[Starting with Thursday, February 5, 1885.]

Editor: D. A. Millington.

[Note: The very first article on front page is very lengthy: it ends on Page 16.]

Farmers' Institute!

The Enterprising Farmers of Cowley Meet in Convention and Interchange Ideas.


Much Valuable Information For Tillers of the Soil.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.




A few wide awake farmers were found at the opera house about 10 o'clock, and after some discussion effected an organization as follows.

J. F. Martin was elected chairman; F. A. A. Williams, secretary; Dr. Perry, treasurer, and J. S. Baker and Mr. Foster, vice-presidents.

The morning programme was postponed.

The following committee on reception and entertainment was appointed: F. A. A. Williams, J. S. Baker, D. M. Adams, R. I. Hogue. After instructing the committee to meet the professors at the Santa Fe depot at noon, the meeting adjourned to two p.m.

At the afternoon session there was a very good attendance. We were glad to notice a number of ladies, and some farmers from distant parts of the county. Profs. Shelton and Fallyer and Supt. Thompson of the agricultural college were on hand--also Mr. Heath of the Kansas Farmer. The exercises were opened by President Martin in a paper on forestry, which excited a good deal of interest and discussion. In the discussion Mr. Adams favored the improvement of school grounds by the planting of trees--suggesting that each child plant a tree.


An address delivered before the Farmers' Institute by J. F. MARTIN.

Forestry is the science or art of growing forest trees. So much has been said and written on this subject that it would appear unwise for any, except master minds, to add thereto. Indeed, it is more difficult what not to say than what to say. But, notwithstanding this and the inexpressible importance of forestry, thee is, from the statesman in the legislative halls to the humble cottage, an alarming indifference on the subject. The divine method of impressing moral truth, in giving "precept upon precept, line upon line," "here a little, there a little," is no less needful or imperative in teaching God's physical laws. Every method, though somewhat imperfect, should be used until the people are thoroughly aroused and instructed on this vital subject. It will not be expected that in a short essay anything like justice can be done.

I have selected but two topics for present consideration.

1. The government's duty in regard to forestry on the plains. That the unbroken forest is only suited to be the home of the savage, and the treeless plains to the nomadic tribes, at best they will not sustain a dense population or develop and sustain a high state of civilization, are well-admitted truths. The great questions now being considered by economists, are, what can be done to prevent the destruction of the American forests? How can they be restored when this destruction has already gone too far? And what best to do to secure a timber growth on the plains?

In the discussion of these problems, vital principles are involved, and, if justly solved will bring blessings co-extensive with the race of man. The general government has made some feeble efforts to secure tree planting on the plains. These efforts have been feeble, from perhaps two causes: Lack of interest in the subject, and want of knowledge as to the means to be used in its accomplishment.

2. What has been done? Congress in passing the timber act says that a person may occupy one hundred and sixty acres of land, of the treeless domain, and by planting and caring for forty acres of the same in forest trees, for a term of eight years, he shall have a deed for the same. The further acts pertaining to this matter are to force a compliance with the conditions of the law. Is not this about all? To the uninformed as to the difficulties in the way the legal inducements are important and usually are not highly esteemed by the homeless in the over-crowded eastern states and countries of Europe. Add to these inducements the monthly and bi-annual reports of the State Board of Agriculture, of Kansas, showing the wonderful resources of the state, and the rapid development of our material interests, and the pictorial railroad advertisements, frequently overdrawn, which are scattered lavishly everywhere and the impression is too frequently made that ours is an El Dorado land; a bonanza, to be had by simply coming and occupying it. It is now known, or considered, at least--the difference between the eastern and western Kansas, and that a practical knowledge of the surrounding conditions is a matter that must be learned by every settler, that of trees, plants, and grain, that were grown with success in the east, some will partially succeed and others utterly fail; consequently in many instances, the settler sooner or later, after expending his cash, capital, and much hard labor, finds he has not succeeded, gets discouraged, and abandons his claim, which is too soon used by cattlemen for pasture. The settlers on timber claims, are in one sense agents, and should be so regarded, of the government to aid in timbering the prairies, and they should be fully instructed and otherwise aided, if need be, that they may not fail. It is somewhat humiliating to our intelligent American to confess that our government, and even our own state, have very unsatisfactory means of giving a list of trees suited to plant in the western part of the state. Every settler finds that he is groping his way in the dark, and that his neighbors are in no more fortune than himself, fully sensible of his need of help, yet conscious that his country is as helpless as himself. Is not this a pitiable state of affairs? A nation that could subdue a mighty rebellion, liberate four millions of slaves, and shoulder with perfect ease a debt of four billions dollars, is powerless to tell a pioneer what, how, or where to plant a tree, that it may become a monarch of the future forests. What a giant child!

Individual effort in experimenting has given many valuable lessons, and local organizations have done good service in gathering and disseminating these facts; but the work is scarcely commenced. The general government should establish at once a forestal school by liberal appropriations, and wisely connected with forestal experimental stations. In the meantime our own state, through her legislature, should step forward in the line of duty to her citizens, present and prospective, and make an annual appropriation of not less than $5,000, that one or more experimental stations may be maintained.

Let the directing power be under the control of our state agricultural college, but the appropriation to be expended mostly in one or more stations other than the college farm. The state board of agriculture would act wisely and justly in enlarging its field of usefulness, while using the valuable information it collects and disseminates, in inducing emigration to the state, that it may also inform these emigrants that if they settle on the public or railroad lands of extreme western Kansas, they need not expect to make money in growing corn and wheat, that at present, at least, grass is king, that the stock interest is the chief one at present. To tell them in a word what they may not try to do as well as what may be done to make them prosperous and happy in their new home.

Such information the emigrant needs to know, that he may not be compelled to pay the costly price of experience by repeating unsuccessful experiment, so frequently tried by those who preceded him. No individual organization, or corporation, is justifiable in misguiding the inexperienced and confiding emigrant. I am aware that Dr. Hough and others, operating under the forestal bureau, as well as many public citizens, have done invaluable service in disseminating facts in regard to forestry, and thus creating a great interest in the subject, yet this knowledge is too much of a general nature to be of much benefit to the inexperienced planter, especially so if the planter is located on the plains. Definite facts, plenty of them plainly stated, are what he wants and what he must have through some agency, before success can be assured. In no way can these facts be gathered to better advantage than by experimental stations and schools of forestry. Their importance is being recognized, and their necessity should be urged upon the proper authority until action is taken, and the work prosecuted with energy. They will be of national utility as well as economy, for no doubt there is annually more individual effort and self-sacrifice put forth in this state, to no purpose whatever, that would aggregate the cost of one hundred experimental stations. The plains must be reclaimed. It can and will be done. Shall it now be intelligently undertaken? One-fiftieth part of the labor that was required to clear the state of Ohio of its forests and bring the virgin soil into a good state of cultivation, if intelligently applied to the plains of our state, would cover them with orchards, forests, and gardens, "and the wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose."

This brings me to the effects of forestry on navigation. Eighty years ago the hardy pioneers began cutting the timber from the banks of the Ohio river, and long ago its fertile banks, failing to receive the protection of the forest trees, through the agency of the freezing of winter and the washing of the stream, have been caving in, thus each year increases the distance between its banks; thus robbing the farmer of his best soil, which contributes to enlarge the sand-bar and islands of the river, and a portion is added to the delta on the gulf.

But these are not the worse results. As the stream has grown wider, the depth of the water has decreased, which has greatly aided in making navigation passable during the great part of the year to only the smaller class of boats. Had the primeval forests continued to line her banks, their washing away would not have occurred; or should they once more become fringed with willows or other suitable trees, the reduction of the banks would not only cease but the process of rebuilding would commence and appreciable difference in the depth of the channel would be observed. It would also add to, instead of diminish, the value of lands adjacent. I thus refer to the Ohio river, not because it is an isolated case, but because, for many years, I had abundant opportunities to witness these operations; and deplore the results. Like causes produce like effects, and other rivers are affected in a similar manner.

There are great causes operating against internal navigation, viz: The deficiency of a regular supply of water in the rivers, caused by the destruction of the forests at the sources of the streams; but I must confine this article to forestry on the banks of the rivers.

Other causes being the same, the depth of a stream will be proportioned to its width. Thus, if it averages one foot in depth, it will be two feet deep if it becomes contracted one-half; and this additional advantage would be secured, that this depth would be more likely to be continued than if the stream had remained at the previous depth. This law is, perhaps, generally understood; but how shall we apply it successfully to our navigable rivers? We cannot wall them in with brick and mortar. We cannot hem them in with a mighty frame work of sawed lumber. No, but man can exert almost miraculous power in fixing their boundaries by walls of forests. Obstructions on opposite banks, such as suitable trees, that will reduce the width of the stream, are the means, and the only means available to man that will ever permanently and sufficiently secure such rivers as the Arkansas and Missouri to navigation. Let the native willows be systematically planted and cared for along the banks of these rivers, and so managed that they will continue to encroach on stream until the desired width and consequent depth is secured, and the great object will be attained. Me thinks I heard someone say, "impossible." It is your privilege to exercise your judgment. But permit me to ask you to give it some careful thought. It has pleased the creator to place to man's use the powers of nature in combating like powers, and it seems plain to my mind that the mighty forces of forest growth are designed in this case to be utilized by man in fixing the banks of streams in such a way that their waters may be made available for the purpose of navigation. When this growth becomes permanent and the river becomes swollen above its artificial banks, in consequence of the sluggish condition of the water in and along the young timber, a deposit of sand, clay, leaves, etc., will take place, which will be repeated at each rising of the stream. At the same time, in consequence of the contraction of the banks, additional depth and also weight of water being secured, which accelerates the movement of the current, thus it plows a deeper channel and continually forces the movable sand, etc., toward either bank, thus the double operation is secured, viz: building up and fixing the banks, and furrowing out the channel. I might here give another outline of the plan of operations, but will defer it for the present. I believe this plan is entirely practicable, and the only one by which the Arkansas, Missouri, and like rivers can be utilized for purposes of navigation. Here is room for the exercise of a broad statesmanship. Here is an opportunity for the government to extend its helpful arm and confer untold blessings in the immediate future upon man, which blessings may continue to the end of time. Railroad men will sneer at these propositions; statesmen may think it rather dirty work for their dignity; and small politicians will not vociferate in their favor, except they see a prospect of inflating their purses thereby. In the meantime the industrial classes will continue to submit to the exactions of railroad and other monopolies until, through the power of a better education, they will rise in their might and demand of their servants proper attention to their best interests.

In reply to a question, the chairman stated that one year old cottonwoods were the best for transplanting.

Mr. Hogue said this is true for all trees, and a great mistake has been made in this country by planting trees too large.

In most cases a one year old tree will be larger and better after three or four years than one set at three or four years old.

