any of these leases are legal or not depends upon what congress will do. If congress legalizes them, they are legal; if not, they are not; for the law reads, ANo lease shall be made with the Indians without the consent of congress.@ There has been no congressional action on any of these leases. Prudence and caution will be necessary when congress does act; for, ratify the cattle leases and it will necessitate the legalizing of land leases for agricultural purposes, also. This would never do.

What delays congressional action on those leases no man knows better than Hon. Ryan, of Kansas, or the Standard Oil Company of Pennsylvania, or Hon. Phillips, Cherokee counsel at Washington. Perhaps Secretary Teller knows something about it. One thing to my mind is clear, that there never would have been the money invested on those ranches that has been if there had not been some assurance that congress would delay action.

The interests of the country require that the cattle remain where they are. Millions of beef, which the world needs, are annually burned in the grass and forever lost. Also the world needs the billions of bread which lie undeveloped in the rich soil of Oklahoma. The Indians will not develop it; why not, then, give it to men that will? By doing so a few cattlemen might suffer pecuniary loss, but the country at large would not, for as much beef, if not more, would be produced by the many farmers as is produced now by the few cattle barons, and in addition to this billions of bread and fuel.

Besides all this, how many homeless families now almost perishing for food and destitute of clothing, at the door of pitiless winter, dependent for shelter upon the crafty landlord, would find homes of comfort and plenty if this goodly land was accessible?

The opening to settlement of the Black Hills country was a great relief to the nation from her financial troubles and it gave the party in power an additional lease of ten years. Greater results for good will inevitably follow the opening of Oklahoma. I am no Democrat, but would rejoice with that party in any good thing it may do.

As for the Apoor Lo,@ he must stand aside. If he persists in idleness and living off of the industry of the paleface and continues to block the wheels of commercial progress, American enterprise will plow him under or crush him beneath the iron horse. One more turn of the iron wheel and the Redman is out of the home-seekers= way.


Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, November 28, 1885.


The editor of the War Chief in his last week=s issue gives the following account of his trip through the Territory. He says: AWe have returned from Oklahoma. We were in the saddle seventeen days during which time we traveled over five hundred miles through the Indian Territory. We passed over and through the Cherokee Strip, Oklahoma, Otoe, Ponca, and Nez Perces. We saw very few settlers in our travels, thousands of cattle, several cattle men and cow boys, soldiers, and horse thieves. To the boomer, Oklahoma is the dearest spot upon earth, and well may he feel proud of that country. We have traveled through and over several of the best agricultural states in the Union, but nowhere have we ever seen so fine a country. The climate cannot be excelled, the land is of the finest quality in point of fertility, the water is excellent, and timber plenty. The finest valleys to be seen on the American continent are to be seen in Oklahoma. We saw grass eight feet high; sunflowers twelve feet high; and wild hemp fifteen feet high. What corn we saw was very large and rank. During this journey we gathered many important facts, which we intend giving to the reading public. Our return to the War Chief office was too late to attempt the like in this issue, so we make a passing comment of what may be expected from this date on.@

Arkansas City Republican, November 28, 1885.

The recent prairie fires in the Territory have worked great damages. On the Kaw reservation about one-third of the grass land was swept over by fire. Maj. Pollock lost considerable hay.

Arkansas City Republican, November 28, 1885.

Our Border.

Governor Martin Monday sent the following letter to the Kansas delegation of congressmen, asking their united efforts to secure protection for the southwestern borders of Kansas.


TOPEKA, November 14, 1885.

Messrs. Morrill, Funston, Perkins, Ryan, Anderson, Hanbach, and Peters:

MY DEAR SIRS:I address you, as the representatives of Kansas in congress, on a subject of grave interest to many of the citizens of this state.

As you know, a very large population has, within the past year, settled in the counties of Barber, Commanche, Clarke, Meade, Seward, Finney, and Hamilton. These counties are located in southwestern Kansas, adjoining or near the Indian Territory. The citizens who have occupied them are by invitation of the United States government, extended by its laws for the settlement of the domain. They are peaceable, industrious, intelligent people. Thousands of them served in the ranks of the Union army during the late civil war. And they are, one and all, justly entitled to the protection of the government.

South of the counties mentioned, the government has located several tribes of Indians. Many of these Indians are savage, turbulent, and dangerous. The fact that they are peaceable today is no guarantee that they will be peaceable next month. So long as they are where they are, and the borders of Kansas are left exposed and defenseless, the people of the counties lying next the Indian Territory will be uneasy and apprehensive. Indian raids are possible at any time. There is nothing to prevent an invasion of the borders of Kansas, or to protect our citizens from its resulting horrors. The state of Kansas cannot afford to maintain a standing army on its southwestern frontier in order to keep the Indians within the boundaries of their territory, and it should not be expected to maintain such an army in order to protect its peaceable citizens and give them assurance of security. This is a duty which properly and rightfully devolves on the government of the United States.

In my judgment, absolute protection and security cannot be guaranteed to the citizens of southwestern Kansas unless the general government establishes at least two military posts on or near the southern boundary line. One post should be established near the southwestern border of Barber County, and another near the southwestern corner of Meade County. And these posts should be maintained as long as the Indian Territory is reserved for the occupancy of Indians having tribal relations.

It may be said that there is no danger of an Indian outbreak. That is always the reply of the government to the demand of its citizens for guarantees of immunity. But twice within the past few years, have the borders of Kansas been invaded by the same Indians who now occupy the country adjoining southwestern Kansas. Knowledge of these facts naturally and inevitably inspires a feeling of uneasiness and apprehension. The settlers do not know when an outbreak may occur, and they do know that no adequate precautions to prevent an outbreak have been adopted. Thus they live in constant dread of an Indian raid, and are liable, at any moment, to be thrown into a panic, which will send men, women, and children flying in terror from their peaceful homes. Such a panic occurred early in July last, and the losses, the sufferings, the demoralization attending it were almost as great and distressing as though an actual invasion had occurred. These people are justly entitled, not only to absolute protection against Indian raids, but to such an assistance of protection as will inspire confidence among them and prevent that apprehension which breeds panic. And such assurance cannot be given unless military posts are established and maintained along the southwestern borders of Kansas.

I do not know by what authority such posts are located and maintained. If the action of congress is required, I trust that you will at the earliest possible moment introduce and urge the passage of a bill having this end in view. If posts can be established by order of the president, or of the general commanding the army, I hope you will urge upon these officers the vital importance of prompt action, to the end that the people of southwestern Kansas may not only be assured of protection, but of such adequate safeguards as will inspire confidence and prevent an alarm and panic.

I have addressed a similar letter to Senators Ingalls and Plumb.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant.


Arkansas City Republican, November 28, 1885.


A cattleman writes from Oklahoma, but his letter has been delayed so long, and some of the information it contains has been published in the Eagle before, therefore, we will not publish it but give some news it contains.

He says that the committees sent to investigate things in Oklahoma gave out the impression at Ft. Reno that Oklahoma would be opened for settlement before long. There are thousands of cattle there and they are turned loose without herders until the next spring round-up.

Bobb Poisett, a half-breed Arrapahoe, and Ben Keiff, a white man who is married to a Cheyenne squaw, who have lived in the Oklahoma country for the past ten years, and who have well cultivated farms, fine houses, and hundreds of cattle, have been ordered to leave by the military agent and commander.

The soldiers have a saw mill in full operation in Council Grove, and are sawing lumber for building and bridge purposes for the Ft. Reno agency. Grading has not yet commenced on the Frisco, which is to be extended from Tulsa southwest through the Oklahoma country.

Wichita Eagle.

Arkansas City Republican, November 28, 1885.

Bold Desperadoes.

TULSA, INDIAN TERRITORY, November 19. Two days ago, two noted horse thieves, John Truston and Silas Davis, were arrested near Tulsa. Immediately on learning of their arrest, a posse of cattlemen met near the southeast boundary of the Sac and Fox reservation, intending to seize the horse thieves and hang them, as the officers passed that way with them. The desperadoes of this section, hearing of the intention to hang their pals, made a bold dash and rescued them from the marshal and three Caddo Indians, when they were about twelve and one-half miles from that place en route to the Wichita agency. Among the rescuing party were the notorious Trustons, brothers of John Truston, and Frank Starr, an outlaw from Texas, who has killed six men; two outlaws of the Choctaw Indians also assisted the desperadoes. They overpowered Deputy Curtis and his Indian guards and robbed Curtis of all his money and horses. They then secured the deputy and his guards and left them in the bush. The desperadoes then visited the Sac and Fox agency, and not finding Agent Neil, they raided the village, stealing money and horses, and frightened the Indian women almost to death. Several Indians who attempted to resist the desperadoes were shot down, and it is believed two were killed. Among the wounded is Charlie Neckuk, 16 years old, son of Neckuk, the chief of the Sac and Fox tribes. The desperadoes escaped with their plunder.

Arkansas City Republican, November 28, 1885.

Post Traderships.

Special dispatch to Globe-Democrat.

WASHINGTON, D. C., November 18. Protests, numerous and strong, are reaching the Interior Department against the changes made in the agency and post traderships in the Indian Territory. It appears that those holding these positions did not consider that licenses to trade would be considered as coming under the head of political patronage, and they took no steps to secure themselves with the new administration. During the summer there was considerable pressure brought to bear on Secretary Lamar and Commissioner Atkins to issue licenses to new men, and there was no pressure to speak of in favor of continuing the old licenses. Some of these applications came from Tennessee and Mississippi politicians known to Mr. Lamar and Mr. Atkins, and as there seemed to be no good reason why the applicants should not have the licenses, they received them. The next step was to notify the old traders that their license would be revoked in December. When this was done the department officials learned for the first time the full importance of this change. Trade relations were seriously disturbed, and by the dash of the pen large stocks of goods transported to the interior of the Territory were virtually confiscated. Such an outcry has been raised that the Secretary and his Commissioner, who didn=t understand what they were doing, would be glad to reverse the action if they could. Their political friends, however, have gone in the Territory with their licenses, and some have already arranged for opening their stores, having obtained goods on credit from Memphis, Kansas City, and Ft. Scott. Half a dozen leading Kansas Democrats played a prominent part in bringing about this sweeping change of agency traderships. They came on here, represented to the department how valuable it would be from a political standpoint to put good Democrats in these positions, and thus secured some of the best of the posts for their own friends. St. Louis will feel the effect at this revocation of the old licenses seriously, for several of the largest agency stores in the Territory were supplied entirely by wholesale houses of that city. The Kansas crowd were engaged on this job very quietly for several weeks, but did little talking on the outside. Governor Glick got the credit of doing a great deal of work for them.

Arkansas City Republican, November 28, 1885.

Bolton Items.

Bolton Township is increasing her population this week from the fact that some of the Chilocco people are pulling into the state. Some, having been ordered out of the Territory; others, having sold their improvements, coming into the state.

Lafayette Chetum has sold his improvements to a Cherokee Indian. What business a Cherokee has on this strip more than a white man, we are not prepared to say.

J. Kindrick has rented the Radcliffe farm and will not inhabit the Territory any longer.


[From Wednesday, November 18, 1885, through December 30, 1885.]


Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 18, 1885.


Our democratic cotem has an infirmity for contradicting his own testimony. In his last issue he tells us that a large majority of the people of the east look with disfavor on the opening of the territory to white settlers, and then in another column he gives the result of a very significant meeting of the friends of the red man at Lake Mohonk, New York, in which the most prominent philanthropists of the country took part, a resolution being adopted that it would be most conducive to the interest of the Indian occupants of the territory to allot their lands in severalty, and dispose of the remainder to the palefaces. This is evidence of the remarkable change that has taken place in the minds of the people in the east during the last few years. Ten or twelve years ago it was regarded as flat blasphemy by this class of persons who was represented in the Lake Mohonk conference to suggest as violent a departure as bringing the two races within that terra inhibita, into personal contact. When worthy old Enoch Hoag was Indian superintendent in this state, with his office in Lawrence, this writer incurred the violent displeasure of that official and his Quaker friends because he had advocated in the Chicago Times just such a policy as these same philanthropists now urge on the president. A few copies of the paper containing the offending article were sold on the book stalls in Lawrence, and this writer received the severest condemnation. The brief space of twelve years has served to bring these tender-hefted humanitarians to the same way of thinking. It is evident to the most obtuse that the Indians will make but slight industrial progress while they are supported by the government, and while they hold so individual property in their land. And this fact being generally recognized, the people of the east quite generally sustain the proposed policy of giving the Indians in the territory a farm (rendering it inalienable for a number of years), and aiding their efforts for awhile to derive support from it. Our neighbor should read his exchanges more diligently.

[Not sure if it is Lake Mohonk or Mohouk...cannot tell n from u.]

Arkansas City Traveler, November 18, 1885.

Capt. Couch, the boomer chieftain, was in the city on Monday, and informed his friends that he was going east. He passed through Capt. Hamilton=s camp on his way hitherto, and escaped being taken in as none of the troops recognized him.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 18, 1885.

Indian Inspector Robt. S. Gardiner is in town. He starts today for Oklahoma, accom-panying Capt. Hamilton and the troup of cavalry. The boomers must go. Arkansas City

Arkansas City Traveler, November 18, 1885.

Major L. E. Woodin, with his wife and two children, returned from a trip to Gray Horse on Saturday. Discussing the incidents of the trip with this local, he said, AI saw in your paper while I was away that a colored Tenneeseean with fifteen wagons was met in the Territory on his way to Oklahoma. I met on my return trip a different sort of an outfit. There were fifteen colored people in one wagon. As we approached a kinky head was thrust through every hole in the canvas, and it looked as if there was an entire negro popuplation on wheels.@

Arkansas City Traveler, November 18, 1885.

The Holman Congressional Committee.

The Holman committee, appointed at last session of congress to investigate affairs at the various Indian agencies, closed its labors last Friday at Muskogee and disbanded. The members present were W. S. Holman, of Indiana; Thomas Ryan, of Kansas; J. G. Cannon, of Illinois; and S. W. Peel, of Arkansas. Commissioner of Indian Affairs Atkins was present also for the purpose of informing himself regarding our people. They came in from the west Thursday night and going south early next morning were enabled to complete their work by sunset. Presuming that conclusions would be reached on a number of important subjects, the Chieftain sent a man down to make a report. Representative men from the five nations were present, but for all that was accomplished they might have saved themselves the trouble of the journey, and the same may be said as to the committee. All of our people expressed themselves as opposed to any change whatever in the status of the territory. The Creeks were not, however, so pronounced as to Oklahoma and the feeling of the congressmen, or part of them at least, was that they would eventually agree to a sale. From the tenor of the queries propounded it looks as though the committee favor the removal of the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, and other western territory Indians into Oklahoma. They would then purchase and open up the country from there west for white settlement. This view is also warmly endorsed by the commissioner himself. Their reasoning is that by this means, the tide of emigration would be directed to the west and away from the Indian boundary.

Cherokee Chieftain.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 18, 1885.

Steam Thresher.

The leading object of interest about the agency the past week or more has been a first-class steam thresher and portable steam engine, furnished by the Interior Department to this agency. The unusual sound of a steam whistle sounding amidst the solitude of these prairies has attracted universal attention. The Indians came from far and near to see what kind of a Asteam mail wagon@ had reached their country, and were well pleased to see the machine chewing up huge stacks of grain, doing its work quickly and well, delivering the grain clean and plump, and discharging a neverending stream of straw from its carrier. The crops of grain, which were planted by the Indians at the instance of Agent Dyer, although experimental, yielded very satisfactorily for the acreage sown, and furnishes a grain that would compare in grade with Kansas crops. The Indians consider the machine and its work strong medicine. The portable engine, which is one of the finest of its class, will doubtless prove a great utility in future operations at this agency. Cheyenne Transporter.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 25, 1885.

General Sheridan=s Talk.

Speaking of the repeated invasion of the Oklahoma Territory, Gen. Sheridan said recently that he had information which led him to believe that the leading boomers were in the pay of the railroad companies, whose lines are now excluded from the Indian Territory, and that these invasions were planned and maintained to keep up a public agitation in the hope that they would result in securing legislation that would enable the roads to build through the Territory.


Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 25, 1885.

A letter received today from Fort Reno says that the report that 4,000 boomers are in Oklahoma is an exaggeration, and that the invaders do not number more than 400. Col. Sumner=s command has returned to Reno from a scout in the southern part of Oklahoma, having captured less than 100 boomers, with their wagons, horses, etc. These captives are now en route for Caldwell, Kansas, under military escort. Col. Sumner a few days ago started from Reno with two troops of cavalry and one company of Indian scouts for a place called Brewertown, on the Stillwater River, near old Camp Russell, where a large number of boomers are believed to be located. Thus far the boomers captured have exhibited no disposition to resist the military. Globe-Democrat.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 25, 1885.

COMMISSIONER ATKINS contends that in the work of civilizing the Indians, Ait is

essential above everything else that white men be kept away from them.@ The old lady who proposed that her daughter should learn to swing without going near the water had a similar view of the fitness of things. Globe-Democrat.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 25, 1885.

The Indian Situation.

Col. Sumner is raking in the Oklahoma boomers at a lively rate. One hundred were recently arrested and taken to Fort Reno and the military are after more. This question of settling Oklahoma is a vexed one, and ought to be settled by declaring that country open for settlement; but for the present, it having been decided the other way, the boomers should be treated as the violators of any law and thoroughly punished. Then when the country is open, as it surely will be, give everyone the same chance. There is another thought in connection with the opening of a large part of the Indian Territory to settlers that is worth studying for the money there is in it. Kansas will furnish along its southern boundary, the metropolis of all that section just as Missouri has furnished Kansas the metropolis at the Kaw=s mouth. Kansas City is too far away to manage directly the trade from the Arkansas valley and the Oklahoma country, which will, therefore, naturally drift to some town in Southern Kansas, and none is so well situated for that purpose as Arkansas City, if they are enterprising and take time by the forelock by making preparations for the immense business that will ere long flow to them. The government will not long continue its present policy toward the Indians; in another decade they will be scattered, and with certain extra privileges and advantages, be forced to earn their own living. The Indian policy of the future will be one that will tend to make the Indian independent and after allowing him the right of Ataking a claim,@ finally admit him to citizenship. Clay County Argus.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 25, 1885.


As the time for the meeting in Congress approaches, the affairs of the Indian Territory loom up into prominence. Statesmen, military and civil, have their say in the matter, and newspapers in all parts of the country have ideas to contribute. It is apparent on the surface that a different method of dealing with the Indians will be adopted, and the country is ready for a change. Experience has shown that the reservation system imparts no stimulus to the red men=s energies, there is more land in their occupation than they can put to profitable use, and so they content themselves with doing nothing.

Years ago Gen. Sherman reminded the Indian legislators of the Territory, assembled in general council at Okmulgee, that the American people held the occupants of that favored land responsible for its proper use; and that if they neglected to avail themselves of the advantages, they would have to give way to a people who would show more thrift. The general=s hearers took exception to such plain talk, declaring that they had given a full equivalent for the Territory, that they were secured in its perpetual ownership by solemn treaties, confirmed by acts of congress, and they were under no obligation to please the paleface in their use of the land. Fourteen years have expired since Gen. Sherman made this talk, and the result he predicted has come about.

The population of two states is pressing against the boundaries of this Indian country demanding admission, and people from all parts of the Union are bending their gaze in that direction with the view to securing homes. And as we have before shown in these columns, the Indians are divided among themselves on the question of holding on to their present insecure possession, or having a farm given to each member of the tribe and the remainder sold in their interest.

They see the Osages amply provided for by the sale of their lands, and a similar disposition of their reservations would secure them future provision. All this is known to the administration, and interest is felt in the nature of the recommendations that the president will make to congress. The philanthropists who met at Lake Mohonk lately sent a delegation to the white house to suggest that the message to congress recommend that the Indian lands be allotted in severalty and the present tribal relations broken up. They want the lordly aborigines to be reduced to the necessity of laboring for support, and rendered amenable to law.

The sayings of Gen. Sheridan on this subject have been reported at some length, and inasumch as he was the chief factor in suppressing the recent Cheyenne uprising, weight is attached to his suggestions. The general=s Indian policy may be thus stated: Allot to each family 320 acres, and the government dispose of the remainder at a minimum rate in their interest. For the money thus acquired, he would issue 4 percent bonds. He estimates that the interest on these bonds would suffice to purchase them wagons and farm implements, pay the wages of good men to teach them farming, and provide them schools and teachers for their children. Last year he says it cost the government $300,000 to keep the boomers out of their country, and this work of expulsion has to be repeated every few months. The lands are valuable, but they bring their owners next to nothing, and statesmanship demands that they be put to better use.

This is about the view that every reasonable person, whose opinion is worth anything, takes of the matter, and there is no doubt that recommendations to this general purport will be made to congress. That body has important business awaiting its action: the tariff; the coinage law (or the silver question rather); the civil service; and the Indian business. All are likely to provoke long debate and take up a good portion of the session. But this is the long session we are approaching, and if the work of lawmaking should be continued into August, it would not be without precedent. It is safe to say that important changes will be made in the administration of Indian affairs, and the people of this city and county are largely interested in the result.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 25, 1885.


A Washington disptach to the Gobe-Democrat, dated the 18th inst., will be of interest

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 25, 1885.


As the time for the meeting in Congress approaches, the affairs of the Indian Territory loom up into prominence. Statesmen, military and civil, have their say in the matter, and newspapers in all parts of the country have ideas to contribute. It is apparent on the surface that a different method of dealing with the Indians will be adopted, and the country is ready for a change. Experience has shown that the reservation system imparts no stimulus to the red men=s energies, there is more land in their occupation than they can put to profitable use, and so they content themselves with doing nothing.

Years ago Gen. Sherman reminded the Indian legislators of the Territory, assembled in general council at Okmulgee, that the American people held the occupants of that favored land responsible for its proper use; and that if they neglected to avail themselves of the advantages, they would have to give way to a people who would show more thrift. The general=s hearers took exception to such plain talk, declaring that they had given a full equivalent for the Territory, that they were secured in its perpetual ownership by solemn treaties, confirmed by acts of congress, and they were under no obligation to please the paleface in their use of the land. Fourteen years have expired since Gen. Sherman made this talk, and the result he predicted has come about.

The population of two states is pressing against the boundaries of this Indian country demanding admission, and people from all parts of the Union are bending their gaze in that direction with the view to securing homes. And as we have before shown in these columns, the Indians are divided among themselves on the question of holding on to their present insecure possession, or having a farm given to each member of the tribe and the remainder sold in their interest.

They see the Osages amply provided for by the sale of their lands, and a similar disposition of their reservations would secure them future provision. All this is known to the administration, and interest is felt in the nature of the recommendations that the president will make to congress. The philanthropists who met at Lake Mohonk lately sent a delegation to the white house to suggest that the message to congress recommend that the Indian lands be allotted in severalty and the present tribal relations broken up. They want the lordly aborigines to be reduced to the necessity of laboring for support, and rendered amenable to law.

The sayings of Gen. Sheridan on this subject have been reported at some length, and inasumch as he was the chief factor in suppressing the recent Cheyenne uprising, weight is attached to his suggestions. The general=s Indian policy may be thus stated: Allot to each family 320 acres, and the government dispose of the remainder at a minimum rate in their interest. For the money thus acquired, he would issue 4 percent bonds. He estimates that the interest on these bonds would suffice to purchase them wagons and farm implements, pay the wages of good men to teach them farming, and provide them schools and teachers for their children. Last year he says it cost the government $300,000 to keep the boomers out of their country, and this work of expulsion has to be repeated every few months. The lands are valuable, but they bring their owners next to nothing, and statesmanship demands that they be put to better use.

This is about the view that every reasonable person, whose opinion is worth anything, takes of the matter, and there is no doubt that recommendations to this general purport will be made to congress. That body has important business awaiting its action: the tariff; the coinage law (or the silver question rather); the civil service; and the Indian business. All are likely to provoke long debate and take up a good portion of the session. But this is the long session we are approaching, and if the work of lawmaking should be continued into August, it would not be without precedent. It is safe to say that important changes will be made in the administration of Indian affairs, and the people of this city and county are largely interested in the result.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 25, 1885.


As the time for the meeting in Congress approaches, the affairs of the Indian Territory loom up into prominence. Statesmen, military and civil, have their say in the matter, and newspapers in all parts of the country have ideas to contribute. It is apparent on the surface that a different method of dealing with the Indians will be adopted, and the country is ready for a change. Experience has shown that the reservation system imparts no stimulus to the red men=s energies, there is more land in their occupation than they can put to profitable use, and so they content themselves with doing nothing.

Years ago Gen. Sherman reminded the Indian legislators of the Territory, assembled in general council at Okmulgee, that the American people held the occupants of that favored land responsible for its proper use; and that if they neglected to avail themselves of the advantages, they would have to give way to a people who would show more thrift. The general=s hearers took exception to such plain talk, declaring that they had given a full equivalent for the Territory, that they were secured in its perpetual ownership by solemn treaties, confirmed by acts of congress, and they were under no obligation to please the paleface in their use of the land. Fourteen years have expired since Gen. Sherman made this talk, and the result he predicted has come about.

The population of two states is pressing against the boundaries of this Indian country demanding admission, and people from all parts of the Union are bending their gaze in that direction with the view to securing homes. And as we have before shown in these columns, the Indians are divided among themselves on the question of holding on to their present insecure possession, or having a farm given to each member of the tribe and the remainder sold in their interest.

They see the Osages amply provided for by the sale of their lands, and a similar disposition of their reservations would secure them future provision. All this is known to the administration, and interest is felt in the nature of the recommendations that the president will make to congress. The philanthropists who met at Lake Mohonk lately sent a delegation to the white house to suggest that the message to congress recommend that the Indian lands be allotted in severalty and the present tribal relations broken up. They want the lordly aborigines to be reduced to the necessity of laboring for support, and rendered amenable to law.

The sayings of Gen. Sheridan on this subject have been reported at some length, and inasumch as he was the chief factor in suppressing the recent Cheyenne uprising, weight is attached to his suggestions. The general=s Indian policy may be thus stated: Allot to each family 320 acres, and the government dispose of the remainder at a minimum rate in their interest. For the money thus acquired, he would issue 4 percent bonds. He estimates that the interest on these bonds would suffice to purchase them wagons and farm implements, pay the wages of good men to teach them farming, and provide them schools and teachers for their children. Last year he says it cost the government $300,000 to keep the boomers out of their country, and this work of expulsion has to be repeated every few months. The lands are valuable, but they bring their owners next to nothing, and statesmanship demands that they be put to better use.

This is about the view that every reasonable person, whose opinion is worth anything, takes of the matter, and there is no doubt that recommendations to this general purport will be made to congress. That body has important business awaiting its action: the tariff; the coinage law (or the silver question rather); the civil service; and the Indian business. All are likely to provoke long debate and take up a good portion of the session. But this is the long session we are approaching, and if the work of lawmaking should be continued into August, it would not be without precedent. It is safe to say that important changes will be made in the administration of Indian affairs, and the people of this city and county are largely interested in the result.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, November 25, 1885.


A Washington disptach to the Gobe-Democrat, dated the 18th inst., will be of interest to our readers.

AProtests,@ says the writer, Anumerous and strong, are reaching the interior department against the changes made in the agenices and post traderships in the Indian territory. It appears that those holding these positions did not consider that licenses to trade would be regarded as coming under the head of political patronage, and they took no steps to secure themselves with the next administration.

ADuring the summer there was considerable pressure brought to bear on Secretary Lamar and Commissioner Atkins, to issue licenses to new men, and there was no pressure to speak of in favor of continuing the old licenses. Some of these applications came from Tennessee and Mississippi polticians known to Mr. Lamar and Mr. Atkins, and as there seemed to be no good reason why the applicants should not have the licenses, they received them. The next step was to nofify the old traders that their licenses would be revoked in December.

AWhen this was done the department officials learned for the first time the full impor-tance of this change. Trade relations were seriously disturbed, and by a dash of his pen large stocks of goods transported to the interior of the Territory were virtually confiscated. Such an outcry has been raised that the Secretary and his Commissioner, who didn=t at all understand what they were doing, would be glad to reverse the action if they could. Their political friends, however, have gone to the Territory with their licenses, and some have already arranged for opening their stores, having obtained goods on credit from Memphis, Kansas City, and Fort Scott. Half a dozen leading Kansas democrats played a prominent part in bringing about this sweeping change of agency traderships. They came on here, represented to the department how valuable it would be from a political standpoint to put good democrats in these positions, and thus secured some of the best of the posts for their own friends. St. Louis will feel the effect of this revocation of the old licenses seriously, for several of the largest agency stores in the Territory were supplied entirely by wholesale houses of that city. The Kansas crowd were engaged on this job very quietly for several weeks, but did little talking on the outside. Governor Glick got the credit of doing a good deal of work for them.@

And the following dispatch, of one day later date, shows who is at the bottom of this movement.

AThe indications are that the agency and post tradership licenses in the Indian Territory have fallen into the hands of a strong combination. Licenses have been issued to some poor and deserving democrats, but behind them is a syndicate having abundant means and full comprehension of the value of trade monopoly conferred by these permits. It is stated that a wealthy Hebrew of New York is at the head of their scheme, and that he has associates in two or three Western cities who have arranged to furnish the stocks of goods and the capital to open the stores as soon as the date for revocation of the old licenses comes round. Secretary Lamar and Commissioner Atkins are innocent of this combination, but some other officials of the department are not.@

Arkansas City Traveler, November 25, 1885.

Leasers Not Interfered With.

It has been a matter of considerable interest of late to know whether the government would respect the leases of cattlemen made by the Cherokee Nation. Last week two teams hauling hay for C. M. Scott from Chilocco Creek to the Walnut River (near this place) were compelled to unload; and the hay baler=s teams, going into the Territory to bale the same hay, were turned back by the soldiers. Others hauling wood and hay were served the same way. Learning the facts, Mr. Scott went to the commanding officer, Capt. J. M. Hamilton, of the 5th cavalry, and presented a lease on 5,043 acres, made by the Cherokee Strip Live Stock Association, of which he is a member, with the Cherokee Nation for four years from Sept. 15, 1884, and asked permission to go ahead with his work. Capt. Hamilton said he had no authority to interfere with the leases of licensed parties and gave a written permit to bale the hay.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 25, 1885.


A Cattle Thief Passes in his Checks.

Some brief mention has been made in the press of the fatal shooting of Frank Pappan, a Kaw half-breed, about two weeks ago. The particulars of the tragedy, as they come to us from the territory, show that a man in Elgin, Kansas, named Lew Waite, had a beef killed in his pasture by Pappan and a companion, named Al Linscott. Depredations of this nature have been extensively carried on at the cattle ranches, and the owners have been on the alert to discover the thieves. Suspicion attached to Linscott and a fellow herder called Barra Kid, it being remarked that cattle mysteriously disappeared whenever they undertook the guardianship of herds. These robberies were talked over in the cow camps, and various theories suggested, but the operators were deft enough in their movements to escape detection. The mystery prompted a young man, named Cy Stevens, who had a taste for adventure, to set himself about the task of discovering the cattle thieves. He hired himself as a cowboy to John N. Florer, whose ranch is on the Osage reservation; and Linscott and Barra Kid being fellow employees, he had an opportunity of overhearing some of their conversation. From the intimations that reached his ears, this amateur detective concluded that these men were concerned in the numerous cattle depredations, but before he could lay any plans to catch them, the parties slipped off to Texas.

Our informant was unable to give dates, but his information is that they returned from their wanderings, and settled down at Shawneetown. Here they made the acquaintance of Frank Pappan, and enlisted his services in their cattle lifting operations. Cy Stevens had mentioned his discoveries to the cattle owners interested, and when the daring raid was made on Lew Waite=s pasture, suspicion was at once directed to the perpetrators. There was a general turn out of the cowboys and Pappan and Al Linscott were corralled in a blacksmith shop. The administration of justice was swift and sure. Revolvers were pointed at them from all sides, and the command given that they hold up their hands. The surprise was complete, and the two men had no chance to parley. Hands were uplifted in token of submission, but it was noticed that the half-breed grasped a revolver. The code of the plains condemns this as an act of treachery, and an immediate fusilade extended him on the earth in the agonies of death.

We have not heard that any proceedings have been instituted against these avengers. Among a herder community, horse and cattle stealing is regarded as a far more heinous offense than murder, and the ridding the neighborhood of such a pest is popularly regarded as an ample justification of the deed.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 25, 1885.

New Machine Gun.

W. W. Eldridge, the gun-maker in the rear of Bonsall=s store, has a contract to manufacture a machine gun, which brings the art of killing to perfection. It is somewhat on the principle of the gatling gun. The model under which the patent was obtained was made in Las Vegas, New Mexico. Scott & Bellis are the patentees. The last named is a citizen of this county, living near Grouse Creek. The weapon is mounted on a tripod stand, and has a metallic frame, to the center of which, in front, is attached a barrel in a water casing; this latter arrangement to prevent the barrel heating. The firing is accomplished by a double wedged cam attached to a crank at the rear. The elevating and depressing of the muzzle are effected by a screw placed underneath the iron frame. The magazine works from left to right, through the metallic frame, and the cartridges are discharged by means of a hammer and firing pin. [NEXT SENTENCE 95% OBSCURED.] The _______ at an ordinary rate of

______ ____ ___ ___, _______ _______ the standard adopted by the government. The whole thing is rotary on the tripod, and will take in the _______ ____ _______ ____ the same as a surveyor=s _____ ______

_____ with this weapon are said to be as effective as 100 men with repeating rifles. Its weight is 100 pounds, and it can be readily carried by two men.

Mr. Eldridge has undertaken the job of making this deadly fire-arm, the price to be paid him is $150, and when completed an exhibition of its action will be given. A liberal price will be paid for volunteers to stand in front and receive the discharge.

[I was utterly intrigued by this item in paper, but could not read part of it...Drat!]

Arkansas City Traveler, November 25, 1885.

Capt. Hamilton with his troop of cavalry started for Oklahoma on Monday. This is in obedience to a recent order from the war department calling attention to the president=s proclamation cautioning all persons and associations of persons against trespassing on that land, ordering all who may be occupying the _____ _____ ____ from. If any refuse

_____ ______ ____ the power of the military is invoked to eject such trespassers by force of arms. The secretary of war in his order to military commanders, requires them to use diligence in enforcing his order, and to clear the unassigned Indian lands of all unauthorized occupants. During Capt. Hamilton=s brief stay in Arkansas City, he showed himself a capable and intelligent officer, and won a favorable opinion from all whom his duties brought him in contact with, by his suave manner of performing an unpleasant duty. Lieut. Bellinger, the only officer with Capt. Hamilton, was detained in the city till the day following, as in the capacity of acting quartermaster to the troop, he was required to superintend the lading of a train of nineteen wagons containing forty days= commissary stores for the command and forage for the soldiers. The small baggage train carrying ammunition and immediate supplies, together with camp and garrison equippage, and the blacksmith=s forge and stoves, accompanied the troops. This shows that the government intends to exercise vigilance through the coming season in keeping intruders off the unassigned Indian lands.

Arkansas City Traveler, November 25, 1885.

Cowley County Jottings.

It has been the custom here for years past in measuring hay, to allow six cubic feet for a ton, and seven cubic feet for a ton of prairie hay. At Osage Agency a contractor endeavored to have his millet measured by this rule, but he was told he must allow eight cubic feet to the ton. A dispute arose, and the millet was measured at six feet and eight feet, and the two lots weighed. The scales proved that it requires eight cubic feet to make a ton. Millet does not pack or settle in the stack like prairie hay.

S. H. Deweese was interviewed a few days ago while plowing in his corn field. He tells that a party of his neighbors, W. S. Voris, Will Christy and his brother, and Rev. Jones, while hunting in the territory, were arrested by soldiers and taken to Fort Reno to give an account of themselves.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, December 2, 1885.


A resolution has been introduced in the senate of the Cherokee national council, to provide for a committee to investigate and report whether the Cherokee nation is charged on the books of the United States with any portion of the payments made on account of the lands west of the Arkansas RiverCthe Cherokee Strip, in other words. A haze of uncertainty pervades the last of three payments made by the government for this land; the Cherokee documents throw no light on the matter, and nothing definite can be learned from the clause in the appropriation act of Congress wherein the money was voted. Col. Phillips, the Cherokee agent who procured the money and pocketed a snug commission on the amount, has been rigorously interrogated by the Indian legislators, but his story that the money was paid to raise the purchase price of the lands bought by the government to provide homes for the friendly tribes located on the strip is not believed, and nothing can be produced from the federal or national archives to corroboate his statement. It is shrewdly suspected that the paleface negotiator was solely solicitous about his divy, and basely betrayed his principles to observe Tago=s injunction, Aput money in thy purse.@ The committee to be appointed under the resolution will be charged with the duty of investigating and reporting whether the Cherokee nation is charged with owing the United States on account of the lands above named. The Murkogee Journal, an opposition organ, regards this as a tossing into the arena of the apple of discord. AA fight is to be made,@ it tells us, Aon the lease of the outlet, and the friends of the members are jubilant over their prospects of success.@ For months past the nation has been rent with the discussion of the question what this last payment was made for, the administration for Bushyhead party insisting that Col. Phillips= story is true, while the Philistines maintain that it was a partial payment on the unassigned lands. That the vote on the proposed re-engagement of Phillips as agent of the Cherokee nation in Washington was almost unanimously negative, is conclusive evidence that the commission appointed by Secretary Lamar to get the hearing on this vexed question, is now looked forward to with interest.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 2, 1885.


And now the Caldwell People Sit Down and Count the Cost.

The boomers are out of luck, and their hopes of enjoying an earthly paradise have dissipated in thin air. Seeing the territory secured to the red tribes, they concluded that the purpose of nature had been thwarted, and that the task devolved upon them of setting things right. In a kind of mutual way they agreed among themselves that the earth was for the ______ ____ ____ were the chosen. ________ _____ _______ left to themselves ____ ____ _____ _____ ____, and gave out that anyone desirous of getting a farm from the heritage of the red men, must join their association, pay tribute to Caesar, and enter into a compact to exclude all others who did not swear fealty to Capt. Couch as king. This farce has been played for a number of years, successive raids being made into Oklahoma, and sometimes a judgment effected which ______ _____ ______

_____ and in the end the military were ordered to be turned loose, and the _______ _______ colonists would be ignominiously expelled.

This bootless errand has detained them from profitable employ, and now they find themselves, on the approach of winter, again turned out of doors, and many of them without a dollar to support their families. They are clustered about in disconsolate groups, cursing the tyranny of the government and inveighing against the degeneracy of the American people in suffering them to be thus driven about. We fear that a great number of these disappointed boomers are so badly demoralized with the wreck of their plans that they have given up all interest in life, and have no higher ambition than to throw themselves on the county during the inclement season for support.

Some of our citizens have said that Arkansas City made a grave mistake in letting these boomers go from our midst. That they made things lively while they were with us, spent money, and brought in crowds to see what kind of people they were. Being offered a bounty, ($6 [?? PAPER HAD $6 0 ?? NOT SURE IF THEY MEANT $6.00, $60.00, OR $600.00 ??] is the sum mentioned) by the businessmen of Caldwell, to remove their camp to that city, the price tempted them; they folded their tents and silently stole away; worst bereavement of all, taking their war organ along with them. What benefit has been derived to that city from their trade and companionship, the Caldwell Journal is forward to reveal. In a long editorial article, headed AWhat the Boomers have Cost Us,@ the following string of grievances is set forth.

AThe two or three hundred boomers that came here from Arkansas City last spring had but very few dollars left upon their arrival. They camped near the town and the few of them who would work under any circumstances engaged in whatever work they could find, but at greatly reduced prices from what our laboring men had been receiving. This reduced our own laborers= ability to purchase, and thereby caused a shrinkage in trade to that extent. Then a few of them put their teams on the road, freighting. This again increased the supply of freighters and reduced the tariff. In haying season these boomers, with no additional expense in a haying camp in the Territory over their camp on Bluff Creek, run the price per ton down so that our hay contractors and farmers could not make decent wages at it, and hence their ability to buy was reduced.

ABy the agitation and racket kept up by the dishonest leaders of the boomers and papers in the east subsidized for the purpose, and other little jealousies, the removal of the cattle men from the Cheyenne and Arapahoe country was effected. This causes the loss to our farmers and freighters of over $70,000 between October 1st, 1885, and February 1st, 1886, in freighting alone of corn supplies to that country. Orders had been filled for between 50,000 and 75,000 bushels of corn to be delivered at the cow camps in that country alone, before the order of removal was made. By these orders being countermanded, the corn market of Caldwell is today fifteen cents a bushel lower than it would have been. This item affects every farmer in the south half of the county, as well as the merchants.

AThe Cherokee Strip men, by the oft-repeated threats of boomers to burn their ranges as soon as grass would burn, and the unqualified expressions of approval of such a course by the boomer organ, have desisted from ordering their supplies of corn and other necessary feed for the winter up to the present time. It would be useless to have their corn sent down and then have their ranges all burned off, as they would have to move their cattle and corn too. In view of the vast fires of the past week that are reported from that country, many of them will not need any corn, as they cannot hold their cattle there. This again reduces the price of corn here and deprives many of our farmers of good strong pay for delivering the corn at the camp, besides receiving fifteen or twenty cents more per bushel than they are now getting on the market.@

Arkansas City Traveler, December 2, 1885.