Prof. Shelton said in our cities very poor trees are being transplanted, often a tree two inches in diameter with all the top and nearly all the roots cut off. These generally die. Also some trees will not bear transplanting--black walnut should be planted from the seed.

In answer to a question, Prof. Fallyer said the growth of the walnuts could be very much enhanced by cultivation; he plead for good top on trees for transplanting.

Prof. Shelton in regard to trimming: one says he trims whenever his knife is sharp; another does not trim at all. We must take our choice between these two extremes. I cannot give any rule about it.

After further interesting discussion, the chairman announced that it was now time for the discussion on tame grasses. This was opened by a paper from F. A. A. Williams.


A paper read by F. A. A. Williams before the Farmers' Institute

Held at Winfield, Jan. 29 and 30, 1885.

Mr. Chairman, and Fellow-farmers:

While the subject assigned me for today is one in which I have taken great interest ever since I came to this country, yet I am satisfied that there are others here whose experience would enable them to edifying all more than I can; and I am therefore glad that it is simply my duty to "set the ball rolling," or to open the discussion.

It is probably still thought by the majority of the farmers in our county that while tame grasses are both successful and profitable in the older states from which they came, it is not worthwhile in this new and fertile county to fool with them. To illustrate the impression still too common, let me give an incident. When I moved to Cowley County in September 1881, I brought a carload of stock, and fed them on the road with timothy hay. It was heavily seeded and the floor of the car was pretty well covered with the waste hay and seed. "There," said a bystander as I was unloading my car, "is timothy seed enough to sow an acre of land. You ought to save and sow it." "Yes," said another, "there's lots of nice seed, but you might as well burn it up as to sow it here." And it did look like it just then, in the midst of the drouth and hot winds; yet in three or four weeks the rains began, and we had the wettest fall, and the finest growth of wheat, for three years before or since! And those who had the pluck to sow grass seed that fall got as fine a "stand" as was ever seen in Illinois.

It seems to me that the somewhat peculiar conditions under which we farm here are the very ones which should stimulate us to the increased culture of grasses. Our distance from market and the high cost of transportation take most of the profit from grain raising, and the two most important problems with us are how to save freight and labor. We do much toward solving the first problems when we feed our grain to stock, and thus ship in concentrated form; but is not the second problem still more important, and could we not solve it by sowing part of our land in grass, and letting nature perform the labor of raising our crops, and our livestock do the work of harvesting them?

Take hog-raising, for example. It is admitted by most of our farmers that they are making more money out of corn and hogs than anything else, and yet could they not save half the labor, and nearly double their net profits, by putting half of their corn land in grass, and pasture their hogs on it? Clover is considered an essential to profitable hog-raising in the older states, but here we try to raise hogs in a corral, ten rods square, and nothing but corn, corn, corn from one year's end to another. It is claimed on good authority that an acre of clover will produce more pork than an acre of corn, but even suppose it only produces as much, is not the saving of the labor of producing an acre of corn a very large item, and is not the saving of machinery another important item? Then your hogs will be far more healthy on clover pasture half the year than when confined in small lots and fed nothing but corn, and not only will your hogs be healthier and less liable to disease but your pork will be far more wholesome and palatable, more likely to have the muscular growth, the sprinkling of fat and lean, which is so desirable in meat for our own eating. But the fencing of pastures is too great an expense, says one! Well, against that I put two items not heretofore mentioned which I think will more than counterbalance it; first, your land will be growing richer all the time, instead of poorer, as it would in corn; second, it will be kept clean instead of growing foul with "careless weeds," cockle burrs, and sunflowers as it is almost sure to do where tended in corn. I am sure it would richly reward every hog raiser in Cowley County, who has not already done so, to sow an acre of grass (Alfalfa is my preference for hog pasture) for every ten head of hogs he intends to keep. Last summer I completed a hog pasture of about five acres--mainly of Alfalfa--and I have not made any improvement on the farm which has given me more satisfaction. My hogs would often refuse to come for their corn when called, and would keep on eating clover.

Perhaps I have said enough as to the desirability of tame grasses in this county, and I hope we will have testimony enough before this discussion is closed to convince those who are not already satisfied that the raising of grasses in Cowley County is no longer an experiment, but--with proper knowledge of sorts adapted and culture, and the exercise of that knowledge--is a decided success. The seed of tame grasses in Cowley County being recognized, and their success under judicious culture grand, granted we should inquire first: What kinds of grass to grow? Writing for the state of Kansas, and more especially the central and western parts thereof, Prof. Shelton, of the state University (one of our best authorities on this subject) names of the grasses as follows in the order of their importance: For pasture, orchard grass, Alfalfa, red clover, English blue grass, and Kentucky blue grass. For mowing, Alfalfa, red clover, English blue grass, perhaps meadow oat grass and timothy. Writing for Cowley County from the best light I can gather, the experience of others and my own, I would change his order a little and put alfalfa first for pasture and timothy first or second for mowing. Let us notice briefly a few of the characteristics and adaptation of the grasses mentioned.


From my experience of 1882, I was disposed to rank red clover ahead of its western relative, but the latter made so much better growth and furnished so much more pasturage, both in spring and fall last year, that I am now inclined to place it ahead. The great objection to it heretofore has been the high price of seed, but that is being gradually removed, and last year it was quoted in Kansas City at but little more than the price of clover seed. The merits of alfalfa are the ease of getting a "stand," its tenacity of life's power of enduring drought, very early and late growth, and amount of pasture or hay per acre. In this latter respect it exceeds any grass I have tried. Its demerits as a pasture grass are none, so far as I know; but it is open to some objection for hay as it is difficult to cure and its first and heaviest crop must be cut in June when we are liable to frequent showers and to get our clover spoiled before being sufficiently cured to stack. Moreover, owing to its peculiar form and amount of foliage, it does not save well in stack; and if cut for hay, should be put in a barn or shed or else the stack thatched with prairie hay or millet.

Our old favorite


succeeds well in this country, and furnishes a large amount of either pasture or hay. For the latter, however, it is open to the same objections as alfalfa, of being difficult to cure and keep in stack. Prof. Shelton wrote of it some time ago: "When land is once seeded to clover, it never "runs out" as in the easter states but thickens and spreads continually by self-seeding." A neighbor said once in passing my patch of orchard grass that I would "repent sowing it, for I could never get rid of it." I think he was mistaken; but if either orchard grass or clover will hold its own against the heat and dry spells of our climate, and not run out, then indeed is the future of Cowley County assured.


is ranked first, for pasture, by Prof. Shelton. I cannot speak much of it from my own experience, but have seen one very fine field of it near Winfield, which furnished a large amount of feed the first fall after it was sowed. Prof. Shelton said of it a year or more ago, and I have not learned of his recalling his favorable opinion: "Two years ago in giving our experience with this grass, we stated that it had proven to be one of the very best and safest of all the pasture grasses that we had tried." The same must be said of it today with emphasis. We feel confident that it will yield fully twice the feed that can be obtained from the same area of blue grass or timothy, and in nutritive qualities it is certainly greatly superior to blue grass."

Of English blue grass, I sowed only a small piece in the spring of 1882, but got a good stand, and my horses prefer it to anything else when running in the field. Indeed, they pastured it so close during the dry part of last spring that I feared I should never see it again, but as soon as I stopped pasturing, it grew up and raised a fine crop of seed. I believe it for horse pasture, especially very desirable, but it does not make much hay.

Timothy is, I believe, very successful in this county, and in view of the rapid disappearance on our prairie meadows, it behooves every farmer to sow at least enough of it to furnish hay for his own horses. I sowed three or four acres in May 1882 on a piece of low, wet ground which had before been almost worthless and the following summer it produced a fine crop of hay as I ever saw anywhere. Last year it did not produce so heavy a crop; but still the land paid better than it ever had before.


or Evergreen grass, has been very highly recommended by our best authorities, and is no doubt worthy of a trial by the farmers of Cowley County; but as I have neither tried it myself or seen it tried here, I will not speak of it further; but hope we shall learn something about it in the course of this discussion.


On this division of my subject there are three important points I would emphasize. First, thorough preparation of the soil. It is not likely that any farmer who is sufficiently enthusiastic and painstaking to try to raise tame grasses in Cowley County will select this point, and yet we all need "line upon line," and are often tempted to do things poorly when we are in a hurry, as farmers generally are. But if you have not time to prepare your grass land well, do not sow at all. It will just be time and money thrown away. The ground should be old and well-cultivated: it will not do to sow on prairie sod or on ground lately broken. It should be cleaned of trash, well-plowed, and then thoroughly harrowed. It is of greatest importance to have the soil fine and mellow. Then sow your seed--preferably with a seeder--cover well with a light harrow, and follow with a roller. Do not seed with any other crop. On this point all our best Kansas authorities and experience agree. There are of course cases where grass has succeeded with other crops, but this is the safe rule for Kansas climate, and where one side is doubtful and the other side safe, we should always take the safe side.


is in the spring, and not too early in the season when it is apt to be dry and windy. Wait until the spring rains commence as a rule about the middle of April and you are reasonably sure of a good stand. I have sowed in May with very good success. The trouble with fall sowing is that the ground is almost always hard and dry in August and September, often almost impossible to plow, and even if plowed early and reduced to good condition, the showers at that period are so scanty and uncertain as to make grass growing unsafe. And if you wait till October, when the fall rains come, the grass does not get a sufficient start to withstand the winter.

In conclusion, one thing is certain: our prairie grasses like the Indian and the Chinese "must go." It remains for us to say whether our farms and farmers shall be worn out or whether both shall be enriched by a judicious mingling of grass culture and dairying with grain farming. Our best authority on stock and grass says: Tame grasses will carry at least 15 head of three-year-old cattle on twenty acres from April 25 to November 15, or 6 months, equally as well as wild pasture will carry eight head from May 1 to October 1, or 5 months. In cutting both kinds for hay, the difference is fully as great aside from having the late pasture on tame grasses." In a late paper it is stated that Kansas farmers will sow more grass seed this spring than ever before. Shall we of Cowley County fall into line? This subject of raising tame grasses is a vital one to the farmers of this county; and if this discussion shall serve to increase the interest in their cultivation, it will be time and labor well spent.

Mr. Meredith asked what kind of grass to sow to produce the best hay for cattle: both quantity and quality considered.

Prof. Shelton said: "I would advise orchard grass and red clover, one and a half bushels of the former, and four or five pounds of the latter, per acre. We have a field of clover on the college farm sown in 1872 on high prairie land which is now good as ever; it produces heavy crops without any fertilizing and to all appearance will be good one hundred years hence. We have another field of orchard grass equally good sown in 1885. I can speak very favorably of alfalfa, but be particular to get western grown seed and not European or eastern seed. Sow about twenty pounds to the acre, and do not pasture this or any other grass the first and critical season. The secret of many failures with tame grasses, even after the first year, is too close pasturing in early spring and late fall; timothy may succeed if sown in the fall but all others should be sown in the spring. In Riley County grass growing is no longer considered an experiment, but our best farmers are seeding land in orchard grass, clover, etc., eight quarts timothy, and two or three quarts clover for meadow."