Will Make Another Attempt.

The four Nimrods, Stacy Matlack, Stephen George, and Drs. Westfall and Cox, who went into the Territory a week or so ago to stock our city market with game, changed their minds when they had traveled out about 35 miles, and concluded to let the poor things live. They reached the Chicaskia where they expected to bag wild duck till they couldn=t rest, but the amphibious bipeds became suspicious of the intentions of the sportsmen, and persisted in keeping at a provoking distance. Prairie chickens, of which they expected such great plenty, were attending a bird convention some miles away, and to get at the larger game would take another day=s travel. The medical gentlemen grew uneasy about this time for fear their patients would get well during their absence, and the mercantile members of the party remembered that collection day was approaching and their books wanted posting. They came back without game, reserving their energies and ammunition for another expedition when they intend to depopulate the woods and streams.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 2, 1885.

Cattle Thieves Arrested.

In our last issue we told about the shooting of Frank Pappan, a Kaw half-breed, by a crowd of cowboys for killing and stealing a beef belonging to Lewis Waite, of Elgin, Kansas. Two men associated with the half-breed in his lawless practices, Al Linscottt and his brother, were taken to Osage Agency for safe keeping, and Agent Hoover telegraphed United States Marshal Rarick to come and take them. He proceeded to the agency on the summons, took the Linscott brothers in charge, and brought them to this city for examination on the charges of cattle stealing and selling liquor to the Indians. Complicity in the theft on Mr. Waite=s pasture was proved against the other Linscott before U. S. Commissioner Bonsall, but Al Linscott was not criminated by the evidence. Both were confined in the county jail, and tomorrow the last named will be examined on the charge of liquor selling. Both men are said to be hard cases, and cattle owners are severe sufferers by their operations.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 2, 1885.


The Story of a Young Man Who Was Invited to Leave.

A week ago a young man arrived in this city from the Territory and rested a day or two at the Occidental Hotel. He gave his name as Ira D. Wiles, aged 23 years, and belonging in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. At the age of ten he left his parental house, and has been wandering the west and south the intervening time. He has a fondness for Indian life, has lived among the Cherokees, Creeks, and Chickasaws, is skillful with his gun, and lives by shooting large gameCdeer, elk, and wild turkeysCfor city markets. He has a pleasing address, is animated in conversation, his wide travel and varied experience having sharpened his intellect.

The story the young man tells is as follows. About two months ago he found himself among the Pawnees, domiciliated with Rousseau Pappan, the interpreter. The tribe treated him kindly, and made his stay pleasant. He pursued his vocation as hunter, meeting with fair success, giving a portion of his spoils to the Pawnees and selling the remainder.

On Monday, the 16th, sub-Agent Mackenzie, in an unnecessarily harsh manner, ordered him off the reservation, and detailed two Indian police to escort him to Otoe. In telling his story, the young man said, AIt was talked at the Pawnee agency that Agent Osborne, at Ponca, had received orders to restrain boomers traveling past his agency to Oklahoma, and eject unauthorized persons. This order, of course, he conveyed to his subordinates. I have no quarrel with his strict performance of duty, but I object to the improper method used. My father is a well known citizen of Pitttsburgh, and I endeavor to behave myself wherever I stay.

AMy ejectment was harsh and immediate. I packed my duds in a valise, and escorted by two Pawnees, who helped me carry my burden, I reached Otoe at noon. Here I took dinner and paid for it, and was delivered over to two Otoes, who escorted me to Ponca, where we arrived at nightfall.

AI went straightway to the agent=s house, where transients are entertained. I told him who I was, and asked to be provided for till the stage came in the next day at noon, that I might ride to Arkansas City. I told him I had money to pay my expenses. But he drove me out of his house, and I spent the night with Le Clair, the chief of police. The next morning, Agent Osborne ordered me off, not allowing me to wait till the stage came, and with two Poncas as an escort, I started for Arkansas City. I left my valise to be brought in by the stage.@

A crowd gathered around in the hotel office while Mr. Wiles told his story, and the question was asked him what he was going to do next.

AI am going home to Pittsburgh,@ he said, Aand the papers in that city will have something to say about the way these ex-Confederates in the Indian service treat loyal citizens. I claim to be a decent boy, if I am away from home, and I don=t propose to be turned out like a dog, without raising some stir about it.@

The political leaning of his auditors was made manifest by the comments his story evoked. APut a beggar on horseback,@ said one.

AThese Georgians don=t know how to treat a white man,@ said another, Athey=re only fit to boss Indians and niggers.@

A third speaker said, AIt costs nothing to treat a man decently. I don=t care how friendless he is, and it always pays in self-respect and future results.@

A fourth speaker chimed in, ABoys, we can stand it, it=s only for four years.@

On being questioned the young man said he had not money enough to pay his fare to Pittsburgh, but he was willing to trust to luck for getting along. At this moment Col. Neff entered the office, who seems to have heard this Nimrod=s statement before, and in his bluff way exclaimed, AI want to send some man to Kansas City with a shipment of stock, who never intends to come back here again.@

This offer seemed providential. The youth readily undertook the charge, and at six the next morning he started on the freight train, his baggage having been brought in by the stage overnight.


Since the above was in type, we have heard the other side of the story from several residents in the territory. It seems that this adventurous young man, whose parents, as he claims, hold a respectable position in an eastern city, is not above becoming a squaw man, and during his residence among the Pawnees he paid his addresses to a dusky belle of that tribe. But he had a rival in his suit, a dashing Pawnee buck, who, to get rid of the paleface, informed sub-Agent Mackenzie of his clandestine doings. It is charged that he procured liquors and dealt them around, and one time was seen circulating about the camp with three bottles of beer in his hands and a flask of whiskey. This story comes to us on hearsay; but whether true or not, the complaint carried to the sub-agent that this Aunauthorized person@ was disturbing the peaceful relations of the tribe, with the added charge that he was a contraband dealer in liquor, was sufficient to justify that offer in ordering him out of the territory. There may have been unnecessary harshness in the manner of doing it, but a man who violates law and abuses hospitality must not be too exacting in his measure of good treatment.

At Ponca, we are also told, he was abusive to Agent Osborne, using profane language in his presence, and threatening dire reprisals to Aupstarts from Tennessee@ when he reached his northern home. We have not an intimate acquaintance with Agent Osborne, but our slight opportunities of knowing the gentleman impress us favorably with his fitness for his position. He has the impulsiveness of the south, and the hasty action this betrays him into, may be the cause of mistakes once in awhile. But his impulses are generous, his manners are pleasing, and we are not willing to believe he would treat anybody with the indignity Mr. Wiles complains of, if sufficient cause had not been accorded for severity.

We have given some space to this incident because the young man=s story of harshness and oppression created an indignant feeling in the minds of those who listened to it, and if he had told the naked truth, no censure would have been too severe for men who, dressed in a little brief authority, use their power to harass and oppress. It is always well to hear both sides.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 9, 1885.

Destructive Prairie Fire.

The prairie fire in the Territory on Friday was terribly destructive, sweeping the entire region of country from Chilocco Creek southward to Stewart=s ranch, on the Salt Fork. Besides the destruction of thousands of acres of prairie, large stacks of hay were burnt, and we hear that some cattle were caught in the flames. Among the sufferers by this wanton act of incendiarism, are Winfield Cattle Co. (Formerly Tomlin & Webb=s), and Pettit, who pastured his herd on the above named ranch, is also a severe loser. The ranches of Hill & Allen, Beach & Pickens, H. G. Chinn, and M. P. Johnson are also burnt over. A furious gale blew at the time of the conflagration, and the flames were carried with railroad rapidity. This leaves a gloomy prospect for carrying the herds through the winter.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 9, 1885.

Ejected by Force at Arms.

J. S. Anderson, of this city, had a small bunch of cattle in Oklahoma, and had put up hay for their winter feed. He was put out by the military some time ago, but made a violent protest against this invasion of his rights, and returning to his ranch, defied the power of the United States to remove him. His vaporing did not seem to scare anybody, however, for on Tuesday of last week he was arrested at Deer Creek, and carried to Ft. Reno for examination before a United States Commissioner. The charges against him were returning to the Indian country after being ejected, and building a ranch there and raising cattle without permission from competent authority. The commissioner bound Mr. Anderson over in $500 to take his trial, but as the bond required to be executed at Wichita, he was delivered over to the military to be taken there. Col. Sumner then informed him he was going to drive out his cattle. There was no resisting this determination, and accordingly P. M. Gilbert, an associate boomer, who had about 70 beeves on Anderson=s ranch, got the cattle together and drove them to the state line. Anderson owned 179 in addition to Gilbert=s 70; but 400 tons of hay, put up for their use, had to be abandoned. Gilbert lives in Oxford, and the herd will probably be wintered in that neighborhood.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 9, 1885.


A Party of Hunters Meet with a Sad Misadventure.

On Sunday afternoon, just before dusk, a wagon drove into town from the south, containing the body of a dead man, and several men accompanying it. They stopped opposite the TRAVELER offfice, and from one of the party the following particulars were gathered.


Our informant gave the name of E. J. Redick, living in Arkansas City. On Saturday about 1 o=clock he came across the deceased, William McCuish, with two others, a man named Donnelly, and Cox=s boy: a lad about 14 years. He found them near Deer Creek, where the grass was burnt, and there was no pasture for their animals for miles around. He told them there was grass in the Big Bend and a good place to camp, upon which they hitched up, and he rode with them to the place indicated. About 7:30 p.m., the party reached pasture, and proceeded to make preparations for camping. On the ground they found a hunter named William Aikman (or Arkman), whose tent was prostrated. Aikman (or Arkman) and Cox=s boy set to work at putting up the tent. Redick and Donnelly busied themselves in gathering materials to start a fire, and McCuish was left to unhitch and unload the wagon, which contained camp equipment, some provisions, and the arms of the party. It was dark at the time, but objects were discernible. While the party was thus engaged, the report of a gun was heard, and the deceased made some exclamations.

His companions ran to the wagon to render assistance and found McCuish extended on the ground and unable to articulate. In a short space of time, not exceeding five minutes, he breathed his last.

They placed the body in the wagon, and the next morning drove to town, a distance of twenty-five miles. Mr. Redick gives as the theory of the party that in taking the guns out of the wagon, the hammer of one of the weapons must have encountered some object which caused its discharge.

Commissioner Bonsall was notified, who searched the pockets of the deceased and found a paper bearing the address of some person in Scotland and two silver dollars. Having no authority to hold an inquest, he requested Justice Kreamer to telephone the coroner at Winfield that he might inquire into the facts of the sad occurrence.

The deceased was a stone mason by trade, and was working on the new buildings in the burnt district. He was Scotch, is described as a fine built, well behaved man, and about 25 years, and had been six months in this country. He had left a wife and 3 children in his native country, whom he supported with a portion of his wages.

From another source we learn that he had a brother living in Winfield, following the same trade, and employed on the imbecile asylum now building in that city. That the deceased visited this brother on Saturday and borrowed his gun, the weapon not being in a safe condition for use. But whether this gun caused his death we can gain no information.

An inquest was held yesterday on the remains in Judge Kreamer=s office, which lasted nearly all day, and a verdict of accidental death was returned.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 16, 1885.

Capt. Bogardus, the world renowned shootist, visited the city on Thursday last, and after visiting around a few hours and talking up the show business, started for the Pawnee Agency. His purpose is to select a number of Indian athletes and make another tour through the west the coming season. The captain won the medal as the champion shot, and believes he has the skill and the nerve to retain it.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, December 23, 1885.

The Globe-Democrat ventures on the following explanation of Indian logic. It appears that the Cheyennes and Arapahoes are surprised and exasperated to learn that the action of the President in upsetting their lease system does not imply that the Government will go on paying them the large sums of annual rent money which they have been receiving from the cattlemen for several years past. They have an idea, evidently, that if it is thought best that their vacant and unproductive lands should not be longer leased for grazing purposes, then the loss thus put upon them should be made good in some other way; and it must be admitted that the process of reasoning by which the aboriginal mind reaches their conclusion is not entirely illogical.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 23, 1885.

Col. Crandall, from Fort Reno, was in town last week, and visited the TRAVELER office in search of back numbers of the Globe-Democrat, thinking they might contain orders from the war department. He reports matters perfectly secure at Cheyenne Agency, there being troops enough present to suppress any uprising that might occur. One hundred and fifty of the most active warriors of that tribe are in government employ as scouts, and are doing useful service. He reports discontent at the loss of the grass money, and admits there may be suffering from diminished rations; but this grim old millitaire evidently is not a philanthropist, and his sole trust is in carbines to keep the hungry red man quiet.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 23, 1885.

The Poncas held a council on Monday, the object of the meeting being to prepare a petition to the great father in Washington, asking him to revoke the license given to the new trader, W. C. Hodges, whom they do not take kindly to, and to renew the license of their old trader, Joseph H. Sherburne, so that he may continue his stay amongst them.

Arkansas City Traveler, December 23, 1885.

The grapes are sour. When the Oklahoma craze was at its highest, it was counted flat blasphemy for anyone to say that a single acre of that coveted land was not the finest under the sun for tillage. But the boom is busted, and Oklahoma scrip is down to zero. Now we are told by several boomers returned from Oklahoma that the soil is sterile and the climate drouthy, and the choice between AOklahoma and hell@ is a hard one to make.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, December 5, 1885.

New Plans For The Indians.

Both Lieut. Gen. Sheridan and Brig. Gen. Miles discuss at length, in their annual reports, the Government=s policy, and the most important suggestions made by the former officer relate to this subject.

Their views do not entirely agree, Gen. Miles being more sanguine than Gen. Sheridan as to the brevity of the time within which the Indians will become self-supporting. The Lieutenant General also pointedly disapproves of Gen. Miles= plan for promptly throwing open the Indian Territory to settlement. He has, however, a project of his own for purchasing the surplus land in all Indian reservations, which is worth consideration. His formal recommendation on this subject merely paraphrases the language used by him in conversation, as reported in the Sun a week ago.

He would give to each family of a tribe of Indians the 320 acres now provided by law in case of actual settlement, and place the family on this plot. Then he would have the Government condemn and buy all the rest of the reservation, good and bad, at the average price of $1.25 per acre. The proceeds should be invested in Government bonds held in trust by the Interior Department, the Indians receiving annually the whole of the interest.

This scheme is among the best of those which are based on awarding to Indians homesteads in severalty under individual deeds. It might require modification in detail. For example, there is no reason for leaving the Indians wholly without land owned in common. A community of the white race has, besides its individual lots of real estate, large reserves for common enjoyment or for future sale. The Indians, with roaming tendencies greater than the white men, and all their traditions and instincts in favor of holding the soil in common, should apparently be permitted to have such a reserve. Nevertheless, after setting aside a liberal number of acres for this purpose, in each case proportioned to the number of the tribe, there would be still left an enormous surplus of unused lands on most reservations.

It has long been evident that the Indians cannot always hold their great reservations without making some use of them. Employing Gen. Sheridan=s illustration, in the Crow reservation there are 4,800,000 acres and but 3,200 or 3,300 Indians. This allows an average of about 1,500 acres for every man, woman, and child. The Cheyennes and Arapahoes have 4,300,00 acres; the Utes, 5,100,000. The surplus of unused lands has been the origin of the grass leases that have given so much trouble and the real reason why the Indian Office connived at these leases doubtless was that instead of seeing the Indian grazing lands going to waste generation after generation, it seemed wiser to have them doing some good, not only fattening thousands of cattle and enriching the stockmen, but producing $50,000 or $60,000 a year, in some instances, for the tribe giving the leases. The wrong done by the Government officials was in conniving at violations of the law forbidding such conveyances. But had the Interior Department gone to congress with a comprehensive, statesmanlike policy, explaining that the original prohibition of Indian leases was made under a different condition of settlement and of industrial interests at the West from that which now exists, congress might have modified the law.

Instead of doing this, the Government allowed private lessees and cattle corporations to unlawfully drive their bargains with the Indians for grazing privileges, whereas under any system of leasing the Government should not vacate its position and responsibilities, as guardians of the red men, but should superintend their important business transactions. Indeed, the best imaginable policy would be that in which the Government should manage the surplus real estate of the red men as a faithful guardian does that of his ward, getting the best immediate income out of it, and holding it for him until he is competent to handle it for himself.

There are undoubtedly practical difficulties, however, in this solution of the question. Gen. Sheridan=s plan of disposing outright of surplus Indian lands at least deserves attention from its liberal valuation of really valuable property. It proposes twice as great a severalty allotment for a family of Indians ten times as high a price per acre as under the Ute bargain, consummated by the Hayes administration. Indeed, in comparison, that enforced Ute trade was spoilation. Existing agreements with the Indians would require the consent of the Indians to Gen. Sheridan=s plan before it could be carried into effect, and whether that consent could be obtained or not is, of course, now only a matter of conjecture. It is very sure, however, that the Government could eventually redispose of the land thus purchased at more than $1.25 an acre, since some of it is now worth $3. The Indians, nevertheless, would derive from their sales a permanent annual income exceeding the entire amount now appropriated by the government for their support. Thus, where the present appropriations are legally due under existing agreements, the annual income of tribes would be more than doubled, and improvements and comforts of many sorts could be made common.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, December 5, 1885.

Glover Algin, a hunter, met with a severe mishap last Friday while down upon the Cimarron in the Territory. He had his hat full of gunpower, pouring it into a can, when he smelled something burning. Turning hastily around he saw that his game bag had caught on fire from being too close to some dying embers. He grabbed the bag with one hand while he held the hat full of gunpowder in the other. The consequence was the powder exploded, and Mr. Algin was knocked almost senseless as well as being severely burned in the face. He came home and has been confined to his bed ever since receiving treatment from a physician for his injuries.


Arkansas City Republican, December 5, 1885.

Bob Maxey swears vengeance againt the poor unsophisticated Lo. Bob lives in the 2nd Ward in close proximity to where the Indians camp when they come to town. Bob has a cow and last week he was unable to obtain any milk from her. He thought that a rather strange occurrence. But the matter was fully explained when on last Friday morning he arose earlier than usual and going out saw an Indian just leaving the side of his cow with a bucket of milk.

Arkansas City Republican, December 5, 1885.

Geo. Washington at Murphysboro.

November 27, 1885.

Mr. Editor, as you seldom hear from this remote locality, I will send you in a few lines for the REPUBLICAN. Our town has had quite a business-like appearance for several days. The boomers and soldiers arrived here from Oklahoma, and since that time it has been their main stopping place. Everything has been booming. We boast of having the greatest variety of scenery of any place for its size on earth, and its future for a thrifty trading point looks very flattering. That your readers may know just where our little town is located, we will say that it may be found on the territory line, 5 miles south of the city. The first store was established here September 1, 1885, by J. M. Murphy, who, since that time, has succeeded in building up a fair trade.

Holland Whitaker, our genial sheep man, left yesterday for Russell County, where he has an interest in a large herd of sheep.

Hay and wood-haulers are again busy hauling out of the Territory since the patrol was removed.

Miss Clara Massy visited in our village on Wednesday. Miss Massy is a niece of Benj. Wing. She is, we venture to say, much the largest girl of her age in Kansas. She is 12 years old and weighs 199 pounds; is far ahead of her years in intelligence, and is a wonder in both size and brightness.

Al. Christy, who is in the doctor=s care at Kansas City, is said to be improving in health.

Our town is somewhat Afluctuating,@ but hope to hold our own until a railroad reaches us.


Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, December 12, 1885.

Accidental Shooting.

DIED. Last Saturday Wm. McCosh, Geo. McDonal, Jas. Reddick, Walter Cox, and Wm. Aikman went to the Territory on a hunting expedition. They had gotten down to where what is known as the big bend in the Arkansas river, some 25 miles from here, and were making preparations to camp for the night. McDonal, Reddick, and Aikman busied themselves in putting up the tent and building the fire. Walter Cox, a boy, watched the teams. McCosh betook himself to the unloading of the wagons. He caught hold of the muzzle of a gun laying at the bottom of the wagon bed and commenced pulling it toward him from the rear end of the wagon. The gun was discharged, the entire contents entering McCosh=s right side just above the hip, and killed him almost instantly.

We are told that the deceased supposed the gun to be unloaded, when he attempted to remove it. The hunting party remained in camp Saturday night and Sunday morning bright and early the sorrowful crowd commenced their journey to Arkansas City, bringing the corpse with them. They arrived here at 4 o=clock Sunday afternoon and the proper authorities were notified of the accident. The coroner was summoned and the inquest was held Tuesday; the verdict returned by the jury was that Wm. McCosh came to his death by accidental shooting, with the gun in his own hands.