Mr. Baker had failed with alfalfa.

Mr. Jarvis, from Colorado, spoke highly of alfalfa and thought Kansas well adapted to it; advocated heavy seeding, twenty-five or thirty pounds to the acre, had seen no crop which equaled it for feed.

Prof. Shelton thought that Mr. Baker's failure resulted from having sowed eastern seed or else to some peculiarity of soil.

Dr. Perry asked the question, "Prof. Shelton, is there any other grass you can recommend for hay?"

Prof. Shelton responded: "Yes, there are other kinds such as English blue grass and meadow oat grass which have done well with us generally, but they will not stand drouth and are not so reliable as the varieties before mentioned."

The subject of blue grass was discussed at some length, the impression seeming to prevail that it was a success in this country. After announcements for the evening, the institute adjourned.


Owing to the omission of the morning programme, some change was necessary in the published programme, and Mr. D. T. Armstrong was requested to give his paper on small fruits. This was followed by general discussion on the subject of the paper.

Mr. Hogue was requested to give his experience. He stated that the Charles Downing, Crescent seedling, Captain Jack, and Green's Prolific were the best varieties of strawberries; thorough cultivation was necessary; Doolittle was the best blackcap raspberry, but red raspberry was a failure; the Sharpless, Bidwell, Wilson's Albany, and Seedling strawberry were comparative failures.

President Martin had made some failures with small fruits, and some successes, especially with strawberries; had sold in 1884 from ½ acre of strawberries $118 worth of fruit.

Mr. Hogue said, "We did not keep a full account of our proceeds, but I know that the sales in one day were $32. This was from about ¼ acre of strawberries." The general opinion seemed to be that with proper care in selecting varieties and planting and thorough cultivation, strawberries and blackcap raspberries were successful here, but red raspberries a failure. Mr. Hogue stated that currants had been always considered a failure in Cowley County, but he knew of two parties who had grown them successfully by mulching; one of them was Mr. Sumpter, near Winfield.

Mr. Armstrong suggested pinching off the red raspberry when about two feet high so that it would throw out laterals; he thought it might succeed here by that treatment. No one present had tried it in that way. All agreed that grapes were a decided success here, Concord the standard variety.

Mr. Hogue: "The Dreacut Amber has done well with us; the Catawba is too late for this climate--does not endure the hot sun."

Pres. Martin: "I would not plant any of these transparent seedless grapes sold by nursery agents at a dollar a vine."

As to trimming grapes, Prof. Shelton and Mr. Armstrong advocated cutting back severely every year, leaving only a stump of old vine a foot or two high. Mr. Hogue trims according to the strength of the vine; a week vine should be trimmed back to stimulate good growth, while the strong one should be allowed more wood to produce fruit.

Following the discussion on small fruits, Prof. Fallyer of the Agricultural College gave a very interesting lecture on fuel for heat and light. It would be difficult to report even the substance of the lecture as it was one of those which must be heard to be appreciated. His description of the composition and refining of petroleum and kerosene were especially interesting and important. The three principal products from petroleum are paraffin, kerosene, and naphtha, and because kerosene brings more than either of the others, they are run over with it in distillation, the paraffin making it heavy and poor for light and the naphtha making it explosive. Compounds sold to prevent kerosene from exploding are humbugs.

Prof. Shelton was then requested to give some facts as to the State Agricultural College at Manhattan, Riley County. The College received from the United States about 80,000 acres of land, which was very well located and has now all been sold, producing a permanent endowment fund of about half a million dollars which cannot be used for buildings but must be permanently invested and now brings about $32,000 interest per annum. The College is not dependent upon the state, but all salaries of professors and running expenses are provided for by this endowment fund. He gave many other interesting facts as to departments, government work, etc., which we have not space to give but which anyone interested in can obtain by writing to Prof. Fairchild, at Manhattan.


The morning session was opened according to programme by Mr. McClellan's paper on stock-breeding. This contained many valuable points.


Paper Read before the Farmers' Institute by F. W. McClellan.

The first query of the average American when thinking of engaging in any breeding is, will it pay? And in stock breeding, as in any other pursuit, this will be the question of the first importance. To this question we answer "Yes, No." Yes to a person who enters upon the business with a proper location, necessary arrangements, and a proper knowledge of the business, or such a love for stock that he will attain that knowledge. No to one that does not have these and will not take the trouble to acquire them.

I would not have you understand me as having reference to any particular breed or stock, as what tends to success in one will apply as well to the others. It will be impossible to give all the reasons why it will pay and why it is advisable to engage in stock raising. Among the reasons, if not the first reason, it keeps up with the fertility of the soil. Continual grain raising of whatever kind will exhaust any soil, so that the profits even with good prices will be but nominal while with stock the land is being continually enriched and not only are the profits greater from increased crops but the value of land is increased. I will give a case to illustrate.

I commenced to keep stock on the farm I was living on in Illinois: cattle, sheep, and hogs. I was told by the neighbors that I could make more money by raising grain, as the markets were handy and it would not pay to raise stock on such high-priced land. My crops increased from 40 to 50 bushels of corn to the acre to 75 and 80, while theirs decreased to 25 and 30 bushels by their system of grain raising. A neighbor, whose farm joined with mine, paid me 55 cents a bushel for corn to keep his hogs through the winter, and he had as many acres in corn as I did. I sold my farm for ten dollars an acre more than he asked for his and he has his yet. It paid me to raise stock. I might say here that other crops increased in like ratio. It will pay because the expense of shipping the crops to market is less when fed to stock and besides the stock leaves about 56 percent of the feed as fertilizers to increase the succeeding crops. In grain we have Russia, India, and other countries to compete with, while they draw on us largely for their meat supplies. Then in our country the demand is increasing faster than the supply. The increase of cattle to the population is as 7 to 13 percent, or only about half.

While stock raising will pay under certain conditions, it is advisable for a person who thinks of engaging in it to consider well the contingencies necessary to make it a success. To succeed he must not only like to attend to their wants because it is a profit for him to do so but he must take a pleasure in doing it and must find enjoyment not only in administering to their wants but also in contributing to their comfort. In one respect he must think more of them than he does of himself. In cold or storm he must be out until he knows his stock is as comfortable as it is in his power to make it. If he is not willing to do this, he would be better to leave this business severely alone for he will not succeed. A person who has never had any experience with stock should go very slow in engaging in the business, but I will not say let it alone, for if he has a natural love for stock and the determination to master the details, he will succeed. There is one idea prevailing to a great extent and the sooner the people can be disabused of it, the better. It is that anyone can make money with stock and that all they have to do is to buy and turn them on the range and the golden dollars will begin to roll into their pockets and will continue to roll in a geometrical progression. All such generally find the dollars rolling the other way.

The first requisite after one has decided to engage in stock breeding is to select a location suitable to the kind of stock he wishes to raise, as to soil, lay of the land, water, etc.; also to markets, and those who are already located should select stock suited to the location. While we admit that on most farms any of the different kinds of stock do better than no stock, yet there is hardly a farm where there is not a greater profit in some kinds than in others.

The next after the location is the selection of stock and I cannot urge too strongly the necessity of great care and judgment. Be sure you get as near what your judgment tells you you want regardless of the price if within your means. The lowest priced animal is often the dearest. When we take into consideration the differences in the value of the progeny there is often no comparison in the prices of two animals, the highest priced being incomparably the cheapest. There are various considerations that make this so. Put the two or their progeny on the same keeping and there will all the time be a difference in gain. There is a difficulty arises here that cannot always be overcome. In buying breeding stock one cannot always tell how they have been kept. A fine looking animal may have been pampered so as to be nearly worthless for breeding while another that does not look as well, having had only ordinary care, may be one that will be very profitable. Even in the herds that we handle for years we, in our present way of doing, cannot tell to a certainty if we can in any way approximate to a decision as to which of our animals is the most profitable when all things are taken into consideration. The dairying branch of the business may be taken as an illustration. How many of our dairymen can tell which one of their cows are making a profit on the feed, value of the cows, expense of labor, and what profit each cow makes? It is true they are awakening to the importance of knowing and are making tests to determine, and are weeding out the unprofitable ones. This must be the case with all classes of stock. The animal that will not yield a profit on cost, feed, and labor must go and the place occupied by one that will weed out the culls, and do not be afraid to reduce your herd for fear you will not have as many as your neighbor, but bear in mind that success consists more in quality than in quantity. It is a safe rule always to understock rather than overstock. If the season is favorable throughout for a luxuriant growth all may be well, but if by drought or any of the many causes by which crops and pastures are shortened, an unenviable situation to say the least is forced upon the stockman. The profits on a few extra fine animals will be far greater than on a large number of inferior ones. This is clearly shown by our market reports. The same report of the Chicago markets, quoted ordinary steers at $4 to $4.50 per cwt., and the thirty-four Iowa steers at $7.75 per cwt., and another of the sale of W. D. Gillett's at $8.00, I think. This makes a difference of about $4.00 in the extreme prices. Another element of success is to have suitable shelter for the stock; we say suitable for it must be adapted to the location and severity of the climate. While in Minnesota and other extreme northern sections, warm barns are necessary, in other sections sheds to keep off the storms and protect from the winds of winter and the burning heat of summer may be better. In any location stock must be kept comfortable, either by natural or artificial shelter, as the owner will have to burn corn or its equivalent to keep up the heat consumed by exposure.

Another thing to be taken into consideration is to place a true estimate of value on your stock. With many a cow is a cow, and is worth about so much, and a horse is a horse, and so on through the list. One animal may be worth several times the value of another apparently as good. She may be a more prolific breeder and her progeny may be much more hardy and growthy. When we consider the difference in their increase and the increase of their females, we can hardly estimate the difference in their value. Feeding is a prime consideration in successful stock raising. It is not the one who feeds the most that feeds the best. A man to succeed must, as we said before, love the stock he feeds and must make the stock love him, and must also use intelligence and judgment. In changing from one kind of feed to another, it should be done gradually so the system can become adapted to the new rations. Many valuable animals are killed, and vastly more injured, by sudden changes in feed. We find it works well in spring to give stock a good feed of dry food in the morning before turning to grass and keeping it up for several days; and in the fall, give them part of a feed of dry food each day before keeping them on it altogether. It is also good to have a stock of dry feed for them to run to while the grass is young and watery. For a few days they may let it alone but it will not be long before they will begin to visit it. While you are careful to have plenty of feed for your cattle, be just as particular to have plenty of good water for them to drink, either have them have access to a good stream or a good well. Let ponds and mud holes severely alone. It is a question if a large portion of the stock losses of the average farm do not arise either from a lack of water or from drinking impure water. It would be safe and also humane not to let our stock drink water that we will not drink ourselves. There are many other considerations, but we will not weary you enumerating them, but will merely say weigh well the matter, be sure you are right and go ahead.