The deceased has a brother at Winfield, who was notified of what had occurred. He came down to this city and while the inqurest was being held, got gloriously drunk and raised such a disturbance that Constable Thompson had to remove him from the room to the calaboose. In going down the stairs from Judge Kreamer=s office, the drunken McCosh turned upon the Constable and showed fight. This spirit was soon subdued, however, by Frank, who gave him a lesson in the manly art, a la Sullivan style. What a disgrace the live McCosh was to the cold, dead body of his brother. The man whose heart is so dead that he cannot refrain from drinking intoxicants during the hour of death is indeed in a miserable condition, and so low that he deserves nothing but the scorn of men.

The deceased McCosh was a stonemason and had been working at his trade here for some time. He was a Scotchman by birth and leaves a wife and three children in Scotland. The remains were buried in Riverview Cemetery by order of the Coroner.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, December 12, 1885.

The Winfield Courier gives off this bit of information.

The worst case of cold-blooded murder in the history of this section occurred at Caldwell Monday night. Frank Noyes, a tough case, was the leader among the whiskeyites. Last August he was in jail at Wellington for violating the prohibitory law. At one o=clock Monday night Noyes was roused by some parties who said they had a warrant for him and he must go with them to Wellington at once. His wife, supposing he had been taken to Wellington, boarded the early morning train and went to that place. At 10 o=clock she got a telephone message that Noyes= body had been found at daylight hanging stiff and cold from a beam in the depot stockyards. Nobody seems to know who did it or why it was done. Some think the law-breakers spotted him as giving them away; others think he was suspected to have been at the head of the house burning business that has recently been inflicted on Caldwell prohibitionists. The war on the whiskey question is getting terribly hot at Caldwell. Mr. Glendening, an employee of the Free Press, a radical prohibition paper, has repeatedly received warnings to resign from that sheet. He paid no attention to these anonymous notes till Tuesday morning, when he got another: AThis is the last warning. Beware!@ He quit the Press and will move to Mulvane. There is great indignation over the murder of Noyes.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, December 12, 1885.

The Indian Problem.

There can be no doubt but that Gen. Sheridan=s plan for solving the Indian question is the correct one. He would give each family three hundred and fifty acres, have the government buy the remainder of the reservation, and pay for the land in bonds, the interest on which would go to the Indians. This would be sufficient to support, educate, and civilize them, buy cattle, agricultural implements, and put them on an independent footing. The Indians are now, according to the General, the richest land owners in the country; but the property does them no good as it is not productive. Government action, such as he suggests, is necessary to bring to them the benefits which they should derive from their valuable possessions. General Sheridan=s plan deserves the attention of congress.

Arkansas City Republican, December 12, 1885.

The telephone line connecting Arkansas City with Wichita, Mulvane, Belle Plaine, Wellington, Caldwell, Hunnewell, and Oxford is finished to Winfield, and as we were already connected to the county seat by Ahello,@ we now have communication with all the above named cities. The Courier says the sound is as distinct as with any connection in the city; with the voice at a low ebb, you can hear anything distinctly. This telephone line will be a vast convenience, especially to the newspapers, who will act as each other=s special agents and have, speedily, all important events in this circuit. This is another big step in the Queen City; advancement. H. G. Chipchase, superintendent, says the line is first-class in every respect. It is the hard-drawn copper wireCthe best in the world.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, December 19, 1885.

Cattlemen who do not belong to the Cherokee Strip Association are removing their herds from the Territory by order of the soldiers stationed in the Territory. Cattlemen who have their leases paid up in full are not being molested, but it is the opinion that by spring they will have to go. Love Bros., brought up their cattle Thursday; also Beech Wethers, and several other cattle owners.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, December 26, 1885.

Considerable dissatisfaction exists among the large cattle owners in the city on account of a telegram received from Congressman Warner yesterday to the effect that Secretary Lamar has reconsidered his decision to allow the cattle, at present wintering in Oklahoma, to remain there. If, as the dispatch states, Secretary Lamar insists on their removal, the result, it is claimed, will be very disastrous to the cattlemen, as they have no place to drive them to, and there is no alternative but to let them perish from exposure and want of food.

The telegram was considerable of a surprise for dispatches received a few days ago in response to a telegram sent from this city by W. B. Grimes, served to reassure the cattlemen and led them to think that a hasty removal of their cattle would not be insisted upon.

Kansas City Journal.

Arkansas City Republican, December 26, 1885.

An Indian Territory special to the Kansas City Times says:

The Cheyennes and Arapahoes are becoming very restless and trouble is imminent. The cause of the discontent is the loss of the money derived from the cattle leases. This money had been distributed per capita among the tribes and was the source of pleasure to the Indians and profit to the traders.

When the leases were abrogated and the cattle driven off the reservation, payment of course ceased, and the Indians who were loudest in denouncing the cattlemen and urging expulsion are now complaining about the changed conditions.

Reports from Ft. Reno say that no outbreak is likely to occur in that vicinity, but other parts of the reservation are far from being quiet. The issue of annuity goods, which was made recently at Darlington for the first time in three years, was expected to have a soothing effect; but on the contrary, led to much ill feeling among the members of the two tribes.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, January 2, 1886.

Dr. O. B. Dix and Capt. Owens are inveterate traders. The former was taught his occupa-tion in the hills of Hoop-pole Township, Posey County, Indiana; the latter gained his instruction in the art in the Jayhawker state. Last Wednesday these two Avets@ met, and after considerable parleying, consummated a trade. The Doctor was once the proud possessor of a gold watch and chain. The Captain, before the trade, had the proud distinction of being the sole proprietor of an unbranded, spavined, ring-boned, cocked ankle, knee sprung, highly pedigreed Texas Bronco, bearing painted saddle and collar marks. This peculiar animal was the dam of what Capt. said was a colt. The colt was about the size of a Newfoundland dog and must have been raised as a pet. True to his Hoosier training, the Doctor asked Aboot.@ The Captain had in his possession a relic in the shape of an Enfield rifle, which he had used in the dark and bloody days of bleeding Kansas. This was the Aboot.@ The trade was made, and now there is only one happy soul of the twain. Doc has shouldered his Enfield rifle and has gone to the wild, wild Territory south to drown his sorrows in playing solitaire. Before taking his departure he bequeathed his bronco to the Imbecile Asylum at Winfield for a hat rack. The colt he sent to a Bostonian Institute as the Amissing link@ (from his watch-chain). At last accounts, poor unwary Doc was standing on the back of the raging Chicaski, muttering:

ALife is but an empty dream,

And Broncos, colts, and guns are not what they seem.@

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, January 2, 1886.

Lying About the Indians.

WASHINGTON, December 26, 1885. AFor the past few months,@observed Com-missioner of Indian Affairs Atkins, in talking about the dispatch in the morning papers of the attack upon a party of Indians near El Paso, and the alleged killing of eleven Indians, AI have not found in the papers a single dispatch coming from the West concerning the Indians that was true. The fact is it is difficult to get the truth about these Indian troubles. All these statements are lies. For instance, we have received no information from our agent in regard to this reported massacre or about any of the others that have been reported in the papers for the past four months. There are people out West who are interested in having such exagger-ated and untruthful reports regarding the Indian troubles published, and that accounts for the lies that are sent out.@

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, January 2, 1886.

Trespassing on Indian Land.

WASHINGTON, Dec. 21. The president today sent to the senate a message transmitting a communication from the secretary of the interior submitting a draft of a bill to amend the revised statutes relating to trespass upon Indian lands. It makes it an offense punishable with the forfeiture of the outfit for any person to enter any Indian lands without authority of the law. Emigrants peacably passing through such lands are exempted from the penal provisions of the bill.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, January 2, 1886.

The latest reports from Washington would indicate that the Republican senate is not going to be Adeceived@ by any of the vacation appointments, as the president confesses he has done. Inquiry is to be made throughout the communities in which the nominees live as to their record and especial fitness for the offices to which they have been nominated. This is the right course to pursue, and will result, it may be predicted, in some startling revelations of the extremes to which Democratic rapacity has gone.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, January 2, 1886.

The cattlemen whose cattle we reported as being removed from the Territory last week have been taken back. Mr. Wethers, one who had his cattle removed, came into our office one day this week and alleged that the cattle were not taken from the Strip because of a failure to pay the tax lease. But that it was a scheme advanced by the large owners in the association to drive the smaller ones out.

Arkansas City Republican, January 2, 1886.



Rights of the Indians Regarded; Area of the Territory;

Indian Statistics; The Propositions Submitted for the

Action of Congress.

The Kansas City Times of a late date contained the following letter from Hon. Sidney Clarke, explaining the provisions of the new Oklahoma bill submitted to Congress.

LAWRENCE, KANSAS, December 22. Having received numerous inquiries from different sections of the country relating to the bill prepared by Captain Couch and myself for organizing the new Territory of Oklahoma, I desire through the columns of the Times to explain its main provisions and to give some reasons why it ought to receive the prompt and favorable consideration of Congress.

In the first place, let me say, the bill has been prepared with a strict regard for the rights of the Indians under the old system of treaty stipulations, and fully recognizes all the legal and equitable obligations of the United States due to said Indians under former agreements of every kind. The boundaries of the new Territory are fixed according to the present limits of the Indian Territory on the north, east, and south, but including on the west the public land strip which extends to the east line of New Mexico. The total area of the new Territory, according to the estimates published by the Indian Department, would be nearly 48,000,000 acres. It would be larger than the state of Missouri, more than twice as large as the state of Indiana, nearly twice as large as the state of Ohio, and exceeding by 3,000,000 acres the five states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New York. The present population, consisting of Indians, half-breeds, and a large percent of whites associated with the tribes, is estimated at 76,000, though in consequence of the dishonest methods which have been practiced in taking the census, 65,000 would be a more accurate estimate. It is safe to say that the Indian population of the Territory, exclusive of the whites, is less by several thousand than one-half of the present population of Kansas City.

The Chickasaws, Choctaws, Cherokees, Creeks, and Seminoles, known as the five civilized tribes, occupy about 19,000,000 acres. They claim a population of 60,000, but it would be safe to place the number at 50,000, with a probability of an overestimate at that. The same uncertainty prevails in regard to the number of small tribes, as was demonstrated in the recent count of the Cheyenne and Arapahoes by Inspector Armstrong. In this case the tribes had been numbered on the books of the Indian Bureau as follows: Cheyennes, 3,700; Arapahoes, 2,198. If the same accurate count could be had of all the Indians in the Indian Territory, a large percentage of the boasted Indian population would undoubtedly vanish like dew before the sun. Outside of the reservations of the five civilized tribes, there are in the Indian Territory 9,991,167 acres of unoccupied land, without the shadow of Indian occupancy, which belongs to the United States, and the balance of the Territory is covered by reservations assigned to the small tribes, several of them numbering less than 100, and with a few exceptions, all of them are able, under the protection of good government, to live upon homesteads and take care of themselves. Scattered as they now are upon vast reservations, and practically encouraged in idleness and vice by our present Indian policy, they are without any proper protectionCthe prey of dishonest agents, speculators, syndicates, and traders. While all these IndiansCcivilized and uncivilizedCare the wards of the Government, and entitled to its protection, Congress has thus far denied them the blessings of civil government, and the legitimate result is a condition of things disgraceful alike to the past administration of Indian affairs and to the age in which we live. Criminals of all kinds, from all sections of the country, flock to the Indian Territory for a safe refuge, and their crimes run riot and generally go unpunished. Courts located at several points, outside of the Territory, are of little use, compared with the constant demand for the efficient administration of justice, and the decent protection of life and property. In a word, the exclusion of civilization from this fine region has left a black spot in the center of the continent, without law and order, resulting in the fearful demoralization of the Indians, the encouragement of crime, the cheapest estimate of human life, the arrestation of educational and religious progress, the obstruction of inter-state commerce, and to the unnecessary perpetuation and encouragement of barbaric habits and customs, which have no rightful place in our beneficent system. AUnless industry is a myth, and enterprise a crime,@ and barbarism better than civilization, it is the first duty of Congress and of a reform administration to wipe this black spot from the map of the United States, and by the establishment of the necessary Governmental machinery, open the way for better things.

This is the object of the bill we have prepared organizing the new Territory of Oklahoma. It provides for all the departments of a complete Territorial Govern-mentCLegislative, Executive, Judicial. In this respect it is not unlike the organic acts of the Territories of Kansas, Colorado, Dakota, and Wyoming, with the exception that the rights and status of the Indians are more explicitly preserved and protected.

The following is the language of the bill on this point, and is so plain that it precludes all possibility of misconception: AThat nothing in this act shall be construed to impair the rights of person or property now pertaining to the Indians in said Territory, as to include any territory occupied by any Indian tribes to which absolute title has been conveyed by patent from the United States under treaty stipulations without the consent of said tribe; but all such territory shall be excepted out of the boundaries and constitute no part of the Territory of Oklahoma, until said tribes shall signify their assent to the President of the United States to be included within the said Territory of Oklahoma.@

It will thus be seen that the bill makes no change in regard to the lands, laws, and customs of the Indians, only as they may voluntarily negotiate with the commission authorized for the purpose.

So far as the establishment of a Territorial Government is concerned, there can be no question about the right of the United States to do so. Most of the tribes have given consent in former treaties, though this important fact seems to have escaped the attention of Congress and the Indian Department.

Article 7 of the treaty of 1865 [?? COULD NOT REALLY READ THE YEAR...PRINT TOO SMALL AND INDISTINCT] with the Choctaws and Chickasaws contains the following: AThe Choctaws and Chickasaws agree to such legislation as Congress and the President of the United States may deem necessary for the better administration of justice, and the protection of the rights of person and property within the Indian Territory.@

In article 8 the Indians agree that Aa court or courts may be established in said Territory, with such jurisdiction and organization as Congress may prescribe.@

The same provisions are substantiated in the Seminole and other treaties, and are clearly an assent on the part of the Indians to the establishment of a civil government whenever the same may be required in the judgment of Congress. But the assent of the Indians to such leg-islation is by no means necessary. A long line of statutes and court decisions affirm the right to establish a Territory Government like that proposed, and the administration of justice and the rights and interests of both the Indians and the Government imperatively demand it.

The sections of the bill which dispose of the unoccupied land in the new Territory, and open the same to actual settlers only, are so manifestly good that they ought not to be the subject of controversy. As before stated, these unoccupied lands ceded to the United States by Indians comprise 9,991,767 acres, and adding the public land strip of 3,673,000 acres, we have a total acreage of 13,664,767 for the immediate use of actual settlers.


There is no longer any doubt about the absolute ownership by the United States of the famous Oklahoma country, which was ceded by the Creeks and Seminoles by the treaties of 1866.

Secretary Lamar states in his report just published that Athe two cessions combined aggregated 5,571,410 acres,@ and that Athe Indians have been paid therefor according to agreement.@ A portion of the cession has been assigned to the occupancy of other Indians, but about 3,000,000 acres remain subjected by the bill to the operation of the homestead laws. There is no question about the title to the public land strip. It is a part of the territory ceded to the United States by the State of Texas in 1850. It has never been attached to any Territory or Judicial District, and is therefore entirely without a government of any kind. The bill disposes of it to actual settlers in the same manner as the Oklahoma land.

I now come to the unoccupied Cherokee Strip, west of 96 degrees of longtitude, and which was ceded to the United States by the treaty of July 18, [?] 1868 [?], and for which only part payment has been made. This body of land comprises more than 6,000,000 acres. An examination of the record will show that it is a question of much doubt whether the Cherokees ever had any original title to this land. It was at first regarded as an Aoutlet@ over which the Cherokees were allowed to pass on their hunting expeditions after buffalo and other game. At that time the Government and the Cherokees were ignorant of the country to the west, and knew very little of its geography or extent. Out of this recognized Aoutlet,@ this right of way to the hunting grounds of what was then regarded as the great American desert has grown the present title of the Cherokees to the land west of 96 degrees of longtitude. The Indians have got the advantage of the Government, obtained recognition for something they did not own, and have thus built up a kind of title, which is not overburdened with equity; and which does not demand a very liberal compensation for its relinquishment. Nevertheless, we have drawn the section disposing of the strip with extending liberality to the Cherokees. The land is opened to actual settlers only, in tracts not to exceed 160 acres to each settler, at the uniform price of $1.25 per acre. A continuous residence of one year is required in order to obtain title. The money is to be placed to the credit of the Cherokees on the books of the treasury, less the cost of sale, and the amount heretofore appropriated to the Indians in part payment for said lands. This would give the Cherokees at least $7,000,000, which is more than double the sum they would have received if all the promises of the treaty of 1866 [?] had been carried out, and would make them the most wealthy people per capita in the world.

Under the present illegal lease system, the Cherokees receive only $100,000 annually for the use of the strip, whereas the interest on the $7,000,000 they would receive from settlers, invested at the rate of four percent, per annum, would bring them the sum of $350,000, or $250,000 in excess of what they now receive.

One other section of the bill remains to be considered. It provides for a commission of five persons. The duties may be summarized as follows.

FirstCTo enter into negotiations with the several Indian tribes within the limits of Oklahoma Territory for the purpose of securing the assignment of lands in severalty, and for the purchase by the United States of the relinquished and unoccupied lands.

SecondCTo attend to all matters relating to the settlement of the Indians upon homesteads, and to their education, civilization, and citizenship.

ThirdCTo enter into any agreements necessary to accomplish the purposes of the organ c [??] act and to report the same for the action of Congress. [DO NOT UNDERSTAND THIRD ITEM AT ALL! Do they mean organization act???]]

This commission and the duties devolved upon it harmonize with the views of the President as expressed in his message. It seems to me this bill in all its provisions ought to be highly satisfactory to the Indians. As one of its originators, I have kept this point constantly in view while at the same time doing justice to the people. It should be remembered that the treaty power has been swept away never to return. The Indian tribes are no longer recognized as independent nations. In 1871 Congress declared Athat hereafter no Indian nation or tribe within the territory of the United States shall be acknowledged or recognized as an independent nation, tribe, or power with whom the United States may contract by treaty,@ and this is now the law of the land. The Supreme Court has decided in more than one case that a subsequent law is superior to a treaty.

The Indians in the proposed Territory must see that to further resist the beneficent influences of a Territorial Government and the settlement of the unoccupied lands would be fatal to them. Not even the Congress of the United States, supreme in its powers under the constitution, is strong enough to stop the onward march of our civilization. The speculating syndicates, controlling public officials, and defying the law, may be successful today, but millions of American homes will be triumphant tomorrow.

There is still another and most conclusive reason why Oklahoma should be organized and settled. At present it is a Chinese wall, a fatal obstruction to the completion of the vast railroad system of the central portion of the continent. The railroad is one of the most potent civilizers of States and people. It should be allowed to find its way from East to West, and from North to South through all parts of the Territory. The broken links between Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, and the Gulf of Mexico should be supplied. These lines of transportation are justly entitled to receive the magnificent benefits that would come from the rapid increase of population and wealth which would surely follow the legislation contemplated. So also with the trunk lines connecting us with the Southwestern Territories, Western Texas, Old Mexico, and the Pacific States. The State of Kansas would be largely benefitted by an immense increase of population, stimulated to move in this direction. The demand for supplies of all kinds, while Oklahoma was being settled, would be enormous. I do not hesitate to say that I believe that the business of Kansas City would be increased by many millions annually from the new Territory, and that in less than five years at least 100,000 people would thereby be added to her population.

Every reason connected with good government, the suppression of crime, the civilization and happiness of the Indians, the rights of the home seekers of America, the impartial enforcement of law and justice, the perfection of inter-state commerce, and with national honor and self-respect, conspire to urge the organization of the Territory of Oklahoma. I am not wedded to any particular bill, though the one we have prepared is comprehensive in all its provisions, and against which I am confident it is impossible to make any legitimate objections.


Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, January 16, 1886.

T. G. Hill came up from his ranch down in the Territory Wednesday. He reports the storm as being much severer in the Territory than here. He says snow was one-third deeper there. He found his cattle all alive. The Rainwater Cattle Co., lost pretty heavily of their through cattle. The Wyeth cattle company lost 30 head in one bunch. Cattlemen owning through cattle lost heavily. The ice in Salt Fork was almost 13 inches thick. The storm was the most terrible known to cattlemen and another one of similar caliber will work fearful damage to cattle owners.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, January 16, 1886.

Capital Interested in Oklahoma.

Kansas City Times. A valuable Apointer@ to friends of the Oklahoma movements may be found in the present status of the Missouri, Kansas and Texas railroad stocks. When the Gould party recently put Texas Pacific into the hands of a receiver, the occasion was in some occult way made to produce a boom in Kansas and Texas.

During the boom Mr. Hoxie, the great cattleman, and other holders, sold a large number of shares to New York and Boston gentlemen. Within the past few days the stock has tended downward much to the chagrin of the buyers, and the best hope of a favorable reaction which will enable them to get even is the opening of the Indian Territory to settlement. With its advantageous position as the only line already in operation across the Territory, if Congress should adopt any of the plans proposed for breaking up the reservation system and opening the country to settlers, the Kansas and Texas stock would immediately rise in value and the New York and Boston capitalists would make money.