Then followed general discussion.

Mr. Adams: "I would like to ask whether animals for beef should be well fed with grain through the whole period of growth, or fed mainly on roughness, grass, etc.?"

Dr. Perry: "The plumpness of the young animal should be kept up by feeding grain whenever it is necessary."

Mr. Gale, Rock Township. "I have had good success in feeding steers corn alone without roughness; would say especially never let an animal intended for beef shrink or lose anything. Whenever you let it lose a pound, you are losing money with compound interest."

Mr. Thomas. "Stock hogs run on red clover would bring a cent a pound more than those fed in corn alone; probably because their digestive apparatus was better developed and they could gain more when fattened."

Mr. Meredith of Dexter: "My cattle fed mainly on roughness gained faster, and made a better growth when put on pasture than those of one of my neighbors who had fed mainly on grain."

Mr. Gale: "The fattest lot of steers I ever saw in Kansas were two year olds which had been fed almost entirely on corn sold for $72 a head the spring they were two years old. Steers taken from grass, fat, and put on grain will lose, or at least, not gain any for four weeks or more."

Mr. Markham: "A Kansas City buyer in our country said that millett should not be fed to feeding steers; he himself thought that corn in the ear was the most profitable feed for steers; several others coinciding in the opinion."

Mr. McClellan made a very wise distinction between feeding young and old cattle: the young cattle should have a good deal of coarse food in order to develop bone and muscle, while the older cattle to be fattened should be fed mainly on fat forming foods, such as corn.

Prof. Shelton closed the morning session with his most interesting and practical lecture on farm experiments. This we would like to give in full, but the substance of it, with much other valuable matter, will be published by the Professor in his report for 1884, which those interested can probably obtain by addressing him. Two points of special interest, however, were the greatly increased profits of feeding pigs in a warm barn in winter over those fed in an open shed and the large amount of pork obtained from one half acre of alfalfa--much more than the average amount obtained from one half acre of corn.


The first business taken up was the formation of a permanent farmers' organization for the county.

Mr. Adams moved that a committee of one from each township be appointed to perfect a plan of organization. Carried.

It was also agreed that the present officers hold over until the final organization be effected. It was moved and seconded that sub-committees on organization be effected.

It was moved and seconded that sub-committees on organization and plan of work be appointed. Carried.

The chair named the following gentlemen on organization--Dr. Perry and F. A. A. Williams; and on plan of work--M. A. Markham and F. W. McClellan.

The full township committee was made up as follows.

Bolton Amos Walton.

Beaver F. H. Burden.

Vernon R. J. Yeoman.

Ninnescah L. Stout.

Rock S. P. Strong.

Fairview T. S. Green.

Walnut F. W. McClellan.

Pleasant Valley A. H. Broadwell.

Silverdale George Green.

Tisdale J. S. Baker.

Winfield Dr. Perry.

Liberty J. C. McCloy.

Richland D. C. Stevens.

Omnia W. R. Stolp.

Silver Creek John Stout.

Harvey R. L. Strother.

Windsor Samuel Fall.

Dexter W. E. Meredith.

Cedar J. H. Service.

Otter Mr. Mills.

Sheridan J. R. Smith.

Maple Mr. Fitzsimmons.

Creswell Ed. Green.

Spring Creek H. S. Libby.

This committee with the sub-committees and officers were requested to meet at the Courier office on Saturday, February 14th, at one o'clock P. M.

A short discussion on stock raising followed, introduced by a question as to the profit of feeding yearling steers. The general opinion seemed to be that with a good grade of cattle, it might be done profitably.

Prof. Shelton stated that an acquaintance of his fed young steers (high grade short horn) which he marked at one and a half years old, and found them more profitable than any others he handled; he also stated that fine stock must be well kept or they would rapidly deteriorate. You may take two pure bred short-horn heifers and breed them to the same or equally good males, but starve and expose the one and well treat the other, and in two or three generations the progeny of the one which was starved will be miserable scrubs, while the descendants of the other will hold their own or improve. If a man is going to starve and expose his stock, he had better not handle anything but Texans; they are the only kind that will prove profitable under such treatment.

At this point the chairman rose and stated that the college professors would have to leave at 3 o'clock and if the institute wished to get any more light from them, they must do it before that time and carry on any desired discussion afterwards.

Dr. Perry: "I would like to ask Prof. Fallyer whether any analysis of soils has been made at the college and what are the results?"

Prof. Fallyer: "We have done something at soil analysis but we do not place much dependence upon it in determining the fertility of the soils or the proper fertilizers to apply; this is the point where theory and practice do not agree."

Several questions were asked the Professor as to land being injured by being plowed and left exposed to the sun or benefitted by shade of crops or buildings. He did not think these things would affect it except when land was plowed too wet and exposed to the sun, when it would bake.

Mr. Markham offered the following resolution, which was unanimously adopted.

RESOLVED, That it is the sentiment of the Cowley County Farmers' Institute, held at the Winfield Opera House Jan. 29 and 30, 1885, that the services of Profs. Shelton, Fallyer, and Supt. Thompson of the Kansas State Agricultural College have been highly appreciated and for which they have the hearty and sincere thanks of the members of the Institute.

Prof. Shelton, on behalf of the faculty, very gracefully thanked the meeting for this expression of their appreciation of their services and expressed his belief from what he had seen of the farmers of Cowley County that they had the material to form a permanent and successful farmers' institute which would be of lasting benefit to the people of the county.

Supt. Thompson then read his paper containing many timely suggestions worth heeding. The following is a summary.

Note: If there was a summary, it was not given in article.

The Professors then took their leave and the discussion was carried on by home talent.

Mr. McClellan: "Has anyone here tried raising mangel wurzels for stock and with what success?"

Mr. Adams: "I planted a row about ten rods long last spring, which grew well in spite of the dry weather and yielded about ten bushels. I believe they can be grown here successfully."

Mr. Broadwell stated that artichokes were very successful in this county and were desirable for hogs.

Mr. Croco: "The English artichoke is very profitable in Ohio, and I think they would be here."

Mr. Gale: "A patch of oats makes fine pasture for hogs and is the next thing to red clover."

Dr. Perry: "A gentleman from Barbour County raises hogs mainly on sorghum with great success."

Mr. Thirsk: "I have found the blood turnip beet profitable here, also think sorghum the most useful crop we can grow."

Mr. Martin: "I am encouraged about the future of the farmers of the county; we can succeed (as you have learned from what has been said here) with tame grasses; and if beets, artichokes, and such winter feed can be raised successfully for our stock, we are on the high road to prosperity."

Mr. McClellan and Dr. Perry recommended sorghum highly as feed for cattle.

Mr. Adams moved that the thanks of the institute be tendered to the press of the county for their assistance in making the institute a success. Carried unanimously.

The chairman gave notice of the meeting of the County Horticultural Society at the Courier office on Saturday, February 4th. There being no further business, the institute adjourned.


Action of the Inauguration Executive Committee Relative to Tickets.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885. Front Page.

The action of the Executive Committee of the Inauguration Ceremonies at Washington in designating the Baltimore & Ohio ticket offices in the principal cities, East and West, as special depositories for sale of Inauguration Ball tickets, cannot but prove of great advantage, as heretofore tickets could not be obtained for the ball until after arrival at the national capital. Everybody knows where the B. & O. offices are in the leading cities: 83 Clark St. in Chicago; 5 N. High St. in Columbus; 173 Walnut St. in Cincinnati; 130 S. Illinois St. in Indianapolis; 101 N. 4th St. in St. Louis; 152 W. Baltimore St. in Baltimore.

Letters relative to the ball tickets, address to the B. & O. ticket agent at any of the addresses given, or to ticket agent B. & O. office, Louisville, Wheeling, Zanesville, Newark, Sandusky, Cumberland, or Frederick will receive prompt attention.

At the offices named, those who desire can purchase the ball tickets same time as they do their railroad tickets; while those who may want them as souvenirs do not have to send to Washington for them. Preparations for the Inauguration ceremonies are being carried forward with the determination to make them memorable. The Baltimore & Ohio, as the only direct line from the West into Washington, has extended every facility to executive and other committees in so shaping matters as to bring complete success in every particular. The B. & O. has announced the lowest rates ever made for an inauguration, in most instances less than half-fare for the round trip, with a limit on the tickets of the most satisfactory length. By the B. & O.'s recently put on fast train schedule, its noted limited trains make the run through to Washington, from all points, from one to six hours quicker than any of the limited trains on other lines. Not a nickel extra is charged for the fast time, which is directly to the contrary of the rule followed by the other lines with their limited trains, for upon them double fare is the only way one can travel, and must take sleeping cars through, whether wishing so to do or not. On the B. & O. one exercises the good old American custom of going as he pleases. Trains run through solid, no change of cars, of any class, and pay only for what is asked for--not a cent more, no matter what may be the custom on other lines. All these things are well worth considering before starting.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885. Front Page.

The boom in wheat and corn and hogs, and the general tone of business illustrate fully what the Inter-Ocean has many times said during the past two months. The depression was but temporary, and croakers and growlers should be ordered to the rear. This great, big country, full of live men, and storehouses bursting with riches, is not ready to lay down and squeal. Chicago Inter-Ocean.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885. Front Page.

THE WEATHER, Lieut. Charles W. McKim, Portland, Ky., states: "For twenty years I suffered with rheumatism. During the bad weather my suffering was terrible. I was about give up. Someone suggested the application of St. Jacobs Oil. I tried it and its relief was rapid. In half an hour I could stand up. I no longer suffer with the pains."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885. Front Page.

Down in Kentucky it is said they are keeping green the memory of the last presidential campaign by hunting skunks during the winter months.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885. Front Page.

Great Excitement



Was caught and arrested, and to keep him from doing further mischief we have


him. We will frankly admit that we have murdered prices, and will gladly devote the time to showing you how we did it. We feel confident that we can prove to your satisfaction that we have an immense


Owing to the great depression of the trade we have determined to put prices within the reach of everybody, which the following prices will show. (Space will only permit of a few enumerations):

Brocade Silks and Satins, $1.30, worth $1.75.

Brocade Silks and Satins, $2.00, worth $2.50.

Heavy Gros Grain Silk, 50 cents, worth 75 cents.

Heavy Gros Grain Silk, 75 cents, worth $1.25.

Gainet's Standard Gros Grain Silk, $1.05, worth $1.50.