Being businessmen and not philanthropists, when their pockets are to be affected, these gentlemen will use all their influence for the sensible dealing with Indian questions, which the west has long desired.

We may expect a somewhat changed feeling in the east about Oklahoma this winter. The boomers are rather shy of capitalists and corporations as a rule, but the event may prove that Mr. Hoxie has struck the opening wedge a hearty blow and that certain capitalists will toil industriously for an early settlement of the Territory.

Arkansas City Republican, January 16, 1886.

Thursday of last week, the coldest day ever known in Kansas, Marshal Crocker, Tom Runyan, Geo. Crocker, and an employee on the farm of Mr. Crocker, drove from his ranch down in the Territory some 25 miles to their home near Bitter Creek post office. Mr. Crocker froze his chin; Mr. Runyan the fingers on one of his hands; the junior Crocker, his cheeks, and the employee was frozen pretty much all over. They have all recovered from their frozen condition.

Arkansas City Republican, January 16, 1886.

At last in the annals of history the banana peeling has secured a rival. The sleet of Thursday made walking almost impossible. For the last two days sinners as well as Christians have stood on slippery ground. At least Maj. Woodin has that opinion. While standing on the corner with his cane behind him for support, gently conversing with a friend as to the ups and downs in life, the Major was suddenly startled to find that his support had been gradually slipping from under him, until, alas! It was too late to stop the downfall of mankind. Unfortunately for the Major, he was on his way back to the livery barn from the drug store with a big bottle of castor oil in his pistol pocket, which he had first purchased for the lubrication of buggies. Our readers can imagine the result. Even now when the jolly Major sits upon a chair, he is almost sure to slip off from the effect of the oil.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, January 23, 1886.

Warner=s Indian Bill.

This morning the Journal publishes the full text of a bill introduced in congress by Representative William Warner, providing for the settlement of the Indian land question.

Mr. Warner proposes to create a commission to consider all just claims of the Indians, having fixed their rights under the laws of the United States, to provide eighty acres of land from the public domain for each member of the tribe or band that shall agree to the terms of settlement. The lands thus set aside shall be inalienable for the period of twenty-five years, or until such time as the president may deem it wise to remove the restriction.

The value of the interest the Indians may have in lands not allotted to them must be appraised and a fund created to be held by the United States in trust for the benefit of the Indians. Said fund to bear interest at the rate of 4 percent per annum. The interest and principal of the fund thus created must be used for the benefit of the Indians in advancing their agricultural and educational interests.

The surplus lands obtained from the Indians in this manner shall, as soon as practicable, be opened to settlement under the general land laws of the United States.

It is evident that the Indian question must soon be settled in accord with more economical methods in the management of the public lands, and more intelligent treatment of the Indian wards of the nation.

Mr. Warner=s theory in regard to the situation is correct in principle, and aims at a just treatment of both the Indians and the people of the United States who are responsible for the management of the public domain.

The probationary period provided for by Mr. Warner=s bill is one of the best features. It gives the Indians full opportunity to prove their capabilities as individual land owners, and at the same time, provides against the contingency of failure.

The bill is short and to the point. Its passage would be a most important move in the right direction, and its enforcement would soon clear up the many complications now connected with the management of the Indians. Kansas City Journal.

Arkansas City Republican, Saturday, January 23, 1886.

Chas. Custer, a Tonkawa chief, was in the city the first of the week on his way to Washington, D. C. He put up at the Central Avenue hotel. Monday night he got some man to go and get him some whiskey and Charles proceeded to get drunk and go to sleep. Tuesday morning when he waked up and counted his money, he found he was out $29, which he claimed someone had appropriated. Accordingly City Marshal Gray was ordered to arrest J. C. Anderson. He was taken before Judge Kreamer; but the Indian said he was not the man, when but a few moments before he had said he was. All parties were turned loose. On the stand the Indian picked out Tommy Braggins as the man who bought the whiskey for him. Tommy never saw the red-skin before and only happened to be sitting in the courtroom at the time of the trial. This proved conclusively that Chas. Custer did not know what he was talking about. But one thing was certain, that Charles had been on a drunk and was not entirely sober when he was on the stand.

Arkansas City Republican, January 23, 1886.

The Cherokee Lease.

Prominent Cherokees are taking steps to have the lease of what is known as the Cherokee Outlet, made on July, 1883, to a cattle syndicate [Cherokee Strip Live Stock Association], set aside, on the ground of fraud and the lack of compensation. The lease covers a large amount of territory embracing all the unoccupied Cherokee lands west of the Arkansas River and was made by Chief Bushyhead in accordance with an act passed by a Cherokee council, for a term of five years. The amount of rent to be paid is $100,000 a year, which was to be divided per capita among the Cherokees. The amount of land embraced in the lease was upwards of 6,000,000 acres.

The Cherokees claim that the bill was rushed through the council hastily and without being understood by the Cherokees unable to speak English, and that its passage was obtained through fraud. If the lease is set aside, it will place the cattlemen in the same position as those in Oklahoma, and unless a new lease can be obtained, they will be forced to step down and out. Emporia Republican.

Arkansas City Republican, January 23, 1886.

The Dawes Indian Bill.

WASHINGTON, Jan. 15. The bill of Senator Dawes, in relation of trespassers on Indian lands, provides that every person, who without the authority of the law, enters and shall be found upon any Indian lands with intent to occupy any part of it, shall for the first offense pay a fine of not more than $500 and be imprisoned at hard labor not more than one year, or both, in the discretion of the court; and for every subsequent offense, the penalty is a fine of not more than $1,000 and not less than $500, and be imprisoned at hard labor for not more than two, or less than one year. The wagons and teams and outfits of the trespassers shall also be forfeited.

Arkansas City Republican, February 20, 1886.

Notes from Kansas City Times.

Frank Jackson writes to Oswego friends from Arkansas City, Kansas, that he and a party of companions were in the Indian Nation during the severe storm of last month and for three days they subsisted upon a few biscuits; and to prevent themselves from being frozen, they had to lie down and let the snow cover them. There are a thousand people in Arkansas City now waiting for the Oklahoma country to be opened for settlement.

Arkansas City commenced Sunday to blow up the Arkansas River with dynamite and has since been whaling away. The ice on the river was thicker than ever before and a terrible ice gorge was anticipated, in which case the long bridge above the dam must go. James Hill and the city council got up this dynamite scheme. The ice next to the dam, of course, would be last to go, giving opportunity for the tremendous gorges to pile up and demolish the bridge. Holes were drilled in the ice, dynamite cartridges inserted with a fuse attached, when everybody would get into the Territory while the thing went off. It knocked Ablue blazes@ out of the ice and the 500 pounds of dynamite will clear the ice from next to the dam and bridge, giving the gorges a rapid descent over the dam on the water=s swift bosom. It was a fine scheme and will save the bridge.

[Note: It was a good idea and almost worked. However, a previous article shows that several spans of the bridge collapsed. Too bad there are two missing issues of paper.]

Arkansas City Republican, February 20, 1886.

Will Beck, Arthur Bangs= =bus rustler, went before Judge Snow yesterday and plead guilty to having disturbed the peace of Miss Dora M. Beau, from Arkansas City, and was mulct to the tune of $22.75. The story as told by the young lady to our reporter was that there seemed to be considerable rivalry between Mr. Bangs= business, that when she got off the train at the Santa Fe depot, she asked Paris what the fare was to the city, when he said 25 cents. She stepped into his =bus and took a seat, when Beck took her satchel from her hand and started for his own =bus, telling her to Acome on,@ but she told him to bring back her satchel as she was going to ride up with the man here [Mr. Paris]. Beck told her that she never would get the satchel back if she did not ride in his =bus, and took her satchel off with him. She swore out a warrant for his arrest, on charge of disturbing her peace, and also replevined her satchel. The first case has been disposed of by Beck=s pleading guilty. The civil case on replevin will come off Saturday. The =bus boys should not carry their contest for business to such an extent as this. The public have some rights as well as =bus conductors. We are satisfied that Mr. Bangs does not uphold his employees in any such proceedings as this. Daily Visitor.

Arkansas City Republican, February 20, 1886.

Monday night the council passed an ordinance against prostitution. Thursday Mollie Anthony, Jennie Jones, and Dora _____, all professionals from Winfield, were taken in by Marshal Gray under its provisions. They were taken before Judge Bryant and plead Aguilty.@ Each was fined $10 and costs. Jennie Jones and Dora _______ paid, but Mollie Anthony asked for an extension of time. She was returned in custody. These women had their resort near Rosenberg=s restaurant.

Arkansas City Republican, February 20, 1886.

The REPUBLICAN does not advocate the uses of dynamite in all cases, but there are many in which its use is justifiable. A short time since two girls who cared naught for their woman-hood appeared in the 1st ward and opened up a house of ill fame. In a few days the citizens gave them notice to leave. The girls refused and in a night or so afterward they were very much surprised to hear a very loud report and at the same time have their shanty picked up and whirled around off the foundation. Giant powder did it, and now the girls have gone. That is the way houses of prostitution disappear in ward No. 1.

Arkansas City Republican, February 20, 1886.

Col. D. B. Dyer, ex-Indian agent and >offensive partisan,= has concluded to make Kansas City his home, and purchased a residence in Dundee Place, where he is now residing. Col. Dyer was an excellent official and is a thorough businessman. He has made several investments in the city, and proposes to become an active every day citizen. Col. Dyer displays good judgment in coming to Kansas City, and will be cordially welcomed.

Kansas City Journal.

[So now we definitely know...his name was Dyer, not Dwyer.]

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, January 6, 1886.


A mugwump placidity is really refreshing. Here we have the editor of Harper=s Weekly commenting on the removals from office in the Indian service, and searching his true inwardness to determine whether all these changes are in conformity with civil service rules. The names of sixty United States agents are borne on the rolls of the Indian bureau, of whom on October 1st, thirty-one had been removed. It is given to the people of this section to know that in most of these cases honest, efficient and experienced men have been displaced to make room for others, mostly from the South, whose fitness for the responsible duties they were appointed to fill was not considered, and whose sole claim to preferment was their political principles. The turning out of the former agents was immediately followed by a clean sweep of the employees, and thus the administration of the affairs of the red tribes is now entrusted to a set of men who know nothing of their habits, who can only communicate with them through an interpreter, and who have no devotion to their well being. The nicely adjusted service, which has been fifteen years growing into form and shape, is all knocked to pieces, and men introduced to fill it who are hungry for emoluments, and whose sole desire is to make as much as they can out of the employment, knowing that at the end of their time, they are pretty certain to be called on to give way to more competent men.


Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, January 27, 1886.

Capt. Couch, when he appeared before our board of trade a week or so ago, avowed his anxiety to get to Washington; the Weaver bill, as he stated it, needing earnest laborers to ensure its passage by congress. But later dispatches from the national capital show that the Oklahoma question is not without its friends, and the world will drift along though the boomer chieftain should not be on hand to shove. At a recent meeting of the house committee on Territories, General Weaver spoke a piece in advocacy of his measure, and Representative Townshend, of Illinois, also urged the merits of his bill. Half a dozen bills are before the committee, all having for object the organizing of a territorial form of government for the Indian country, and parceling out the unassigned lands to white settlers, but differing somewhat in details. It is thought the committee will report in favor of creating a territorial government and allotting the lands in severalty, but the interest of the present occupants will be guarded, and due respect paid to the treaties. There is a strong feeling among the Indians to dispose of their surplus lands, but proper time will be taken and they will be encouraged rather than forced to become citizens.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 27, 1886.

Capt. Hamilton with his troop of the Fifth cavalry, which left Ponca shortly after New Year=s, is now stationed at Fort Russell, where his troopers are employed driving out the cattle. This may be fun for the boys, but it is ruinous to cattle owners, whose stock should be left undisturbed at this inclement season.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 27, 1886.

A correspondent in the Territory reports the following disaster as of recent occurrence, without giving date. The Wyeth company=s herd was found drifting the other day along the fence which enclosed their pasture. In crossing a small stream, the banks of which were steep and the water miry, the cattle in the rear crowded those in front into the creek, where they bogged. The herd passed over their bodies, using them as a bridge, and thirty were smothered. Having crossed the creek, the cattle drifted along the fence, and one animal, trying to get over it, became impaled and froze to death. Another was caught by the leg and suffered a like fate. Other losses are reported to cattle owners in the Territory, but I am not able to give particulars.

Arkansas City Traveler, January 27, 1886.

Capt. Hamilton, in command of the troop of the Fifth cavalry, stationed at Camp Russell, came near losing some of his men by the cold during the worst weather last week. As the information comes to us, one of his troopers allowed his charger to get away and the man attempted to hoof it into camp. He lost his way and failed to put in an appearance at roll call. The next morning a detail of four men was sent out to hunt the missing soldier, who also lost their bearings, and this party lay out all night. The missing man and those sent in pursuit of him finally reached camp without serious injury from the frost. But lying out at night without adequate covering with the mercury below zero, is certainly a hazardous adventure.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 10, 1886.

From Our Exchanges.

WINFIELD VISITOR the 3rd: The first train in since the snow was a freight on the Santa Fe. It started from Arkansas City about six o=clock yesterday morning. They put on a snow plow and started out; but when they got out about three miles, they found themselves running around over the prairie and perhaps would not have got back on the track yet if they had not run up against a mound, which stopped the train. They backed up on the track, and arrived at Winfield about 11 o=clock, a.m., today, having been some twenty-eight hours on the road.

CHEYENNE TRANSPORTER: A government surveying corps is here from Washington with instructions from the Interior Department to resurvey certain boundary lines of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe reservation. The exact lines have long been in dispute, and the party comes to settle the matter. The party is in charge of Col. Majors.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 10, 1886.


Their Language, Nomenclature, and Other Peculiarities.

The people of Kansas living on the border, so closely connected both in business interests and location with the Indian Territory and its dusky inhabitants, probably entertain as vague ideas of the red men, and are as ignorant of their many superstitions, manner of government, and living, etc., as people living in the eastern states so far removed from this much talked of people.

Thinking that a few lines from this part of the country would be to a certain extent, interesting to you many readers, I will give you a few peculiarities characteristic of these people.

I have been a resident among the Osages for a number of years, and it is of this tribe I desire to speak. They are noted for their aptness in naming people, towns, locations, etc., and the names they give, beside being picturesque, are applicable as describing some prominent characteristic.

A great many of the older towns in Kansas have Osage names, but the name is hardly recognizable to the Indian, as spoken by the white man. Neodesha is an Osage word, but should be spelled Neo-tah-shin-kah, meaning Little Islands.

Arkansas City has the very pretty name of Ne-scah-scah-towah, meaning rippling water. It very likely gets this from the Walnut, as from its mouth up the stream some distance, there is very little current, and the action of the wind makes almost constantly a ripple on the water.

A little town on the Arkansas above Arkansas City is called by them Ne-Ne-skah, meaning white springs.

The name of Winfield is a very peculiar one, and they tell a strange story about the naming of the place.

The legend as told me is as follows: Long before the white men came to the country, the Indians traveled to and from their reservation to the buffalo country west, and one of their trails led across the present town site of Winfield. Near the ford on the Walnut was a great camping ground of the tribe. A large hole filled with water near the ford supplied drink for their ponies, and they were in the habit of driving the animals in to water; and for a swim. They say on one occasion, while quite a number of ponies were in swimming water, a large animal came to the surface and took one of them down under the surface, and they never saw it again. They were ever after afraid to water there.

Thus the name of the town, Wah-grooskah-ope-sha, wild animal ford.

Independence bears the name of Pa-she-chi-towah, hay house town, as the first settlers there built their houses of hay.

Che-to-pah means four lodges. And so I might enumerate.

This same peculiarity is also noticeable in their own names. They are under the same tribal organization that held them together fifty or one hundred years ago.


The clans consist of Eagle, Elk, Deer, Buffalo, Peace, War, etc., and the individual names of the members are identified with the clan to which they belong, unless the person named has some striking peculiarity, and then they often make mistakes. As for instance, an Indian of my acquaintance is named ANot Stingy,@ when it is a noted fact he is the most miserly Indian on the reservation.

They carry no family names as we do, but as above stated, are given a name belonging to the clan.

They keep no record of time, and have very vague ideas about their ages. If you ask them how old they are, a man of 40 is likely to tell you he is one hundred and ten or twenty. Some will tell you they were large enough to use the bow and arrow when the stars fell, or he was so large when there was an earthquake.

They have names for all the months or moons in the year, most of which are named after some peculiarities of animals.

November, Tah-heh-pah-he, the deer loses his horns.

December, Wah-sappy-va-tila, the black bear has its young.

And so on through the year.

This article is probably long enough, and I will close. Some time in the future I may give you some of the superstitions, etc., of this people.


Osage Agency, February 4th, 1886.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 10, 1886.

No Man=s Land.

A recent Washington dispatch says: Congressmen Burnes introduced in the house on the 1st a bill which provides that the strip of public lands known as ANo-Man=s land,@ which lies north of the Panhandle of Texas and south of Kansas and Colorado, shall be organized as the Territory of Cimarron. As there are no Indian titles to this strip of country, the bill in question has the sanction of the Department of the Interior, and will probably become a law at the present session of Congress. It provides for the usual complement of Territorial officials, an immediate survey of the Territory, the opening up of it to settlement, necessary land officers, the demolition of the wire fences with which it has been illegally enclosed by cattlemen, and the setting aside of a given number of sections of land for school purposes, which shall not be disposed of until the Territory is admitted into the Union. It moreover provides that no person or individual shall acquire title to more than 160 acres of land. If these guards to the honest settlement of the public domain had been incorporated in previous bills of a similar character, many of the present evils of land monopoly would have been avoided. But it is never too late to mend.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, February 24, 1886.


The Arkansas City TRAVELER in discussing the Indian question quotes the opinion and recommendation of Gen. Sheridan upon the subject. Sheridan is a good soldier and fighter, but shows too much the disposition of a commander, and not a bit of a legislator who regards the laws he helps to make. Being what he is and used to command, he carries himself into his recommendations regardless of the civil rights of a people. To allot 320 acres of land to the heads of families, and to sell the balance for the benefit of the Indians is as much an outrage upon them, as it would be to allot an equal number of acres to the large land owners of Kansas, and dispose of the balance for their benefit. Gen. Sheridan does not seem to know that all families are not equal in number, and that in the distribution of property equally great injustice would be done some while others would be benefited. The taking of one=s land and selling it because you think he has no use for it and that others want it, is but a species of communism that could be applied just as consistently to one=s cattle, or horses, or any other property he may have. If his recommendation is good for the Indian, it ought to be good for the white man. There can be no difference as far as principle is concerned. The difference is only in the opinion of some that an Indian has no rights that should be respected, or that the white man ought not to be denied anything that the Indian has, if he, the white man, wants it. Indian Chieftain.

So long as the Indians in the Territory allow themselves to be fooled by such idle talk

as that given above, they will be in the condition of the blind led by the blind. The illustra-tion the writer gives of taking a man=s land away from him because he has no use for it, has no application to the proposed legislation by congress, allotting the Indian lands in severalty. The Indian has no ownership in his present tribal relation; he can cultivate what portion he chooses of the tribal domain, and sell the product for his own benefit, but the land belongs to the commune. Not long since the Chieftain inveighed against this system, on the ground of the uncertainty of tenure. White men were marrying squaws, it alleged, and being adopted into the tribe; the agent was giving permits to other whites to dwell among them; and if this was allowed to go on much longer, when a final disposition was made up of the soil, there would be none left to divide up.

It is not true that the Indian owns the land; he is there on suffrance. The act of congress which ceded the tract of country to the red tribes, reserves to that body Athe primary disposal of the soil.@ They are wards of the government, and the right inheres in congress and the administration to make such provision for their support as shall best secure their perpetuity and welfare.

When the Osages occupied their beautiful domain in Southern Kansas, the same obligation rested in the government to protect them in its undisturbed possession, as rests upon it now to preserve the Indian tribes in the Territory from molestation by the white race. But settlers poured in by the thousand, taking up their land, hunting their savage game, stealing them poor, and harassing them so constantly that life became a burden. To deliver the Osages from this embarassment, the government took their land in trust, surveyed it, and sold it under the pre-emption law at $1.25 per acre. The money derived from this sale enabled the tribe to buy their present land of the Cherokees, and enough money remained over to create a fund which supports them more liberally than any community of working men can support themselves in all Kansas and Nebraska. Having purchased their homes, the land is now theirs in fee simple and by indefensible right; and there is no more thought of taking their land and selling it, than there is of taking a white citizen=s propertyChorses, cattle, or what else, and disposing of under a general sequestration.