Gainet's Extra Heavy Gros Grain Silk, $1.50, worth $2.25.

Ottoman Silk, $1.25, worth $1.65.

Cashmeres, 37 inches wide, 30 cents, worth 50 cents.

Heavy French Cashmeres, 55 cents, worth 85 cents.

Extra Heavy French Cashmere, 75 cents, worth $1.15.

Superfine French Cashmere (17 count), 90 cents, worth $1.25.

Silk Velvets, $1.80, worth $2.25.

Brocaded Silk Velvets (20 inches), $1.50, worth $1.75.

Chenille Fringes, in all colors, 55 cents, worth 75 cents.

Fine Dress Plaids, 12½ cents, worth 20 cents.

Fine Dress Plaids, 15 cents, worth 25 cents.

Fine Dress Plaids, 25 cents, worth 40 cents.

Fine Dress Plaids, 7 cents, worth 12½ cents.

Brocaded Dress Goods, 12½ cents, worth 20 cents.

Brocaded Dress Goods, 15 cents, worth 25 cents.

Best Prints, 6¼ cents, worth 8½ cents.

Good Prints, 4 cents, worth 5 cents.

Lonsdale (make) Muslin, 9 cents, worth 12½ cents.

Androscoggin Muslin, 9 cents, worth 12½ cents.

Hercules' Shirting Muslin, 8 cents, worth 10 cents.

Indian Head Sheeting, 7 cents, worth 10 cents.

Dwight Sheeting, 7 cents, worth 10 cents.

These prices will be continued until Feb. 1, 1885.


P. S. Everybody owing me will please call and settle their accounts by January 1st, without fail.

[Please note that this ad was run on the front page of February 5, 1885, issue. MAW]


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.


Largest Stock and Largest Business House in Southern Kans.


Thousands of Dollars Worth of Goods to be Slaughtered.

I have Reduced the prices on our entire Stock of

General Merchandise.

You can again buy goods at almost your own prices. Grain of all kinds is Cheap, money scarce, but I have inaugurated a business that overcomes all of these difficulties. I buy nearly all kinds of Country Produce and not only pay Market Price, but the top of the market. I have made Winfield the


And no one can deny this, and I only ask the Trading Public to come and examine our Stock and Prices. Bring your Wives, Mothers, and Mothers-in-law with their children and I will try and make you all happy with more goods for your money than any House in the State. Remember the place.



Corner 10th and Main Streets.

-Finally! The End of Page One of February 5, 1885, issue.-



Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The people who never blunder would be splendid company if they were not all dead.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Nicaraguan treaty failed of ratification by the U. S. Senate by a vote of 32 to 23, it requiring two-thirds to ratify.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The West Shore railroad has advanced emigrant rates from $1 to $3 from New York to Chicago.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Senator Plumb is of the opinion that nothing can be accomplished this session of Congress toward opening up Oklahoma to settlement.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Gordon will be relieved and the capture of Khartoum prevented. But how Egypt is to hold the Soudan without a permanent English army of occupation is to be explained.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Passenger fare between New York and Chicago seems to be settling to the basis of a cent per mile. Railroad companies will be very pleasantly surprised at the results of that rate if it becomes standard.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Friday Senator Sol. Miller asked leave of absence from the Senate until Tuesday because he wanted to go home and celebrate "ground-hog day." The Senate thought it a ground-hog case and adjourned over.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Last week a passenger train on the Fort Scott and Wichita railroad was snowed in for two days among the Flint Hills and provisions were hauled to the train by teams to sustain the passengers, so it is reported.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

It is reported that Cleveland is very much dissatisfied with the do nothing course of the Democrats in the House of Representatives and has sent for Carlisle and Randall and urged them to inaugurate a vigorous policy.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The legislative appropriation bill, which has become a law, appropriates thirty thousand for the payment of per diem and mileage of members of the legislature, lieut. Governor, officers, clerks, pages, and chaplains of the senate and house.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The National Board of Trade, in session at Washington, calls upon Congress to suspend the silver dollar coinage. The silver convention in session at Denver calls for the increase of such coinage. Between the two Congress will probably take no action on the subject.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Boston Advertiser suggests that the Government should provide a stamped letter sheet, with lines on the middle of the face for direction, and on its back for the message. This could be folded twice and sealed. Its weight would be that of a postal card, and its price should be one cent.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The supposed dynamite infernal machine found in the hallway leading from the British consul-general's office in New York turns out to be filled with a harmless compound by printers. A scare only intended. A similar "joke" in the national capital might expedite the passage of important bills.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Will J. Wilson came home from Topeka Saturday morning and returned Monday evening. The Legislature had adjourned over until Tuesday. Ed. Greer and Frank Jennings did not come home. They were on a tour of inspection of the State charitable institutions, each being a sub-committee of the Ways and Means Committee of his House.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

When an old soldier looks over the report of debates in the United States Senate and reads the declaration of a Senator to the effect that "Jefferson Davis is a man of honor and a patriot beloved by millions of his countrymen," the old soldier in question is apt to ask himself what the disturbance was about when he was called upon to enlist, and give four of the best years of his life to the military service of the country.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Wellington Standard wants to know "why it is Wellington uses twice as many postal notes, registered letters, and money orders as Winfield." Well, if this were true, there is a good reason. Winfield has some first class banks in which the people have unlimited confidence, such as they have in Uncle Sam, and therefore make their remittances by bank drafts, which are cheaper. But the premises are not true. Winfield issues more money orders than Wellington and about the same number of postal notes and registered letters.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. Greer, in introducing House bill No. 313, relating to postage, moved that the rules be suspended and the bill read a second and third time and put upon its final passage. Someone asking what emergency existed for such action, he replied by stating that the Postoffice Department of the United States of America wanted its money for $1,600 worth of postage furnished the members of the Legislature, and had already "hinted" to the Secretary of State its readiness to receive pay. This being satisfactory to the members, the motion prevailed and the bill was read and passed. Capital.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Wichita Eagle calls Mrs. Helen M. Gougar "a tramp female politician," and a "night street talker," and the House of Representatives "a cranky house," because it "permitted: Miss Gougar to address the House. If the editor of the Eagle had one-fifth of the good sense, high character, and ability of Mrs. Gougar, he would not air his own crankiness, his little narrow prejudices, and conservatism against women on all occasions. Mrs. Gougar is a noble woman, one of the ablest and most eloquent orators of the times, her theme is of the highest interest; and the House did well in spending an hour to hear her.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The postoffice appropriation bill, as completed by the house appropriation committee, provides for a total appropriation of $52,253,200. The estimates as prepared by the postoffice department amounted to $56,000,169; the appropriation of the current year amounted to $49,640,400. It changes the postage on letters from two cents per half ounce to two cents per ounce and second class matters from two cents per pound to one cent per pound. It also provides for immediate delivery within a mile of the postoffice in cities of over 4,000 inhabitants designated by the postmaster general when the letter is prepaid by an extra ten cent stamp.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. Greer, of Winfield, has introduced a bill in the House locating the school for imbecile yo8uths in his city. Senator Hackney introduced such a bill last session, which passed the Senate, but failed in the House. In the present bill it is provided that Winfield shall give the State from forty to eighty acres of land on which the new school is to be erected. As Wichita is bidding for this same institution, it is expected that the State will be able to secure not only the land but enough money to build the school and thus give it a good start. Lawrence has not been heard from yet, but probably will be now that two other cities are striving to gather in the fruit. Winfield offers a good, healthy location, and is a quiet, moral town, where the pupils, whenever they arrive at a state of understanding, will never have bad examples set before them. Kansas City Journal.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

[Not clear as to the author of this article. It could have been Millington.]

The warmest advocates of a constitutional convention are those who are most bitter against the prohibitory clause of the constitution, and their principal object appears to be to get another "whack" at that provision for a constitutional convention, which is resubmission in an indirect way.

Of course they present many other reasons for calling the convention, among which is the need of more judges of the Supreme Court than the present constitution provides. This admitted need can be much more expeditiously supplied than by a convention. The election to decide whether a convention be called or not could not take place until November, 1885, and the new constitution could not be ratified irregularly before November, 1886, and regularly before November, 1887. In any event the new justices of the supreme court could not be elected and qualified earlier than January, 1887. Now, if the legislature should submit an amendment to the present constitution, it would be voted upon in November, 1885, and the new justices appointed and qualified by January 1, 1886, which would be a year earlier than possible by way of the convention.

The same may be said of the two or three other changes in the constitution which seem to be demanded. The changes can be effected a year earlier by way of amendment than they can by way of a convention. If the amendments demanded are too many to be all submitted at one election, the balance can be submitted at the next annual election and still go into effect as early as by a convention, for there must be a session of the legislature in 1886, to reapportion the state, as required by the constitution.

There are much stronger and at least as many valid objections to the convention as there are arguments for it. The submission of amendments costs the state nothing, while a convention would cost the state probably from twenty to thirty thousand dollars, possibly more. Then the people are so divided in opinion as to what changes are needed that it is scarcely probable that no change would be inserted which would be objected to by a majority, and it is highly probable that the new constitution would be rejected by the people at the ballot box, and thus would the cost of the convention be a dead loss to the state, and the changes really needed be delayed until they could be effected by submitting amendments.

The fact is that a constitutional convention is the meanest way to improve a state convention. It is merely a scheme by which a lot of politicians can meet, and have a high old time for a few months, draw their pay from the state, and at such rates as they themselves shall have the brass to demand, fix up a kind of a constitution which shall contain some provisions in the interest of the schemers which would be voted down separately by the people, but which are so sugar coated by the balance of the constitution that the leaders of the convention will believe the people will swallow the dose. The only honest way to change constitutional provisions is to submit them separately to the people; and the surest way to make the people swallow a provision they do not want is to sugar coat or disguise it under a new constitution framed by a convention.

In the absence of constitutional provisions restricting a convention, it is an oligarchy with almost unlimited powers, which it never fails to exercise. The genius of our government is opposed to vesting such extensive powers in an emperor, an oligarchy, or in any body of men short of the people at the ballot box.

We are therefore opposed for the calling of a constitutional convention, not only because it is resubmission, but because it is useless and expensive, and probably would be a fraud and a tyranny.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

There are no less than three important treaties now engaging the consideration of the country and the Senate. There is apparently a becoming disposition on the part of the treaty ratifying body not to act hastily or inconsiderately. The probabilities are strong that the Senate will neither ratify nor reject any of the pending conventions during the present session.

There are points and provisions relating to all these treaties that will in time, doubtless, be better understood. Whether the Nicaragua treaty is or is not in disregard of our existing treaty obligations with England, it would certainly seem that it is altogether too advantageous to Nicaragua. We make that power a present of four millions of dollars in perpetuity to begin with, at the nominal interest of three per centum. For this sum we do not secure the right of way, because this must be paid for to private owners, but only the right to spend more money. How much money must be spent to complete the canal no one exactly knows. The estimates of the civil engineers have varied from fifty to nearly two hundred millions. After spending some unascertainable amount, all of which must be furnished by the United States, we divide the control of the completed canal with Nicaragua, and pay over to her one-third of all the profits for all time. While this is manifestly a good bargain for one of the high contracting parties, it is not so clear that it is a good bargain for both. But time may modify this view and perhaps the treaty also.

The Spanish treaty, as it stands, is a very advantageous treaty to Spain. Emilio Castelar and other Spanish statesmen so consider it. But whether the loss of thirty millions of dollars per annum by the removal of the duties from Cuban and Porto Rican sugar and tobacco is compensated by our increased export trade to those islands, is to say the least, dubitable. Some thirty millions of revenue have hitherto been received from these two staple articles, imported from other countries. There must necessarily be a falling off in the revenues received from sugars and tobacco that pay duty if half of those importations are to come in free. The east India and Brazilian sugars and Sumatra tobacco would find other markets. Precisely how there can be perfect reciprocity in trade between fifty-five millions of highly civilized people and the two millions of blacks, Indians, coolies, slaves, and slave traders who inhabit Porto Rico and Cuba has not been set forth by Minister Foster as minutely as we could wish. That the Spanish and Cubans will make this treaty truly reciprocal, or make it almost anything we may desire, seems probable from the manifest anxiety they exhibit to have it speedily ratified and put in force.

Of the Mexican treaty little need be said except that it is more advantageous to this country than either of the other conventions. If the Mexicans have really a fixed, stable Government, so that the property of Americans is safe from confiscation there, and so that contracts entered into by those now in power will be fulfilled by their successors, then there is no good reason why closer commercial relations with Mexico may not prove equally profitable to both countries.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

O'DONAVAN ROSSA, the infamous dynamiter and blow hard, was shot in New York on Monday while standing on the sidewalk by a handsome, plainly dressed young lady. Rossa fell heavily on the sidewalk and she fired the remaining bullets in her revolver at him, and then walked away. She was arrested and gave her name as Yeslet Dudley. Rossa was still alive. It may have some connection with the murderous assault made upon Phenlan, of Kansas City, in Rossa's office, believed to have been instigated by Rossa.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The tariff question seems to be very imperfectly understood by the mass of people. They do not seem to understand the difference between "tariff for revenue only, and a tariff for revenue and protection." We will try to show clearly the difference.

A tariff for revenue only is one in which no article of import is taxed higher than the rate which will produce the greatest amount of revenue but may be taxed much less or nothing. The nearer to nothing the tax is the nearer is the approach to free trade. Absolute free trade would be no tariff at all. When articles are taxed at so high rates as to make the amount of revenue derived therefrom less than the highest amount that could be produced, that tariff is protective to that extent.

To illustrate we will notice the tariff on wool. Under the former tariff law in force prior to 1883, the taxation on imported wool was nearly equivalent to 50 percent, advatorum. It was so high as to discourage importation and to keep down the amount imported. Suppose for instance the amount imported was worth two millions of dollars in the foreign market. The tariff revenue therefrom would then be about one million. By the new tariff of 1883 this tax was reduced about one fifth, or to about 40 percent advatorum. Under the stimulus of lower taxes, the importation of wool was so augmented that the revenue therefrom was nearly doubled. Suppose that the importation was increased from two millions to five millions, you can see that 40 percent on the latter sum would produce two millions of revenue instead of one million as formerly. Under Morrison's horizontal tariff bill of last session, the tariff on wool would have been reduced nearly to 30 percent advatorum. It is probable that had this bill become a law, it would have stimulated wool importations up to eight millions, which at 30 percent, would produce $2,400,000 of revenue, an increase of $400,000 over the present tariff, and still it would be slightly protective. A still farther reduction of the import tax to 25 percent advatorum would still further stimulate importation probably to ten millions, which at 25 percent would produce $2,500,000, still an increase over the last of $100,000. Now if the rate were reduced to 21 percent, it would probably raise the amount of importations to twelve millions and produce $2,520,000 revenue, and if reduced to 20 percent, would probably make the revenue a little less. Therefore, it would appear that 21 percent was the rate which would produce the greatest amount of revenue and is the very highest rate that could be called a tariff for revenue only.

Now if all the articles of importation were taxed in this manner, including coffee, tea, and all other articles on the free list, it would raise an enormous revenue, perhaps a thousand millions, for it must be remembered that articles not produced in this country would bear a very high rate of taxation without being protective and without materially decreasing importation. So a tariff only for the purpose of raising the highest amount of revenue would tax all articles of transportation, the like of which cannot be produced in this country, at very high rates and all articles, the like of which can be probably produced in this country under protection, at very low rates. Such a tariff would be the most burdensome to the consumers in this country that could possibly be conceived, for they would have to pay whatever prices the foreign producers could get, and those, in the absence of American competition, would not be moderate by any means, and in addition would have to pay all the import taxes which would be particularly burdensome on coffee, tea, and other articles now on the free list.

But the amount of revenue derived from such a tariff would be far in excess of the wants of the government, perhaps three or four times as much as the government needs.

The Democrats of the Morrison school, even those of the most ultra free trade notions like Watterson, do not advocate such a tariff, but adopt the Republican principle of putting all articles not produced in this country on the free list, thus keeping down to a large extent the amount of revenue collected and at the same time the cost to consumers of such articles. Still the revenue derived from the bulk of the list would be far in excess of the wants of the government and is even now under the present tariff, in excess of its needs, and all parties admit that the amount of revenue collected should be reduced. The only question is how shall it be reduced, and it is right here where the two policies divide. The "tariff for revenue only" party demands that the tariff rates on all articles which have American competition be reduced (horizontally) by cutting and trying, until below the profit which produces the greatest revenue, down, down, to a point which will produce no more than the wants of government; and the protectionist demands that the tariff rates be increased on such articles to such point as to reduce importations to such extent as will produce no more revenue than the government needs.

To illustrate again, the revenue only tariff man wants the tariff on wool reduced below 21 percent, down to perhaps 10 percent, for below 21 percent the importations would not probably increase and therefore the revenue would diminish. On the other hand, the protectionist wants the former tariff of about 50 percent on wool restored and thus reduce the amount of revenue derived therefrom to near the former amount and in like manner raise the tariff on any and all articles on the list of such articles as this country can produce which produce too much revenue.

Of course the effect of the former policy would be to encourage and increase importations and to discourage and decrease home productions; and that of the protective policy would be to discourage and decrease importations and to encourage and increase home production as everybody must admit.

We do not propose at present to discuss the further merits of the two policies, but will merely say that we claim for the protective policy that it does not increase in the long run the cost to consumers but in most cases diminishes it; that it builds up factories in our midst, creates a demand for home labor, enhances the prices of labor and farm productions, saves the money in this country which would otherwise be exported for foreign goods, makes our people wealthy, comfortable, intelligent, and refined, and has made us the most prosperous nation on earth; and we claim for the tariff for revenue only policy that it makes foreign producers rich and our people poor with all that the word implies.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Senate is traditionally the conservative branch of the legislative body and our state senate seems determined to preserve its traditional character. The House readily constituted a committee on the political rights of women and listened to the address of a leading champion of Woman suffrage. The Senate refused such a committee and sneered at Mrs. Gougar. It said by its action that it is far behind the spirit of progress of the times and will adhere to the old worn out conservatism that women have no political rights or any other rights not exercised through the protection of men. It is not strange that ignorant people should adhere to the old ruts of tyranny, but a body of men sufficiently intelligent to make respectable senators should be able to comprehend the spirit of advancement and reform.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Denver silver convention promises to give the silver coinage a strong support. There is no present prospect of the suspension of its coinage.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

DEAR COURIER: Friday evening was spent at the most novel entertainment it has ever been your correspondent's fortune to attend. It was given at the State Insane Asylum near Topeka by the attaches for the benefit of the patients, and consisted of two hundred and fifty patients, and a more appreciative congregation I have never seen. I sat where I could look back at the upturned faces of the unfortunate inmates and noticed the expression of intense interest on the part of the men, and the wild, weird, but always sad look depicted on the faces of the women. There was much food for serious thought in the picture thus presented. The effect of the loss of mind and reason upon the personal appearance was brought out strongly. The men looked crafty, savage, and abandoned, while the women looked timid, half frightened, but neat in person, and still retained many of those womanly and gentler traits of character. They were rigged out in all the peculiar fashions which their fantastic fancies had suggested. Some wore bonnets trimmed with bits of calico, and others had shawls tied over their heads in many ways. It was a sort of gala evening for the Asylum. The next morning I made a complete tour of the institution and observed many strange and novel things which it may be possible to give the COURIER readers at another time. Everything is run in order, clean and neat, and the patients seem to be satisfied. These Asylums are the keystone of our public charities, and should be wisely but liberally dealt with.

Important legislation has as yet hardly crystallized, and but little can be known of the probable disposition of the railroad matter. The committee obtained leave to have the maximum rates bill printed last week and it is now before the members and is being carefully scrutinized.

The prohibition question is assuming a very definite form, and all efforts for resubmission, constitutional convention, or any other form of retreat from the present law will be ignominiously defeated. The people of Kansas evidently intend that prohibition shall stay, and the sound that is coming up to their representatives here is in no sense uncertain. It is also settled that the present law shall be amended in its weak places and given all the strength that can be added to it. The first test vote on this question was reached in the House last week on the bill compelling teachers to qualify in elementary physiology and hygiene with special reference to teaching the effects of alcohol and narcotics in the human system. While many would have voted against it because of putting more work on our already overburdened and underpaid leaders, they were driven to it by Overmyer, of Shawnee, making it a square prohibition issue. His speech was intensely bitter, and, for a man of his ability, very thin. Your correspondent is extremely sorry to see a man of Mr. Overmyer's mental vigor and logical force using them in the interests of a few parties who are trampling upon the constitution and laws of the State. I honor his judgment better than to think that he is upholding a doctrine which he believes to be right. He is the representative of a hundred saloons and, true to his instincts as a lawyer, "sticks to his clients." The final vote, on being reached under gag of the "previous question," registered three to one for the passage of the bill. The result was announced amid much applause.

The "Oklahoma Resolutions" called out a great deal of discussion, pro and con. Those opposed did not want the Territory opened to settlement until the western part of our own State was fully developed, while those favoring the resolutions, among whom was your member, argued that the Territory was a great barrier to the development of the southwest in cutting off their legitimate market to the south; that the necessities of the people demanded more land, and that the general good would be better promoted by opening Oklahoma to homestead settlement than leaving it for the sole use and benefit of a few cattle kings. The resolution passed by a large vote.