Gen. Sheridan may have recommendedCwe do not now rememberCthat half a section of land be the allotment to each head of a family in the Indian tribes. This the Chieftain objects to as inequitable and unjust. A division of land on a different basis can readily be made, and the proposition that has been made by some persons, of giving each IndianCmale and female, adult and minorC160 acres, would perhaps be preferable.

This much is certain, the Indian must learn habits of industry and become self-supporting. It has been found that while a large domain lies unimproved before him, in which he has no individual property, he shows neither thrift nor enterprise. He has no exertion, and his life passes away without usefulness or aim. He must be made to work as the paleface does, and the statesmanship of the day as a means to this end, has decided upon giving him a farm, and providing money by the sale of the surplus, to assist him while he learns the art of self-support. There is nothing communistic in thisCno injustice or oppression. It is a wise and beneficent exercise of the function of guardian resting in the government, and the sooner the redskins reconcile themselves to the necessity, the better it will be for all.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 24, 1886.

Notice is given that bids will be received for breaking 4,000 acres of prairie at Kiowa and Comanche agency. Copies of the notice can be had at post office.

Arkansas City Traveler, February 24, 1886.

We mentioned in our last issue that Bradford Beal left town with J. H. Sherburne, intending to pay a visit to the Maine Cattle Co.=s ranch. On reaching Ponca he found the ice on the Salt Fork broken up, and the ferry boat lying high on the opposite bank. On that side of the river there were Charles Howard, on his way home from the same ranch, and several others just as anxious to pass over. There were several tons of ice frozen solid within the boat, and with the deficient appliances at hand, launching the vessel was no easy matter. But they worked like good fellows all Saturday afternoon and the whole of Sunday, until their exertions were rewarded by getting the ferry afloat. This enabled them to open communi-cation, and those that were detained on both shores went on their way rejoicing. In justification of their working on Sunday, these pious citizens will probably urge that their ox was in the pit.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, March 31, 1886.

Cherokee Indemnity Fund.

A recent Washington dispatch, discussing the Cherokee indemnity fund, gives the fol-lowing interesting particulars.

AThe question of indicting for alleged misuse of Cherokee funds will be submitted to the district grand jury tomorrow. If the decision is against returning a true bill, it is probable that that will be the end of a long pending controversy. The Cherokees paid $22,500 for getting through the appropriation of $300,000 two years ago. Since then Congressional committees have wrestled with the rumors that there was misuse of this money. The civil courts have been tried, but nothing has ever been developed further than that the Cherokee Nation paid out the $22,500 in Washington under a contract to allow 7-1/2 percent of the amount obtained, which was $300,000. The matter was brought to the attention of the grand jury of the district some days ago, as a final step on the part of those who hold that the money was not legally disbursed. Among the witnesses who have testified have been Senator Dawes, Chairman of the committee on Indian Affairs; Senator Teller, who was Secretary of the Interior at the time this appropriation was got through; Chief Bushyhead, of the Cherokee Nation; Campbell H. Taylor, of the Cherokee Nation; Mr. Wheeler, the clerk of the Federal Court at Ft. Smith; Mr. Walker, a Cherokee representative of the banking house of Lewis, Johnson & Co., of Washington, through whose hands the check passed, and some others. It is stated authoritatively that, if the grand jury concludes to ignore the matter, there will be no further controversy over it. If an indictment is found, it will be based on an alleged violation of what is called the intercourse law, which provides the conditions under which contracts with the Cherokee Nation must be made to be legal. With these conditions it is claimed the contract under which the $22,500 was disbursed did not comply.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, March 31, 1886.

The Cheyenne Transporter expresses the following opinion on the fencing of cattle ranches.

AThe extensive fencing of ranges is a serious detriment to the cattle industry. Many reasons might be advanced, were it worthwhile, why the fencing of ranges has not been a success. It has been thoroughly tested here in the Territory, in almost every instance at a heavy loss to the owner. The cattle business upon the open range has undoubtedly passed its brightest day, although it is everywhere hoped that such is not the case.@

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, March 31, 1886.


The Democrat publishes a long string of Awhereases,@ professing to recite the grievances of small cattle owners, settlers and others, caused by the unfairness of the government in excluding such persons from the Territory, while others are allowed to remain there undis-turbed. The specific charge is made in this arraignment that foreign and domestic cattle syndicates are allowed to graze their herds in the Territory, in defiance of the president=s proclamation, while Athe men having but few cattle and those having none@ are driven away by military force. A long rehearsal of assumed wrongs brings the writer to the gist of his argument, in the following resolution.

AThat we sincerely and earnestly request our Representatives in congress assembled, to take immediate action, and we invite all representatives of capitalists, corporations, and monopolies, to assist in taking immediate action in legislating for the opening of Oklahoma and the Cherokee Strip to settlement under the homestead land laws of the United States, which seems the only remedy for the approaching conflict and render justice to the Red, Black, and White man, to the rich and the poor alike; for all of which we shall every pray.@

This extraordinary screed is published, as we are told, Aby order of L. A., No. 2842,@ and we are further informed that Aa large number of citizens of Arkansas City assembled and adopted the same.@ To attach weight to this disloyal and untruthful utterance, it would be well to inform us what organization adopted it, and also to name a few of the persons who assembled to make this appeal to the public.

In the first place it is not true that small cattle owners are driven from the Territory with their herds, while foreign and domestic syndicates are undisturbed. In clearing out the Oklahoma country, Major Sumner, with three troops of the Fifth United States cavalry, stationed at Fort Reno, and Capt. Hamilton, with another troop of the same regiment, scoured that region as fully as their limited force would permit, and drove out everybody they encountered, and also removed all the cattle they found pasturing there. It is true that the grass leases of the friendly tribes on the Cherokee strip have not been removed; but we cannot see that any injustice or unfair discrimination is shown in this forbearance. The leases were executed with the tacit approval of the secretary of the interior, the rents are promptly paid to the Indians, and nobody is harmed. That is a dog-in-the-manger policy which seeks to ruin another man because we cannot partake his advantages, and this seems to be the policy which prompts the men who are clamoring against Acattle syndicates.@

The TRAVELER reflects the will of the people of this locality in asking that the Indian Territory be thrown open to white settlement, and the lands allotted in severalty. Such is the wish also of a large proportion of the American people, and even a good share of the Indian occupants of that country ask that houses be patented to them. Evidently the president is committed to such a mode of proceeding, believing, we doubt not, that it would be popular with the masses, and win favor for his administration. But we cannot conceive that fillibus-tering will advance this end. It is lawless invasion. It sets the actors in antagonism with the government, and creates an impression in the public mind that the people of this border country are reckless adventurers, and organized land thieves. Congress is now dealing with the subject, and petitions addressed to that body, asking the passage of a law to admit white settlers, is the only mode provided by our political institutions to forward the desired end.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 31, 1886.

Capt. Hamilton, on Monday, broke up camp in the jack oaks, where his troop has been stationed during a portion of the winter, and marched into Chilocco Creek, where it will remain till further orders. The command was joined, some two weeks ago, by 1st Lieut. Wheeler, who has been absent on leave. Lieut. Bellinger, who is absent from his own troop, on detached service, will for the present remain with the command.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 31, 1886.

J. H. Sherburne finished his work of demolition at the Ponca Agency, on Saturday, and the following day came to town to take up his abode here. He had previously removed his comfortable residence, having it cut into sections and carried here on hay racks, and he now has workmen engaged setting it up on his lots in the second ward, near the Santa Fe depot. His family has been living in town the past month. Our community gains by his return here as he is an enterprisng and successful businessman.

[Bill, am hoping to work my way up through 1888 in Traveler in order to send data to a relative of Joseph Sherburne...a most enterprising man and just as interesting as C. M. Scott. After he left here Sherburne worked among Indians in Wyoming, as I recall. His descendant will fill in gaps. Turns out Sherburne was related to A. A. Newman through Beedy family...he did not know that when he first started working for mill in A. C., according to his relative.]

Arkansas City Traveler, March 31, 1886.

Indian Journal:At an examination for bigamy before Commissioner Tufts, in Muskogee, Creek Nation, a week ago, both wives being present, wife No. 1 created quite a sensation by rushing up to the prisoner as she was leaving the room, throwing her arms around his neck and kissing him passionately. She left the room weeping bitterly, and the prisoner sobbed like a child.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 31, 1886.


The Sac and Fox Agency Live-Stock Association, through its executive committee, have decided to begin round-up work on May 1st, 1886. They have divided their territory into districts, appointed captains, and set dates for beginning the drive in each district as follows.

1. Canadian and Little River District, Sam Clay, captain. Meet at Sacred Heart Mission, on May 1st, and drive west, working all the country as far south as the Canadian river, and as far north as the water shed between Little River and North Fork.

2. North Fork District, Dick Hartshorn, captain. Meet at Davis= store, at Arbeka, on May 14th, and drive west, working both sides of North Fork and all the tributaries of that stream as far as necessary.

3. Deep Fork District, Walter Martin, captain. Meet at Sac and Fox Agency, May 25th, and drive west, working Deep Fork and all its tributaries as far west as necessary.

4. Cimarron District to include the Cimarron River and its tributaries as far north as the Cherokee Strip. This district is to be worked in the general round-ups, with the foreman of each range as captain while his range is being worked.

The order and dates of the general round-ups are to be fixed by the executive committee at Sac and Fox, on May 25th, as they can then be filed with greater accuracy and to better advantage. This being the day on which work begins in the Deep Fork District, due notice of the remainder of the work will be given.

The following regulations will be sustained, viz.:There is to be no card playing or gambling of any kind, no horse racing, no buying or trading in cattle by anyone, unless he be a member of the association or an employee.

Executive committee: John Whistler, Andrew Berry, H. W. Burke, Chris Boyer, E. B. Townsend, Jos. Reginer, Steve Pensenean, Moses Keokuk, C. C. Pickett, Chairman; V. B. Paine, Secretary.

Arkansas City Traveler, March 31, 1886.


AIt appears by the report of the Indian Bureau that the Indians are dying off very rapidly, and as there are large tracts of land which are growing more valuable annually, owned by the various tribes, the individuals become wealthier as their numbers decrease, and it is predicted that the future millionaires of the country will be among the surviving members of the Indian tribes.@

Arkansas City Republican, March 13, 1886.

Colonizing the Indians.

The agent, Capt. Lee, at his own suggestion, has been granted authority from the Indian office to found a colony of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians on the Washita River, about fifty miles west of this Agency. Mr. J. H. Seger with about twenty young men of each tribe, started for there on last Saturday to take preparatory steps. A large body will follow shortly. It can easily be seen that this move by Capt. Lee is in the right direction toward civilizing and making the Indian self-supporting for which their agent deserves great credit. Mr. Seger, who is in charge of the colony as instructor, is an old friend of these Indians, he having been twelve years among them. He thoroughly understands how to make a success of such an undertaking. The work will all be done by the Indians themselves under Mr. Seger=s direc-tion, and farming will be carried on in all its branches. Each Indian is to have a small piece of land to work and will be allowed all he can raise. Cheyenne Transporter.

Arkansas City Republican, March 13, 1886.

There are twenty-seven railroads in KansasCrailroads, in name. But they are owned and operated by the three great systems of the west, as follows:The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe owns and operates twelve of them; the Missouri Pacific owns and operates six of them; and the Union Pacific operates nine of them. There is not a single railroad in KansasCnot a foot of roadCoperated by a local company.

Arkansas City Republican, March 13, 1886.

Wants a WifeCWho Can It Be?

From the Kansas City Times, we glean that a gentleman of Arkansas City, Kansas, writes thus to the superintendent of Castle Gardens, New York.

AI would like to know what kind of wives you can furnish. There is more men here than women who want to marry. I myself would like to have a good wife that will be good, and kind, and clean, and neat, and a good cook. I am a widower. I have only one child, a boy 13 years old. My wife has been dead since five years. I would like to have a wife not older than 35 nor younger than 20 years. Now, gentlemen, I want all the information necessary in regard to this matter you can furnish. I am not the only man in this part of Kansas that would like to have a good wife.@

We know not the author of the above, but in revolving the names of the widowers of Arkansas City over in our mind, the first individual who struck our fancy who would be so cruel to the girls of Arkansas City, was our friend, E. Baldwin. Upon a maturer thought we readily see it was not him because he lacks the offspring. Neither was it our friend, Milks, because his offspring is a girl instead of a boy. No more widowers can we recall to our memory so the problem Awho the author can be@ remains unsolved in our mind.

In commenting upon the letter, the Times says:

AThere are in the state of Kansas 50,000 more males than females between the age of 20 and 40 years. The Arkansas City gentleman who anxiously sends all the way to Castle Gardens for matrimonial information is one of a large class. Since the east has a surplus of females pining for manly figures upon which to lean, and the west has this immense body of males pining for the gentle touch of the leaning feminine, what a pity that the two sections cannot interchange their commodities. They have busy agencies for sending homeless city boys to good western homes, and the need is as urgent in the case of the grown girls. The state of Kansas is an interested party. Its development would be greatly accelerated by a well-managed matrimonial exchange. Governor Martin is generally on the lookout for his state=s welfare. He ought to have an ear for the words of the Arkansas City gentleman and the 49,999 others in the same boat.@

Arkansas City Republican, March 16, 1886.

The Otoe Indian dances came off Wednesday evening in Highland Opera House. A very large crowd was in attendance. The performance was better than was expected by those who attended. Even the management was surprised. It was also a success financially.

Arkansas City Republican, March 20, 1886.


General Weaver is now before the house with a bill providing for the opening and settlement of the Oklahoma land and the Cherokee Strip and the reservations south of the Oklahoma district. A sub-committee of the house committee on territories has been inquir-ing into the question of titles to lands in the Indian Territory with a view to enable the committees to act intelligently upon the question and the committee finds that the title to these lands does not rest in the United States except as it may hold title as trustee for the Indians. The sub-committee made a report of this to the full committee, which was accepted, and virtually settles the controversy over the Oklahoma lands, and therefore before the United States can provide a territorial government for Oklahoma, it will be necessary to treat with the Indians for its purchase and the session of the land to the United States. Had President Cleveland followed the instructions of congress and negotiated with the Indians for the sale of this land, Oklahoma might now be open to settlement; but he did not, and upon him rests the blame for this delay. Until this is done, nothing can be done toward the settlement of Oklahoma.

Arkansas City Republican, March 20, 1886.

J. L. Woy, ex-trader at Darlington, Indian Territory, informs us of the bad state of affairs existing at Cheyenne Agency. He says since the government caused the cattle to be removed from that agency, the Indians have no money with which to buy, and business is very dull for the trader. The government now keeps the Indians entirely by issuing rations to them twice a week. Formerly when the lease money was coming in nothing but flour and beef was supplied by the government. The cattlemen were the life of business there. When they were driven out, trade died. Hemphill & Woy lose several thousand dollars. They cannot sell or rent their buildings and so they have to leave them stand, perhaps forever, as a monument of Democratic stupidity.

Arkansas City Republican, March 20, 1886.

J. T. Hemphill and J. L. Woy, known as Hemphill & Woy, at Darlington, Indian Territory, are Aoffensive partisans.@ They have closed their store at Darlington and are removing their stock to this city, preparatory to embarking in business. Mr. Hemphill will retire from the firm and Mr. Woy will conduct the business. He has rented the Stevens= building and will be ready to open up for business April 1. He will be only assisted by G. M. Gray, of Youngtown, Ohio. [NAME CORRECTED LATER TO AWEY.@]

Arkansas City Republican, April 3, 1886.

A Murderer Captured.


Ben Dilliard, charged with murdering a white man named John Harkins in 1882, was brought in from the Indian Territory today. Dilliard, with Sam Caul, a Chickasaw chief, had Harkins arrested for horse stealing. They took their prisoner to a lonely spot in the woods to kill him, and understanding their intention, Harkins took advantage of the thick woods and tried to escape, but was riddled with bullets; and his mangled corpse was dragged to a creek close by and covered with brush. Sam Paul was tried for this killing, was convicted of manslaughter two years ago, and sent to Detroit for ten years; but was subsequently pardoned by the president.

Arkansas City Republican, April 10, 1886.

Three years ago Dr. Z. Carlisle had a Abuckskin@ pony stolen from his ranch south of his farm. Monday the doctor saw two Indians going through town with a pony that resembled his long lost Abuckskin.@ When the pony was in the doctor=s possession, he had taught him to bite at any person when they pointed their finger at him. ADoc@ remembered this, so he walked up to the pony and stuck his finger out at him. The pony had not forgotten the training of his youth. He took after the doctor and ran him a half block before he let up. ADoc@ had no doubt but what the pony was his. He followed the Indians to Winfield and there recovered his animal.

Arkansas City Republican, April 10, 1886.

The Oklahoma Bill.

LAWRENCE, KANSAS, March 31 A private letter has been received in this city from the Hon. Sidney Clarke concerning the Oklahoma question, which is as follows.

The house committee on territories has agreed to report the bill for the organization of the new territory of Oklahoma. This result has been reached after a protracted battle with the representatives of the illegal cattle syndicates of the Indian Territory covering a period of two months. Every possible kind of misrepresentation has been enlisted to defeat the bill in the committee, and thus prevent the action of the house upon it, where it has many able advocates, and will undoubtedly pass when it can be reached under the rules.

The bill provides for a complete territorial government and includes within the exterior boundaries of the new territory the present Indian Territory and the public land strip, comprising an area of 44,151,250 acres. Of this amount provision is made for opening to settlement about 11,500,000 acres of unoccupied land, a section of country larger in extent than the three states of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Jersey.

The bill also provides for the appointment of a commission of five persons, not more than three of whom shall belong to one political party, with full powers to negotiate with all the tribes in the territory for the purpose of securing the assignment of lands in severalty to the Indians and the relinquishment of the surplus lands to the United States for the purpose of white settlement.

One section of the bill declares all the cattle leases null and void and directs the president to remove the lessees from the territory.

A supreme court is provided with three judges, and the jurisdiction of the United States of Kansas, Arkansas, and Texas over the different portions of the present Indian Territory, is repealed. Thus it is that the first step is taken in founding what is destined to be in a very short time one of the most populous and magnificent states in the Union.

Now the measures are fully before congress, the contest will be an open one between the cattle syndicates and the people.


It is the duty of congress to supplant this law of speculation, lawlessness, and crime, with good government, with the grand army of civilization, with the churches and schoolhouses and all tthe blessings of civilized society.


Bill, do not have time to tell about Mr. Clarke...very crooked politician...early Emporia newspaper really got the Agoods@ on him and he did not get elected anymore. This crook was also involved with Mr. Manning...the Winfield goodie goodie according to Editor Millington. C. M. Scott blasted Manning in an article before an election...and really had the goods on him and his cronies, including Mr. Clarke. Millington never did tell the good people of Winfield that Manning held the position of AInspector of Public Improvements for the District of Columbia@ during the time he was in Washington, D. C. Would you not go along with the belief that one of his political cronies secured this position for him?

Arkansas City Republican, April 17, 1886.


This will make you Laugh and Grow Fat, and Drive away the Blues.

A book agent, selling the life of the great temperance lecturer, John B. Gough, went into the real estate agency of Snyder & Hutchison Thursday and struck G. W. Cunningham to make a purchase. In the talk following the canvasser expressed a desire to meet the ministers of the city and secure their names. At that moment one passed along the street and George pointed him out to the canvasser. The latter dropped his book on the table and started after the minister. While the agent was out getting acquainted with the expounder of the gospel, Cunningham picked up the ALife of Gough@ and laid it upon a shelf and put in its stead a report of the State Board of Agriculture. The binding was similar and when the canvasser came in accompanied by the minister, he grasped the copy of the State Board of Agriculture, handed it to the minister, and began his stereotyped harangue. He never stopped for about five minutes and became so earnest in crying the merits of the book that he never noticed the exchange. In the meantime the minister had glanced at the book and as the agent waxed warm in his exhortation, telling of the beautiful illustrations, etc., a broad grin illuminated the former=s face. At the end the minister handed the book to the agent with the remark, AMy friend, you are surely mistaken.@ The agent glanced at the fly-leaf and the man of mighty cheek collapsed.

Frank Hutchison is quite a ladies= man, yet when in the presence of the gentler sex is quite bashful and nervous. This was exemplified Thursday when he came down to the real estate agency of his father, accompanied by a lady friend, to get a horse and buggy to show her around the city. Frank aided the lady in the buggy, jumped in himself, and would have driven off if he had unhitched his horse from the telegraph pole. As it was, he gave the animal a slap with the lines and resumed his conversation with his lady friend. The horse only moved a couple of steps and stopped. Frank was so fascinated he did not notice it, and talked away with a vengeance, keeping his eyes on his charming companion. He noticed her blushing, but supposed it was caused by not driving rapidly enough. He grasped the whip and gave AJumbo@ a stinging blow. This frightened the horse and he lunged forward, but was again stopped by the hitching rein. Several bystanders, noticing the predicament into which Frank had gotten himself, began to smile quite Aaudibly.@ At this moment the young lady remarked that if they were going a buggy-riding he had better get out and unhitch the horse before starting. Frank carried out the suggestion.

Phil Snyder is having a rough road to travel. He has been taken for the junior editor of the REPUBLICAN so long that he is gradually fading away. Soon he will be a withered flower. Phil has to come uptown in the evening to attend to the telephone. The other day someone informed his wife that they saw him out at the theatre with another woman. When Phil went home that night, he discovered the same thing we did some time ago, that it is dangerous to the felicity of domestic life to have a man in town that Alooks like me.@

A traveling man gives us a humorous account of Dave Carder=s trip to Kansas City. He says Dave got there all right and got away, but that he had a sad experience coming home. A woman with several children was on the train. She fell asleep and the baby rolled from her arms on the car floor. Dave picked up the crying infant and was going to return it to its mother, but she refused to be awakened. Then Dave was placed in a predicament similar to that which we read of in the ABlunders of a Bashful Man.@

Wax chewing has broken out among the lady residents of Arkansas City. The REPUBLICAN is acquainted with a lady who resides in ward No. 1, who chewed wax until her throat, tongue, and gums were a solid mass of fever blisters, her teeth decayed, her mouth split from ear to ear, and her toes raised heavenward. Sad, sad is the life of the chewer of gum.

Arkansas City Republican, April 17, 1886.

The season for the cyclone has come. Wednesday afternoon, a gentleman writes from Pawnee Agency that that vicinity was visited by a destructive cyclone. It occurred about 5 o=clock and demolished the store room of D. W. Bishop, ruined his stock, unroofed the store room of Isaac Ochs, and damaged all the houses at the agency so badly that none of them can be occupied. The residents took refuge in a dug-out of Mr. Bishop=s and used it for sleeping apartments. Only one person was injured: a cowboy who was stopping at the agency hotel, and he was not hurt badly. This cyclone occurred simultaneously with that terrible one at St. Cloud and Sauk Rapids, Minnesota, in which about 40 persons were killed and a large number injured severely. Both towns were almost entirely destroyed.

Arkansas City Republican, April 24, 1886.

To Compensate Settlers.

The bill introduced by Senator Dolph appropriating $5,000,000 to compensate citizens for losses suffered by Indian depredations, is grounded upon the assumption, which is, of course, undisputed, that the Indians are the wards of the government, under the control of the government, and that it is the government=s business to see that the Indians behave themselves. The settler whose house has been burned, whose horses have been stolen, or whose cattle have been killed by a savage band, cannot sue the Indian or collect damages in any way. He can shoot him if opportunity offers, and derive a certain amount of satisfac-tion from this summary method of punishment, but in gratifying his revenge, he does not rebuild his house, nor replace his cattle or horses.

Mr. Dolph thinks that while the government has assiduously protected the rights of the Indians, has guarded against the occupation of their reservations with every possible care, it has occasionally lost sight of the fact that the white settlers, who had obtained lawful possession of their land and were building up their homes, were also entitled to the protec-tion of the government, were also in a sense, the government=s wards. It=s the business of the government to furnish protection to the pioneers, doubly so when to furnish protection meant to restrain from violent acts the Indians whose rights the white settlers were strictly enjoined to respect.

The depredations referred to by Senator Dolph covered the period from 1855 to 1878, and the sufferers were men, who by their courage, their energy, and perseverance, had carried civilization into the far West and had converted a wilderness into a land of productive farms.

To raise the $5,000,000 which he asks, Mr. Dolph suggests that certain Indian lands be sold. The number of Indians has diminished greatly during the past ten years, and there are now less than 250,000, while the number of acres in the Indian reservation is 147,000,000. He estimates that if a sufficient amount of the Indian lands were sold to realize $5,000,000, there would still be left over 600 acres to every Indian.

While some objection may be found to this plan of raising the money, it is probable that the proposition to reimburse pioneers for the wrongs which they suffered, will meet with a favorable reception.

Kansas City Journal.

Arkansas City Republican, April 24, 1886.

How Payne Bought a Senatorship.

The legislative committee appointed to investigate charges of bribery in the election of H. B. Payne, in January, 2884, have reported. The majority report, signed by three Republi-cans, is lengthy and accompanied by eight hundred pages of evidence, the important points of which are cited to show that, while none of the present assembly have been conclusively impeached, the case has been made as to corrupt methods, and the testimony in full justifies that it be certified at once to the United States senate for action by that body, in considering Payne=s right to the seat. Most of the witnesses testifiying as to the use of money were Democrats, some being ex-members of the legislature who were at the time offered various sums, notably Representative Kable, who testified that Senator Ranney offered him $5,000 to vote for Payne, saying that was what he (Ranney) got. Evidence is cited to show two banks wherein Ranney deposited $2,500 each, and also to show large investments at the time by State Senator Elmer White, Representatives Mooney, Reich, and others. The majority report is somewhat sensational and has caused a great stir, especially the evidence of L. A. Russell, who tells of picking up a $20 bill on the floor of D. R. Paige=s room, Paige being Payne=s manager, and of J. J. Hall, who told of entering John Huntington=s room uncere-moniously and finding stacks of bills, more money piled up than he ever saw in the bank of which he is a director. The committee sets forth that Huntington, who is one of the directors of the Standard Oil Company, who is regarded as the purchaser of the Payne crowd, and as soon as this committee was appointed, he fled to Cuba and has not been available.

The minority report, signed by two Democratic members, is devoted to arguments to impeach the most damaging witnesses, and, while admitting there have been many newspaper rumors and much testimony of a general nature as to corruption and bribery, that there is no direct evidence, and that the connecting link is cut in every case, so that they hold such evidence should not be certified to the United States senate to blacken the character of any man. Pending the discussion to print the report and substitute the minority for the majority report, a recess was taken till tomorrow morning (the 16th) and the matter will probably be up in the house for the rest of the week.


Arkansas City Republican, April 24, 1886.

Two company of cavalry arrived in the city Sunday to relieve the two already here under command of Capt. Hamilton. The latter left for Ft. Riley Tuesday.

Arkansas City Republican, April 24, 1886.

Two of the Aboys in blue,@ who have been stationed here for some time, drank and became drunken Saturday night last. They were arrested by Marshal Gray and placed in jail overnight.They were released the next morning by the order of Mayor Schiffbauer.

Arkansas City Republican, May 8, 1886.

John Hancock, representative of Buffalo Bill=s Wild West Show, passed through the city the first of the week with 20 Pawnees. They go to St. Louis to join the above combination.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 28, 1886.

Fine Stock Farm.

Albert Dean, of Bitter Creek, being in town a week or two ago, called at this office to pay his subscription, and invited ye local to pay a visit to his farm when he took an outing. The newspaper man treated himself to a drive there a few days since, and on entering the gate found himself surrounded by a fine stock farm 400 or 500 acres in extent, securely fenced and cross-fenced. He has planted 140 acres in corn, and his fat herd of beeves puts to shame those cattle raisers who leave their animals to rustle for themselves through the winter season. His granary is the most commodious and best appointed of any to be seen hereabout. He has a feed mill in one end with shafting enough to attach elevators to raise all his grain into bins placed on the second floor. Power is supplied by a large wind mill, which pumps sufficient water for the use of the stock and for all other purposes. Near the granary he has a Fairbanks scale (of 4,000 lbs. capacity), upon which he drove and weighed, for our benefit, a couple of his two-year-old steers. One weighed 1,272 lbs., and the other pulled up the beam at 1,087 lbs. Such a result from farm stock raising is a lesson to our cattle men that they must go and do likewise. This quality of cattle finds ready sale at $3.85, to $4.00. A return of $50 for a steer is some encouragement to go ahead. A few weeks ago Mr. Dean sold forty head of three choice cattle to Branham & Schiffbauer to slaughter for the Osage Indians. He also showed us his noted stallion (owned one-half by M. S. Hasie), which measures 18 hands and weighs nearly 1,000 lbs. Mr. Dean=s farm is a credit to his judgment and enterprise, and we are glad to learn that, notwithstanding depressed markets, it pays a fair profit on the capital invested. We hope to see his example more generally emulated.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 28, 1886.

From Our Exchanges.

INDIAN CHIEFTAIN: Frank Dasher, a white man with a negro wife, and Aleck Scott, the wife=s brother, living at Post Oak, Creek Nation, have been arrested for cattle stealing. The cattlemen in the vicinity declare they are guilty and we presume they are.

Arkansas City Traveler, April 28, 1886.

Ad. Wanted a woman who can cook, wash, and do general housework. A good salary paid a competent woman. Address with reference.


Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 18, 1886.


The Cherokee Advocate is exercised over the use of the forest timber that abounds in that nation. Judicious statesmanship would provide for the utilization of the material resources of a country taking proper care that waste is not practiced and that the supply does not become exhausted. According to the statement of our Indian cotemporary, the timber has been stolen, the depredation not being committed alone by citizens of the United States, but by members of the nation also. ASome of this stealing,@ the Advocate says, Ahas been done by citizens who have used the woods of the nation for other purposes than those allowed by the constitution and laws.@

The authorized uses of the timber of Cherokee land, under the constitution and laws of the nation, are for fuel, for the construction of dwellings, and other necessary domestic uses. The Cherokees are not a manufacturing people, therefore there can be no great consumption of the forests for industrial purposes.

The Advocate thus states the evil and the remedy:

AIf the timber belongs to the nation, then to take it without the nation=s permission, or for any purpose except that approved and allowed by the nation, is stealing it from the nation, then there is but one way to stop the wrong and the loss. In the case of our own citizens, the offender should be prosecuted and jailed when found guilty. We have courts already established and they have jurisdictionCor would have if there was a law to define the offense.@

The obstructiveness of the Indian race is a puzzle to American statesmanship, and here we have it brought down to concrete shape. What is the use of nature endowing a country with the elements of wealth if the industry of its inhabitants is restricted and these natural resources are to be turned to no useful purpose? Under the communistic system that prevails with our dusky neighbors, the land is held in common, and all the timber and rock and mineral that it contains. A Cherokee or Creek may take up his abode on any unoccupied portion of the soil and cultivate to whatever extent he pleases. He may plant an orchard, raise livestock, put up barns, and provide himself with all the facilities necessary; but he cannot acquire individual ownership, and he is liable to be turned off at any time by an act of the national council. We can see what an insuperable impediment this is to the exercise of industry and thrift, and we can perceive why it is that these five Agreat nations,@ instead of establishing their right to the soil they occupy by putting it to proper use, are constantly clamoring to the government for protection, and are forever crying to be let alone.

The Indian race is not without notable examples of business aptitude and successful enterprise. We can mention George Washington, a Wichita, who owned a profitable store and could point to his herd of cattle on a thousand hills Black Beaver, a Delaware, is famed in local annals as a scout and negotiator, and his thrift enabled him to accumulate a valuable property in livestock and merchandise. With proper stimulus, and under favorable condi-tions, other redskins would apply themselves to reproductive pursuits, and thus fit them-selves for the struggle in which they will soon have to engage.

But where can you find a people alert and active who live in tribal relations, whose soil and natural resources are sequestrated, and who are withheld from the wholesome stimulus of competition? The duty of the government is plain. Give each head of a family a farm, let him have the benefit of paleface example to stir up his energies, and a fund held in trust by the government (derived from the sale of surplus land), with which to aid him in his efforts at self-support. The present system of nursing and coddling will keep the Indians helpless and unprogressive to the end of the chapter.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 18, 1886.


AThe recent decision by the Supreme Court that the Indian tribes occupying reservations in the Indian Territory are by act of law national in their nature, and that congress has no authority to grant charters to railway companies through said reservations, is liable to put a stop to railway extensions in the Indian Territory, and we are credibly informed that the S. K. Road will soon put their forces to work on the line from Kiowa westward. Let them come; bad wind that blows usually any good.@ Burden Enterprise.


Our neighbor is badly astray in his statement of facts. No such decision as he mentions has been rendered by the Supreme Court, or any other tribunal that we have heard of. In ruling on a demurrer brought in the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia to the indictments found against Col. Phillips, Ross, and Wolfe for appropriating to themselves $27,000 out of a payment made to the Cherokees for the strip or outlet, want of jurisdiction was pleaded by their counsel. The demurrer was sustained by Judge McArthur, he holding that the Cherokees were a distinct and independent nationality, and the offense charged against them was outside the jurisdiction of a United States court. This quashed the indictments, but it in no way affected the granting of charters to railroad companies, and will certainly not stop railroad extension through the territory. It was a fool judgment, but a judge is not supposed to know the law.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 18, 1886.

From Our Exchanges.

CALDWELL JOURNAL. John Powers jumped from a hotel window and killed himself Tuesday in Kansas City, so a telegram states. He was well known in these parts, having held cattle on the ranges of the Cherokee Strip for some years. He shipped two train loads of cattle from Kiowa Sunday morning to Kansas City. He was the owner of the J buckle brand of cattle. No cause is assigned. He leaves a large family, who if we mistake not, reside in Mobectic, Texas.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 18, 1886.

Accidental Drowning.

On Tuesday Capt. Jack Hayes, in command of B troop, 5th cavalry, on service in the Oklahoma country, in company with his driver, a soldier, Wm. Hamilton by name, drove into the North Fork at the Chisholm trail crossing, 18 miles below the agency, for the purpose of watering his team. The river was up, and the first step of the horses took them into swimming water. The carriage was too heavy for the team to swim out with it, so the only show for life of its occupants was to do their own swimming. The soldier, together with the horses, were drowned. Capt. Hayes put forth every effort to save his man, and in so doing very narrowly escaped the same fate. The body of the soldier was not recovered. The carriage and horses were, however, but the remains of the unfortunate soldier were dashed swiftly downstream to a watery grave. Cheyenne Transporter.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 18, 1886.

Dr. F. Quimby, formerly surgeon at the Ponca agency, returned from the east on Saturday with the intention of becoming part of our city population. The doctor has spent a year in Maine and New York, having the TRAVELER mailed to him; from this sheet he learned of the prosperity we enjoy and the progress our city is making, and by this means he was attracted back to his old home.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 18, 1886.

Herman Wyckoff and wife left town last week to take up their abode at Red Rock, Indian Territory. Herman will take charge of the trader=s store there, his father having a license to trade with the Otoes; and the former trader, J. N. T. Gooch, has removed to this city with his family, to assume his duties in the grocery house of Wyckoff, Gooch & Co. Johnnie is a rustler, and will be a useful addition to our mercantile community.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 18, 1886.

Stock Notes.

John Harmon has been offered $100 for a Hambletonian colt not yet three months old. It pays to raise good stock.

Wiley & Harkness advertise in the Caldwell papers that they want 2,000 head of steer cattle to stock up their range on Red Rock Creek, sixty miles below this place.

That new Victor hay press on the street last Saturday belonged to C. M. Scott, who will bale one thousand tons of hay this fall.

Five hundred horses and mares are offered for sale at Fremont, Nebraska.

CALDWELL JOURNAL. The Whistler cattle from Sac and Fox were shipped last week to Chicago by their owner. They made fourteen cars and weighed 919 pounds. They struck a good market.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 18, 1886.

Fancy Stock Farm.

Mr. Samuel Newell=s annual circular for the present year is out, a copy of which lies on our table. He is owner of the Hawkswood stock farm, Great Barrington, Massachusetts, which is devoted to the breeding of thoroughbred registered short horn and Jersey cattle, pure South Down sheep, Indian ponies, swine and poultry, all of the best breeds. The circular gives a list of the choicest short horns and Jerseys.

Of Indian ponies he says:

AThe breeding of this class of horses may be regarded as a Anew departure@ in New England farming. The proprietor first became acquainted with the Indian pony while on a trip to California five years ago, has had one at his farm for the use of his family as a saddle pony, and has had frequent opportunity to study their habits and character during frequent visits to the Indian Territory and Southern Kansas since 1881.

AThe present season he has received a car load of the choicest ponies to be found in the Indian country, where they were bred. They are free from brands or blemishes, and were selected by Vincent Hawkins of Arkansas City, Kansas, a well-known horseman who has lived on the frontier many years. Several have already been sold to well-known New York gentlemen, and they give great satisfaction.

AThese ponies are easily kept, tractable, and great pets, and in many respects are the best horses under the saddle for children and grown persons, for driving singly in village carts and pony phaetons or in pairs.@

Mr. Newell is well known to our citizens as president of the Arkansas City Bank, which business connection induces his frequent visits here. Money changers, as a class, are not popular with their fellow citizens, and they are not promised the best treatment in the world to come. But this gentleman is wise in his generation, and makes atonement for his sins as a plutocrat, by devoting himself to an industry which ranks among the most useful in the country.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, August 25, 1886.


Politics are stirring up our dusky neighbors in the territory, and the Cherokees, like their paleface brethren, are forming a new party. The Chieftain publishes the platform adopted by this new political organization, which has the merit of setting forth candidly the aims and objects of its members. They call themselves AIndependents,@ which designation is correct in showing the framers and supporters of this political confession of faith to be independent of the obligations imposed on them by the present conjunction of events, and sublimely indifferent to the social issues they will soon be called on to meet.

Art. 4 sets forth: AWe are emphatically opposed to the establishment of any kind of United States territorial government over the Cherokee nation and people.@ Which is a declaration that they are opposed to an improved form of government; that they are distrustful of the political institutions which would assimilate them in social life with the American people; and that the wheels of progress must not be allowed to roll over that darkened and unprogressive land.

Art. 5 is expressive of the same spirit. It says: AWe are opposed to selling one foot of our Cherokee soil for white settlement, for in less than one year the country would be settled up with white settlers who would be calling on congress to establish a territorial government or state which would embrace not only the entire Cherokee nation, but the present Indian Territory.@

The question for these quiet-loving platform builders to consider, is whether a refusal to Asell one foot of their soil,@ will prevent the intrusion of white settlers. Their one desire is to be let alone. On all sides around them they see the world in active movement, old forms fading away and habits adopted which embody the requirements of the present age. But these people are distrustful of change. The constitutional lethargy of the Indian race keeps them hopelessly in the rear of their white brethren; yet they dread change; set themselves, with all the force they can command, to keep out the tide that is rising to overwhelm them. Dr. Arnold has declared, AThere is nothing so revolutionary, because there is nothing so convulsive and unnatural, as the strain to keep things fixed when all the world is, by the law of its creation, in eternal progress.@

These Cherokee Independents would refer us to the treaties of 1833 and 1866, guaranteeing them immunity from paleface intrusion; but it is time they were aware of the fact that race movements are not restrained by paper guarantees; and prudence should admonish them to have an eye on the signs of the times, and stand from under.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 25, 1886.


The Cherokee editors have made repeated complaint of the issue of certificates of citizenship by the United States agent, which entitle the holders to residence within the nation. Applications for citizenship are frequent and continuous, and the number of whites admitted to residence causes increasing uneasiness. This has been going on for five years under an order authorizing the agent to examine the claims presented to him, and where he considered it profitable that they were founded on fact and entitled to credence, this official would issue what is called a prima facie certificate, entitling the applicant to reside until the matter was finally disposed of. This order, it is claimed, has been taken advantage of by numerous adventurers, who know that with the certificate in their hands, they would live on unmolested for years. With the white population increasing in their midst by means of marriage with an Indian woman and this certified affiliation, the ultimate division of the land becomes a question of some moment. The Chieftain, published at Vinita, has two or three times said if the much talked of allotment in severalty was not soon made, the continuance of this practice a few years longer would leave nothing to allot. But to prevent further injustice and misrepresentation, the interior department has recently issued an order requiring all applicants for citizenship to remain outside the nation until their status has been determined, and their application definitively acted on. This will be very soothing to the Cherokee mind.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 25, 1886.

Capt. Price, whose troop of the 5th cavalry is still stationed at Chilocco, says he is no longer troubled with boomers, as all the sensible ones have gone to work. Anderson is busy on a railroad contract, and Capt. Couch has the same employment in view. All the cattle companies have expressed their willingness to abide by the president=s proclamation. So all is quiet on the Potomac.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 25, 1886.

From Our Exchanges.

CALDWELL JOURNAL: A war dance was held on the open ground south of the opera house Monday evening, in which 15 or 20 of our citizens, assisted by fifty Cheyenne Indians, joined. Over 300 of our town people were interested spectators of the novel dance. Every-thing passed off pleasantly and the Indians were well pleased with their treatment. They are here for fifty-five wagon loads of flour and coffee.

WELLINGTON MONITOR: The War Chief at Caldwell has suspended publication on account of insufficient support. The publishers, Messrs Smith & Son, announce that they hope to resume at some future time. The Chief, with its long articles on Oklahoma and the robber cattle barons of the Territory, may be missed in boomer circles, but hardly by the general public.