The special Committee on Penitentiary investigation have been at work, and spent the greater portion of last week at that institution going through their affairs and sifting them thoroughly. In a private conversation with a number of the Committee, your correspondent was informed of some very startling developments which he is not now at liberty to print. Suffice it to say that things at the "pen" are not in that prosperous and harmonious condition which Gov. Glick presented during the campaign. There is an "unwritten work" connected with the letting of coal contracts, and the general conduct of the institution which will not look well in a committee report.

One of the peculiar institutions of this Legislature seems to be the "third House." The corridors of the Capitol and the lobbies of the leading hotels are crowded with the members of this numerous body. They come with schemes of every kind and character. Texas has her delegation: fine appearing men with big white hats and gold log chains and lassos strung over their vests. They want to convince the Kansas Legislature that it is entirely proper and will be profitable to have a national cattle trail running through their domain. Then there are delegations from almost every town of any importance wanting appropriations for public institutions or private charities of some sort. The fight over county lines is fierce and bitter, with rival "visiting statesmen" vying with each other in the exercise of "influence." In fact, half the State seems to have gathered here in the furtherance of some legislative scheme, while the other half stays at home and makes faces at those who do not succeed. To the new member it is amusing for a time, but soon becomes monotonous. However, it is calculated to make one believe that selfishness is the supreme ruler in communities as well as individuals.

The bill for enabling cities of the second class to extend their corporate limits has been reported favorably and will be reached on the House calendar during the week. It will probably become a law. The matter is one of much interest to Winfield, as it will enable her to take in some of the outlying territory which should have been included in the corporate limits long ago, and by right belongs to the city.

The physicians have had a serious time agreeing upon a bill regulating the practice of medicine. Each of the many different schools have met here in convention and each recommended a different measure. Finally they have all combined on a bill which has been introduced in the House. It has not yet been printed and I am not familiar with its provisions, but will write of it as soon as possible.

The Senate had an exciting discussion on the question of a constitutional convention Friday, almost all the Senators taking part. The opposition was led by Senator Buchan, of Wyandotte, while the prohibitionists rallied under the leadership of Senator Blue, of Lyon County. Both made very able speeches. The discussion was continued and made the special order for Tuesday evening.

There has been very little of importance that has transpired here as yet. About five hundred bills, covering every conceivable subject, have been introduced; but as only a small portion of them will ever reach the statute book, it is much too early to comment on them--at least until their passage is reasonably assured.

As indicated in my last, the bill compelling railroads to fence through lands already enclosed with a lawful fence has been amended by the committee to compel them to fence the full line of their roads without regard to whether the lands through which they run are enclosed. Already the railroads have risen up in arms against it, and I fear it will not pass unless reduced to more reasonable requirements.

The mantle of Senator Hackney is sought to be preserved by the introduction of a bill by your member Monday, making an appropriation of $20,000 for the erection of an Asylum for imbecile youth at Winfield. Wichita is also an aspirant for the honor of this location and the Cowley and Sedgwick delegations will proceed to vie with each other as to which can show up the best living and breathing evidence of the local necessity for such an institution. While the tendency is to centralize these institutions, there are many points in favor of Winfield's proposition, which your member will endeavor to present as strongly as possible. It will take hard work, and success can only be hoped for. The House is a hard body to handle and rather erratic in its movements.

One of the most important bills pending is one providing for a year's time after sheriff's sale of land under a mortgage in which the owner may redeem. This measure, in the estimation of your correspondent at least, is a most important one for the farmers of our State. Many farms in Cowley County have been sold under mortgage when, if the owners had been given a few months more, might have been able to save their homes. The bill has several warm friends and a great many bitter enemies, so its future is doubtful. E. P. G.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Ed. Greer, one of Cowley's statesmen, has introduced a bill in the House providing for the appointment of county printers. We confess we have a desire to see this bill and learn what kind of a scheme Ed. is trying to work. It may have merit, and then it may not. We strongly suspect it is a partisan scheme, and that Edward is working on the plan of three for me and one for you. Telegram.

Our Cowley County boys figure on legislative committees as follows: Frank Jennings, in the Senate, is Chairman of the Committee on Roads and Bridges, a member of the Ways and Means, and Fees and Salaries. In the House L. P. King is on the Penitentiary and Temperance Committees. J. D. Maurer, County Lines and County Seats, and Agriculture and Horticulture. E. P. Greer is Chairman of House Committee on Printing. Telegram.

Ed. Greer has not introduced such a bill and will not. The Telegram has been imposed upon by someone. A bill on the subject mentioned has been presented, and Ed. being chairman of the House Committee on Printing, will have that and other bills on printing to report upon. His report will doubtless be satisfactory to the Telegram. By the way, why did the Telegram, in the second paragraph above, omit to state that Ed. is a member of the House Committee of Ways and Means?


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

It is said that Cuban parties interested in the Spanish treaty have sent to Washington a corruption fund of $25,000 to buy senatorial votes for the treaty. This shows a very low estimate of senatorial integrity, but was derived from their experience with Spanish officials we presume. Any senator who will sell out for less than $10,000 is too small fry for anything, and at that rate, it would take $300,000 to buy a majority. We hope the treaty will be defeated as it is a kind of protective tariff for Cuban and Spanish products and a sort of free trade for American products which come into competition with them. It is a measure that affects our revenues and as such, the Senate should not be allowed to decide the question without the concurrence of the House.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Three explosions of natural gas occurred January 31st near Thirty-fourth street on Pennsylvania avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. Six people are reported killed, twenty injured, and six to eight houses wrecked.

Shortly before 12 o'clock there was an alarm given on the big bell in Municipal hall. It was such an irregular character that even Chief Evans, who was in rotunda hall at the time, was at a loss to know where it came from. In a moment word was transmitted by telephone at the mayor's office and at the engine house that a disastrous explosion of natural gas had occurred at Fourth Wharf road, otherwise known as Thirty-fourth and Butler street, and that there had been serious loss of life as well as great destruction of property. The details which could be secured over the telephone were to the effect that the explosion occurred in August Ruh's saloon at No. 3, 351 Pennsylvania Avenue, and that an adjoining building had also been wrecked by the explosion. The concussion created the wildest excitement in the immediate vicinity, and hundreds of people gathered about, as the ruins had taken fire and rumors were current that a number of persons were buried in the debris. Just a few moments after the occurrence, a Citizen's fine car passed in front of the wrecked buildings, filled with passengers, when a second explosion occurred, and the car was thrown from the track by the force of the upheaval.

The consternation among the passengers was awful and scarcely one of the whole number escaped without more or less injury. The driver was thrown from his position and so severely injured that he may not recover. At the same time pieces of timber and flying debris of all kinds were hurled in the air by the second explosion. It caused havoc among those who had gathered in the vicinity. The crowd had swelled until it reached between 200 and 300. Several other eruptions followed, and the number of houses embraced was increased to ten or fifteen. At twenty minutes past 12 o'clock a signal that the fire had been extinguished was sent, but scarcely ten minutes had elapsed until another alarm was sounded from the same box. Eight additional steamers hurried to the spot, not only to aid in extinguishing the flames but to assist in caring for the injured and in hunting for those who were supposed to be buried under the buildings which had been involved in the general destruction.


The Boomers All Ousted.

Gen. Hatch's Version of the Affair.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Gen. Hatch reached Caldwell, Kansas, from Stillwater last Saturday. He states that Couch refused to surrender until the order was given for the soldiers to advance up to the camp, then the boomers agreed to capitulate. The colonists then under escort of the troops marched to the Kansas line and crossed to Arkansas City. Here Couch and his three lieutenants were arrested on federal warrants for resisting troops in the Indian Territory, and were taken to Wichita. Gen. Hatch sent a detachment from Stillwater to intercept a company of six hundred boomers en route from Arkansas. He estimates that there were altogether nearly fourteen hundred invaders in the Territory. All of these have left too, or been removed from the Territory without bloodshed. Guards have been stationed at the avenues of ingress which, it is thought, will prevent further invasion at present. The boomers, however, declare their intention of returning. A meeting was held at Arkansas City Friday, addressed by Couch and others, at which resolutions passed, denouncing in unmeasured terms the action of the government, and declaring their intention of an early renewal of their efforts to colonize the Oklahoma county. It was resolved to meet at Arkansas City March 4th next, and start again on the following day, equipped with thirty days rations. It was asserted that their force would then be greatly augmented owing to the opening of the season and the change in the national administration.


A Will Buried With Its Maker's Body to Cheat the Heirs.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Robert A. Wallace, of Buffalo, N. Y., died about eight years ago, and although he had repeatedly told his children and friends that he had provided for his children, four in number, by a former wife, at his death no will could be found and the estate was settled according to law, each child receiving a portion and the widow her third. The widow was also appointed administratrix and at her death about a year later she left a will disposing of property that remained to her own children and a daughter by her first husband, but leaving out the earlier branch of the Wallace family. Interested persons, still searching for the original will, conceived the idea of exhuming the body of Wallace himself and there between the vest and shirt in which the body was prepared for the coffin was sound the long sought for will.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.


Committees reported back with favorable recommendations bills to regulate warehouses and inspection of grain, regulating the receiving and transportation of grain by railroads; to establish the salaries of state officers, judges, and officers of the state legislature; to establish fees for conveying persons to prison or other state institutions; relating to counties and county officers; regulating fees of county attorneys; fixing the fees of certain officers; to create state and local boards of health; concerning lunatics and drunkards; authorizing a geological survey; to compel railroad companies to fence their roads; appropriations for State Asylum at Osawatomie and Topeka.

Bills were presented from No. 173 to No. , to-wit: Relating to cities of the second class; amending chapter 83, laws of 1879; to authorize county high schools; to amend "An act for the regulation and support of common schools," chapter 122, laws 1876, and to repeal section 1, chapter 149, laws of 1881; an act to amend section 3, chapter 122, laws of 1874, an act supplemental to the amendatory chapter 92, General Statutes of 1868, and chapter 86, laws of 1869, and chapter 183, laws of 1872, and to authorize the condemnation of lands for schoolhouse sites; to amend section 71, chapter 81, laws of 1868, "As an act regulating the jurisdiction and procedure before Justices of the Peace in civil cases; an act regulating the State Library and repealing chapter 122, laws of 1870, and chapter 143, laws of 1871, and chapter 130, laws of 1872; to manufacture of sugar; concerning highways; to secure manufacturers and owners of railroad equipments and rolling stock in making conditional sales and certain contracts for the sales thereof; relating to Grand Juries; amending section 73, Criminal Code, being chapter 82 of General Statutes of 1868, and to repeal laws in conflict.

Several bills passed to a third reading.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Senate bill 79 making appropriation to pay the legislature, passed.