Arkansas City Traveler, August 25, 1886.

Vinita, Indian Territory, Fair Association.

We have received with the compliments of C. S. Shelton, secretary, an invitation to attend the Fifth Annual Exposition of the Vinita Fair Association, which occurs October 13, 14, and 15, together with a copy of the premium list. Vinita, situated at the crossing of the St. Louis and San Francisco and Missouri Pacific railways, in the Cherokee nation, is the largest town in the Indian Territory. This fair association since its organization has met with marked success and its annual expositions are looked foreward to as the gala occasion of the year throughout that section. The competition for premiums is spirited in all classes while in the speed ring the interest is intense. A copy of the premium list, in published form, will be mailed to any address on application to the secretary, at Vinita.

Arkansas City Traveler, Wednesday, September 1, 1886.

We mentioned a week or two ago that work on the Southern Kansas railway, in the territory, had been suspended, awaiting the action of Secretary Lamar on the deflection of the route surveyed east into Oklahoma. A week or so ago, the secretary rendered his decision, approving the route selected, representatives of the company having shown that the route laid out in the preliminary survey was costly and difficult of construction. This throws the line within the Oklahoma country and traverses its full length from north to south, running about forty miles of the route first surveyed.

The Boston Transcript, commenting on this subject, says: AThis will inevitably open up the long coveted Oklahoma land to settlement by whites. It is also thought by some that the discretion exercised by the secretary in this instance lays the foundation for granting right of ways through Indian land by executive action.@

Arkansas City Traveler, September 1, 1886.

T. M. Finney, late U. S. Trader at the Kaw Agency, has purchased the post office book store of Will Thompson, and the transfer will probably be made today. The new proprietor will largely increase the stock, adding a line of wall paper and fancy articles. Mr. Finney is an enterprising businessman, well known to our citizens, and we have confidence in his success.

[It is amazing how man people came from Indian Agencies after being kicked out by the Democratic [Cleveland] regime.]

Arkansas City Traveler, September 1, 1886.

The Right of Way Commission.

The commission appointed by the president to procure the right of way for the extension of the Santa Fe road through the territory arrived in this city on Thursday evening and left for the performance of their trust on Saturday. The commission consists of John A. Gallaway, of Ft. Scott, Kansas; W. H. Dyer, of Van Buren, Arkansas; and Jas. Brodie, Little Rock, Arkansas. S. S. Benedict, formerly U. S. Indian inspector, is in charge of the party. Commissioners Dyer and Brodie met Mr. Benedict at Topeka, and the three came on to this city, arriving as above stated.Commissioner Gallaway came in on the Santa Fe train on Saturday and took his departure with the party.

Their first visit will be to the Poncas, to agree with that tribe in the purchase of the right of way through their reservation; thence to the Otoes, and through a portion of the Cherokee strip to Oklahoma. The act of congress granting the charter to the Santa Fe company, provides that a strip 100 feet in width shall be conceded to the railroad company for its track, with sufficient ground for water tanks, passenger and freight stations, and necessary work shops, for which a consideration of $50 per mile shall be paid the respective tribes, and an annual rental of $15 per mile hereafter. In event of the rate of compensation being unsatisfactory, notice of the fact is to be given the secretary of the interior, whose business it is to instruct the commission of the grounds of objection raised, and authority is given them to make terms with the Indians. In the case of those Indians who occupy separate allotments, and object to the compensation allowed, the commission act as a board of appraisement, and condemn the thoroughfare needed without circumlocution.

The commission will probably return to this city by Saturday next. They will then start west to Kiowa, and thence to the Pan Handle of Texas.

[Beginning with this issue, everything is railroad...Boomers, Indians, Cattlemen seem to disappear from the scene.]

Arkansas City Republican, May 29, 1886.


We are Going as Fast as the Santa Fe Can Lay the Track.

The Grade Almost Completed From the Stock-Yards to the River.

Extensive Switches Being Put InCTwo One-Half Mile Long and

Several Shorter Ones.

New Stock-Yards and Other Improvements to be Made Immediately.

Track-Laying to Commence Tomorrow.

Work on the Bridge to Begin Monday Morning.

This morning a REPUBLICAN representative went down to the Santa Fe stock-yards to take notes of the operations going on there.What we saw there would make any doubting Jonah believe in Arkansas City=s great future.

Quite a number of graders are at work between the stock yards and the river, and Mr. Tilton, the contractor, told us he would have it completed by tomorrow noon, and that track-laying would commence immediately; that tomorrow afternoon and Sunday would be put in in laying the track to the river.

On Monday morning, bright and early, work will be commenced on the bridge across the Arkansas River. The timber, piling, iron sand-pipes, etc., are all upon the ground, and an immense quantity of ties are strewn all along the grade.

Several hundred yards above the stock-pens, where a slight bend of the old Santa Fe track occurs, begins the line to Galveston. It goes directly south to the river, passing through the front ends of the stock-yards. This, we are informed by the contractors, will cause the building of new stock-pens upon a more extensive scale than we now have. The old track, from where the Galveston line begins, almost to the river, is being converted into switches. We were also told that switching facilities at Arkansas City would be made superior to those of any other city between here and Newton upon the Santa Fe line.

The above facts, coupled with the facts that Topeka and Newton capitalists are investing very largely in Arkansas City real estate would indicate that Arkansas City is still in the ring and not in the slightest disfigured. We are satisfied that if any favors are to be bestowed upon any city from the Santa Fe company, they will be showered upon Arkansas City. We BOOM, with a great big B! And don=t you forget it.

Arkansas City Republican, May 29, 1886.


The Bill Allowing the Construction of a Railway

Through the Indian Territory.

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, MAY 19. An officer of the Atchison company said yesterday:

ACongress has passed a bill giving the Kansas & Arkansas Valley Railroad Company the right to construct a line through the Indian Territory. This is the right in which the Atchison and the Litttle Rock & Fort Smith have a joint interest. The plans have been made for the construction of the line from Fort Smith or Van Buren, the termini of the Little Rock & Fort Smith road, and situated on the border of Arkansas and the Indian Territory, northwest across the latter to Arkansas City, in Kansas, situated on the border of that state and the Indian Territory.

AArkansas City is a terminus of one of the branches of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, so that the result of building this new line, some two hundred and thirty or two hundred and forty miles in length, will be to give Atchison an outlet through the Indian Territory and Arkansas, via the Little Rock & Fort Smith and the Little Rock, Mississippi River & Texas to Arkansas City, Arkansas, connecting the two Arkansas Cities. At the latter place, which is on the Mississippi River, connection is made with the Louisville, New Orleans & Texas, so that in effect a New Orleans connection may be secured. The benefits to accrue to the Little Rock & Fort Smith road would naturally be many. It would obtain a goodly amount of the through business and by working in connection with the Atchison, it would undoubtedly be greatly benefitted.@

This is the outline of the plans now under construction, but nothing definite has as yet been arranged. When the bill giving the right to the Kansas & Arkansas Valley to build through the Indian Territory shall become a law by the approval of the president, there will doubtless be some positive action toward arranging for the construction of this extension.

Arkansas City Republican, May 29, 1886.

A citizen of Arkansas City had a keg of beer expressed him from Kansas City Saturday. He was ashamed to have it delivered during the light of day. He let it remain at the depot until nightfall, when he went to get it. But, lo, it was not to be found. Someone had purloined it.

Arkansas City Republican, May 29, 1886.

City Marshal Gray Tuesday notified the druggists of the city that if they sold any more whiskey on Sunday, he would arrest them. It is a violation of the city ordinance to sell whiskey on Sunday.

Arkansas City Republican, May 29, 1886.


Some time ago William Bryson, living in the vicinity of Dexter, stole a horse of a man by the name of Constable, in the same community. Bryson went to the Territory as soon as he committed the theft and traded the animal off. A few days ago he stole several other horses from a ranch in the Territory. Yesterday he was captured by a mob with his booty in his possession down upon what is known as the ink ranch. Bryson is no longer in the land of living now. A crowd of infuriated men, a piece of hemp rope thrown over a limb of a tree and placed around his neck, caused his life to become extinct. He died according to the statutes of the Indian Territory upon the subject of horse-stealing.

Arkansas City Republican, May 29, 1886.

All Aboard for Caldwell.

Chief Engineer Wingate, of the G. S., C. & W. R. R. and Dr. Love came in Tuesday from Caldwell. Mr. Wingate informs us that the final survey of the road is completed to Caldwell; that there are 160 teams throwing up the grade between Geuda Springs and the Chicaski River; that a half mile of track was laid toward Geuda from this city; and that 15 car-loads of steel rails would arrive the latter part of this week; and then iron would go down as fast as men could lay it. In 90 days the road will be done to Caldwell. There is only one bridge of any size on the route and that is across the Chicaski. It will be 1,000 feet in length. John Doyle and his force of stone masons are putting in the abutments and piers. They found it a difficult job because of the swiftness of the river.

Arkansas City Republican, May 29, 1886.

Harry Halsell, who passed through the city one day last week in pursuit of a man who had stolen a bunch of cattle and sold them to him and received $275 down upon them, captured the swindler at Oswego. He proved to be a man by the name of Avery, who lives near Hunnewell and who was recently released from our county jail. As soon as Avery was spotted by Mr. Halsell, he went to obtain the assistance of the marshal of Oswego, but that worthy official refused. Whereupon Mr. Halsell hunted up Avery and arrested him himself. As soon as Avery was arrested, the marshal demanded him as a prisoner; but Mr. Halsell refused to turn him over. Taking him to a hotel in the city, Mr. Halsell obtained $70 of his money, a gold watch and chain which the prisoner had just purchased, and a $50 saddle, and then turned him loose. Mr. Halsell passed through the city en route for his cow camp in the Territory Saturday last.

Arkansas City Republican, June 5, 1886.

We see by the Wellington Standard that a man by the name of Wm. Bryson was brought to that city Monday charged with horse stealing in the Territory. He was taken before U. S. Commissioner Rose, plead guilty, and was committed and ordered locked up. Last week the REPUBLICAN hung this man down in the Territory. Our informant was mistaken.

Arkansas City Republican, June 5, 1886.

Wednesday two trains of iron and ties for the Geuda Springs, Caldwell & Western road came in and track-laying will commence immediately. The surveyors are two miles west of Caldwell. In 90 days Arkansas City and Caldwell will be united with the G. S., C. & W.

Arkansas City Republican, June 5, 1886.

All Aboard for Ft. Smith.

WASHINGTON, JUNE 1. The president and party returned to Washington at 8 o=clock this morning.

The president proceeded at once to business this morning as soon as he arrived at the White House. He approved a number of bills, including an act authorizing the Kansas and Arkansas Valley railroad company to construct a road through the Indian Territory. Many senators, representatives, and other officers called during the forenoon and congratulated the president on his approaching marriage. He was in a very happy frame of mind and endured the chaffing and pleasantries of visitors on the subject of his wedding with the utmost good nature.

Arkansas City Republican, June 5, 1886.

Freighters from here to the Territory in returning load their wagons with cattle bones. This is a new industry in this part of the country. It has not heretofore been considered worth the while of collecting the bones and delivering them for the price they bring. On one wagon one ton of bones can be hauled, for which the freighters get $10. The bones are shipped east, crushed, and used for fertilizing and refining purposes. The horns are used for making cutlery handles, etc.

Arkansas City Republican, June 12, 1886.



The Craft, the Kansas Millers, Well on Her Way Down to

Ft. Smith, With More than Six Car-Loads of Flour.

Lumber to be Brought Up On the Return Trip.

As our readers are well aware, for several years the navigation of the Arkansas River has been agitated. A few months ago matters began to arrange themselves into definite shape. The millers of Cowley County had foreseen that they must have a southern market opened up to them at a cheaper freight rate than they were obtaining from the railroad companies or else their milling interests would suffer materially. Accordingly they formed themselves into an association and had the steamer, AKansas Millers,@ constructed to ply upon the upper Arkansas from this city down to the larger cities in the state of Arkansas. Captain T. S. Moorehead brought the AKansas Millers@ to its landing in the Walnut in July of last summer. This clearly demonstrated that the Arkansas River could be navigated as far up as this city. The plucky Millers in their venture had met with more than the most sanguine dared to hope for: SUCCESS.

Later on the steel barges have been constructed for the carrying of the cargo, and yesterday morning the first consignment of freight was made. The steamer with its barges glided gracefully down the Walnut into the Arkansas with Capt. Barnes in command without a mishap and disappeared from view in the distance.

This navigation of the Arkansas River means much for the future welfare of Arkansas City.

Heretofore the transportation rates on a carload of flour, by railroad, to Ft. Smith has been almost $100. It is now being sent down to the same destination for less than $50 per carload. On the six car-loads sent down Wednesday, some $300 in freight rates has been saved to the shipping millers of Cowley County. This is an item that is worth looking after and will have a tendency to make the efforts of both seller and buyer double what they have been heretofore in the navigation of the river. On the return trip Capt. Barnes will load up his barges with lumber. On a carload of lumber from Arkansas, the freight rate is about $8 per thousand. The AKansas Millers@ will bring the same to Arkansas City for half of that sum. Thus it will be seen what the navigation of the Arkansas River means for us.

Arkansas City Republican, June 12, 1886.


The bill for organizing the territory of Oklahoma proposes to constitute it out of three separate parcels of land.

1. The district known as Oklahoma, lying in the Indian Territory between the Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole reservations on the east and the other reservations on the west, and comprising 1,880,500 acres.

2. The Cherokee Strip lying just south of the Kansas border and comprising 2,022,855 acres.

3. The public land strip lying south of the Indian Territory, being the strip ceded to the United States by Texas, and comprising 3,672,000 acres.

These parcels make about 12,000,000 acres, or 18,750 square miles, an area half as large as the state of Indiana. The bill provides for the gradual acquisition from the Indian tribes of adjoining districts embracing 8,000,000 acres additional, making a total of 20,000,000 acres, or 31,000 square miles.

The public land strip lying along the Texas border, and comprising 3,672,000 acres, is, by the provisions of the bill, to be opened to homesteaders only.

There are now about 3,700 Indians living within the limits of the proposed territory. The entire Indian Nation embraces 44,000,000 acres of land, and has a population of 79,000 Indians, halfbreeds, negroes, and white.

Arkansas City Republican, June 12, 1886.

Shortly after noon today the AKansas Millers@ and her three barges, loaded with flour, went down the Arkansas River to Ft. Smith. The barges were loaded as follows: 30 tons of flour from Bliss & Wood=s at Winfield; 15 tons from the Arkansas City Roller Mills; and 15 tons from the Canal Roller Mills. Capt. Barnes was as joyful as a school boy over his proposed trip.

Arkansas City Republican, June 12, 1886.

We are informed that the Santa Fe, as soon as they can begin work in earnest on the Galveston extension from this city, will ship in here enough material to lay 100 miles of track into the Territory. The supply yards will be located near the stock yards. Extra switches will be put in for the establishment of these supply yards here.

[At different times both Winfield and Arkansas City were bothered with what is known as Ablind tigers.@ First one was demolished by furious businessmen in Arkansas City years before. Swarts caught on that Mayor Schiffbauer and his cronies were permitting gamblers, whiskey dealers, prostitutes, etc., to do business in Arkansas City...he had one of the city commissioners pick up money on a regular basis for this Aprivilege.@ Gather he did this because city coffers were almost always in a bad way.]

Arkansas City Republican, May 22, 1886.

Yesterday Sheriff McIntire was in the city. It became rumored that he had a state warrant for the arrest of the prostitutes in the city, and the consequence was that inside of an hour after the rumor got abroad, the birds had flown. The sheriff was down on other business.

Arkansas City Republican, June 5, 1886.


Decoration Day Put In by County Attorney Swarts,

Deputy Sheriff Harrod, and our City Police in Arresting Them.

Monday on the noon train came County Attorney Swarts and Deputy Sheriff Tom Harrod, having in their possession four warrants for the arrest of as many persons, charging them with being jointists. Three of them were served and one remains yet to be. O. F. Lang and W. W. Beeman were arrested for the dealing out of the ardent upon North Summit Street. Geo. McAfee, for doing the same thing at Biggs= Billiard Hall. The fourth warrant was to have been served upon Frank Miller for carrying on the traffic under the Monumental Hotel, but he could not be found. He is still at large.

McAfee made his escape from the officer who had him in charge by breaking away from him, jumping upon the back of a horse, and riding at breakneck speed for the Territory. Johnnie Breene turned him over to Geo. Coonrod to guard while he was subpoenaing wit-nesses. They walked south on Summit Street until they came to 4th Avenue, where someone had placed a pony ready for McAfee=s use should he have the opportunity. Coonrod had no weapons of any kind and could not stop his prisoner. The proper authorities were notified of the escape, but they were unable to effect his recapture.


Last evening on the Frisco Beeman and Lang were taken to Winfield for trial before Justice Buckman. They were bound over this morning in the sum of $800 each, to appear for trial next Tuesday. County Attorney Swarts remained in the city today taking testimony from witnesses.

The REPUBLICAN is glad to note that operations have commenced agaist the jointists and we hope they will be continued until not a one remains in our fair city.

Arkansas City Republican, June 12, 1886.

Sheriff McIntire was in the city today looking after the Ablind tigers.@ The four barrels of beer captured under the Oklahoma Meat Market were taken to Winfield, to Judge Gans. Won=t the denizens of the county seat celebrate in grand style now?

Arkansas City Republican, June 12, 1886.

This morning, just before noon, Marshal Gray, Capt. Rarick, Sheriff McIntire, Johnnie Breene, and John Lewis visited the Monumental Hotel and made a raid upon the basement for whiskey sellers. The building was surrounded and an officer detached to make the search. A thorough search was made, but the jointists had gone, taking with them their liquors before the officers got there. It is supposed the criminals had gone to the Territory.

Arkansas City Republican, June 12, 1886.

In the basement of the Grady building Tuesday morning, our officers found Jimmie O=Neil, a gambler from Newton, and his faro outfit. He only came to our city a few days ago and just opened up for business. His faro life here was cut short by his arrest. He was taken before Judge Lindsay. The trial came off this afternoon. He was bound over in the sum of $1,000 for his appearance in the district court. With Jimmie the officers captured a four-gallon bucket full of Achips,@ faro table, etc.

Arkansas City Republican, June 12, 1886.

Some of the four barrels of beer captured Tuesday in David=s Ablind tiger@ was stored in the basement beneath the post office. It is wonderful to note how Democratic the occupants of the building have become all at a moment. Postmaster Sinnott, Kingsbury, Ridenour, and others each carry a bran new corkscrew. The REPUBLICAN advises the sanitary committee of Arkansas City to investigate the matter or else in another 24 hours there will be nothing left but empty bottles and busted corks.

Arkansas City Republican, June 19, 1886.

The beer captured with the Ablind tiger@ last week has been removed from the cellar of the post office. It was being Aconfiscated@ too rapidly by government officials and other occupants of the post office building; then, besides, it was too unhandy for the justices of the peace, city officials, etc. It has been stored away in different apartments in the Bittle block. We noticed two of the Aapartments,@ located on top of two pairs of legs coming down the street just as we go to press.

Arkansas City Republican, June 19, 1886.

Saturday our officers made another raid upon the basement of the Monumental Hotel for jointists. They captured two: Bill McCoy and one Phillips. Against McCoy there are 10 accounts and against Phillips there are six. They were taken before Judge Kreamer, who bound them over to appear for trial next Thursday and Friday. McCoy=s bond was fixed at $1,500 and Phillips at $900. Both failed to give it, and were committed. No beer was captured with the prisoners; and consequently our officers and lawyers are unhappy.

Arkansas City Republican, June 26, 1886.

The sheriff of Cowley County has discovered a Ablind tiger@ at Arkansas CityCa wicked town. Harper County Enterprise.

With it our sheriff has started a menagerie at the Mud-hole.

Arkansas City Republican, June 26, 1886.

The trial of M. Davids, Jim Cherry, and Ed. Davids, arrested for running a Ablind tiger,@ came off Thursday. The jury returned a verdict dismissing Cherry and Ed. Davids, and M. Davids was held for a new trial to come off next Tuesday. The jury stood four for conviction and seven for acquittal of M. Davids. The jury was composed of Gardner Mott, L. N. Coburn, C. H. Frick, S. B. Rickle, H. O. Meigs, F. Bryant, J. A. Arnold, W. F. Hubbard, Hugh Ford, Will McKee, D. J. Buckley, and E. W. Compton.

[They had Rickle...wonder if it was really Pickle???]

It is time to quit and get this ready to mail to you. Believe you have enough material to get an inkling as to what the papers were saying re Indians, boomers, cattle men, etc.

Link to: Courier Online

Bill Bottorff
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