Several petitions were presented.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. Hogue: Relating to religious and charitable institutions. Mr. Ogden: Relating to bridge commissioners. Also one amending law relating to stock. Also one relating to Sheriffs, Coroners, and Constables. Mr. Lewis: Amending manner of summoning grand jurors. Mr. Dwight: to encourage organization of fire companies. Mr. Caldwell: Amending law to enroll ex-soldiers. Also one appropriating the military fund in the State Treasury of Lincoln County. Mr. Faulkner: Appropriation for Blind Asylum; also, appropriation for boilers at Blind Asylum. Mr. Hatfield: A joint resolution to remove the Asylum for Idiotic Youths to Wichita. Mr. Bates: Providing for a State Reformatory. Mr. Slavens, by request of Jones, of Finney: Amending law governing organization of new counties. Mr. Gillette: Redemption of real estate sold under process. Mr. Veatch: Funding bill for Washington County. Mr. H. C. Cook: Raising fees of Probate Judges. Mr. Clugston: Relating to lands that have escaped taxation.

Numerous reports of committees were received.

Joint resolution to ask for pensions for all living soldiers was postponed.

Joint resolution to ask congress to adjust disputed land titles between railroads and settlers passed.

Joint convention of both houses declared that John J. Ingalls was duly elected U. S. Senator.

Burton's resolution asking for the pensioning of soldiers who have been confined in rebel prison, passed.

Buck's bill to relieve the Supreme Court was approved in committee of the whole, as also his bill to require teachers in public schools to pass examination in hygiene and physiology. Also Kelly's bill relating to meetings and pay of county commissioners, which proposes to grade the maximum compensation of county commissioners. It gives one hundred dollars a year in counties having less than 10,000 population; between 10,000 and 17,500 population, the pay to be two hundred dollars; from 17,500 to 25,000, three hundred dollars.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

After the reports of the several standing committees, Senator Smith offered a resolution relating to maximum rates, rates per carload, etc.

The resolution was adopted for a committee of five on House concurrent resolution No. 11, to investigate the cause of unequal assessment, and report bill or otherwise. Senator Pickler showed some items in comparison of taxes in 1883 and 1885. He showed that in some counties the assessed value of horses was but $20 to $25, while in others they were assessed at $46 per head. As this will cost the State nothing, it would do no harm, but the appointment of a committee would bring about a better understanding.

The resolution was adopted and Senators Pickler and Allen appointed on the part of the Senate.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Bill was introduced from No. 185 to No. 195 inclusive, to-wit: To amend an act for support of common schools, approved March 4, 1876; relating to the collection of taxes; regulating salary of County Clerks; relating to laws and journals; relating to criminal procedure; to relieve Pawnee County from illegal taxes of 1883; to prevent certain officers from accepting free passes; relating to County Boards of Examiners to amend laws of 1881 fixing compensation of County Superintendents; relating to jurisdiction of the Supreme Court; to remove political disabilities of certain persons therein named; to restore or recreate the counties of Mead, Clark, and Kiowa, and defining their boundaries, and the boundaries of Seward, Finney, Hodgeman, Edwards, and Comanche counties; relating to banks and bankers; to encourage the growth of timber, on school lands.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Senator Kimball in the chair. Senate bill No. 35, to amend the act to establish code of civil procedure, was laid over; Senate bill No. 36, relating to civil procedure before Justices of the Peace, and No. 72, to prohibit holding of courts on election and certain other days, were recommended for passage. Report adopted.

The Joint Resolutions No. 4, for a constitutional convention, was discussed lengthily, Mr. Redden taking the lead in favor of the measure.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

House. Mr. Butterfield, by request from Greenwood County, asking amendment of law governing executions for wages of clerks. Mr. Patton, for the school law about instruction in hygiene in public schools. Mr. Bryant, for legislation relating to livestock and fire insurance.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. Lowe, appropriation for the woman's department of the New Orleans Exposition. Mr. Hunter, for bridges in Lyon County. Mr. McCammon, relating to floating liens on real estate. Mr. Corwin, relating to exemptions from executions. Mr. Butterfield, relating to common schools. Mr. Faulkner, by request, relating to cities of the second class. Mr. Blaine, legalize acts of Ottawa County Treasurers. Mr. Vance, amending the civil code. Also one relating to appeals in misdemeanors. Also one changing compensation of County Superintendents.

Bills on second reading read and referred.

Committees reported unfavorably on bills in relation to obstruction of streets by railroads; on one insurance bill; to prevent deception in dairy products; to protect shade trees; to give bounty for destruction of the loco weeds; and favorably on bill to punish deception concerning breeding stock.

Committee of Printing reported substitute for the bill to create the office of county printer.

In committee of the whole, considerable discussion followed on the Oklahoma resolutions. The conference report was adopted.

Mr. Kelso presented a bill to redistrict the judicial districts of the state.

The bill hanging the compensation of judges and clerks of election passed. The Telephone corporation bill passed. Bills concerning bounties for wild animal scalps; concerning law graduates and some others were approved. Several bills were finally rejected.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The report of the Conference Committee, which had passed the House, was adopted without division.


Bills were presented from No. 201 to No. 209, inclusive, to-wit: Relating to bridges; to appeals under ordinances of third class cities; to free libraries in first-class cities; authorizing a Court of general jurisdiction to stay execution upon judgments pending preparation to make a case in Supreme Court; making an appropriation to Christ's Hospital, Topeka; appropriating for postage stamps; to govern mutual fire insurance companies; relating to counties and county officers; making appropriation for Woman's Department at the World's Fair at New Orleans; to create 19th Judicial District.


Senate Bills Nos. 36 and 10, which passed committee of the whole yesterday, read a third time and passed. No. 71, to prohibit holding courts on election and other days, was defeated.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Senate joint resolution No. 4, to provide for a Constitutional Convention, was taken upon the motion pending to recommend its passage.

A long discussion ensued on the question.

Senator Jennings was not anxious to take the vote yesterday because he believed that no discussion would change a vote. The question is not on prohibition or anti-prohibition but it is a question whether we shall submit a vote to the people which, under the Constitution, cannot be taken until 1888. Between now and then there will be another howl fresh from the people, and we might as well pass a law to take effect four years hence as to presume that the people wanted this Legislature to submit the question four years in advance, and thus forestall the people's action two years hence in electing representatives. He spoke eloquently in favor of the present homestead exemption, and said the Senator from Butler, if he went before the people on that question, would find that the popular voice would as completely overwhelm as it had when this question was decided four years ago. While he was in practice, a prohibitionist, he would greatly prefer to vote directly for a resubmission than to vote for a convention. He would meet it squarely rather than by indirection. The whole discussion would turn upon that one question, and the other great interests of the people be made subservient thereto. The decision of the Supreme Court referred to had no effect in preventing the execution of the law.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The following petitions were presented.

Mr. Turner, for scientific temperance instruction in public schools.

Mr. Drought, for payment of raid claims.

Mr. , from Marshall County, asking for maximum freight rates.

Mr. J. B. Cook, concerning dentistry.


Mr. Turner, amending certain fee bills; Mr. Johnson, concerning assessments of winter-fed cattle. Mr. McNeal, for survey of a township in Barber County. Mr. Collins, for formation and regulation of Mutual Insurance Companies. Mr. McNall, for taking census for 1888.

Mr. McNall moved a second reading of this bill now. Carried. The bill was so read and referred to Committee of the Whole.

Mr. McNall, making appropriations for taking census for 1883. Mr. Pratt, creating counties of Meade and others. Mr. Drought, amending civil code. Also one amending law relating to Street Inspectors. Mr. Hardesty, to remove disability from persons named. Mr. Vance, by request, making a donation to Christ Hospital, at Topeka. Mr. Barnes, relating to study of hygiene and physiology in public schools.

Under head of second reading in bills, Mr. Lower moved that H. B. 279 be placed on calendar for third reading, subject to amendment and debate. It would appropriate $5,000 to woman's department of the New Orleans Exposition. The motion prevailed.

Committees reported favorably bills to create 19th judicial district; to make a superior court for Shawnee County; bill on Topeka school bonds; bill to prevent Insurance Companies making rates; on State bonds of public wealth; on appropriations for reform school; and to provide stenographers for District Court.

Resolutions adopted asking for repeal of the limitation clause in the pension act.

Bill No. 4 for the appointment of two assistant judges of the Supreme Court, passed.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. Roseberry: For a Grand Jury. Mr. Bond: For a law to squelch irresponsible mutual insurance companies. More petitions for geological survey. Mr. P. J. Smith: For a law to regulate the dentists. Mr. Beates: To change name of Knowles to Haddam City. Mr. Bonebrake: For a bridge in Douglas County.


Mr. Burton: Relating to stenographers for District Courts. This was crowded forward to second reading and referred to the Judiciary Committee. Another by Mr. Burton to stop gambling. Mr. Gillett: Amending the civil code. Mr. White: Amending assessment laws. Mr. Beatie: To create the Twentieth Judicial District. Mr. Bryant: To authorize Lincoln County to create a bridge fund.

Mr. Greer: Appropriations for postage stamps. This was ground through to final reading and passed.

Mr. Greer introduced Hackney's old Idiotic Asylum bill for Winfield. Mr. McNall: To repeal the Veterinary Surgeon law, in toto; the law enacted by the special session. Mr. Reeves: Amending probate laws. Mr. Wentworth: Amending fee laws. Mr. Vance, by request: Relating to the competency of witnesses. Mr. Cox: To authorize Douglas County to build two bridges.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Among other reports was one from the committee to investigate the work of the State Board of Equalization, to the effect that the committee are at work, but ask further time. Granted.


A communication was read from the State Board of Agriculture favoring a State geological survey; also, the appointment of a State entomologist.


Mr. Bryant, by resolution, proposed to give the use of Representative Hall to the teachers and pupils of the Wyandotte Institution for the Education of the Blind for the purpose of giving an exhibition before the Legislature, on the evening of February 5. The resolution was adopted.

Mr. Reeves, by resolution, sought to have his H. B. 69, to cut down legal rates of interest, printed. It received eight votes and a crowd of negatives.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. Bollinger, by a series of resolutions on the subject, wants an investigation of the question of the value to the State of the Livestock Sanitary Commission. Laid over.


H. B. 5, to compel teachers to graduate in hygiene and physiology, with special reference to the effects of alcohol, and stimulants and narcotics upon the human system; and to compel the teaching of these topics in all schools of the State, was read a third time and was passed: 63 to 27.

Mr. P. J. Smith's H. B. 29 relating to fees of Judges and Clerks of Election was passed: 91 to 1.

Mr. Butin's H. B. 85, for the formation of telephone companies, was passed.

Mr. Lewis' H. B. 63, raising the bounty on wolf, coyote, wild cat, and fox scalps from $1 to $3 was passed; 81 to 4.

Mr. Roberts' H. B. 80, giving diplomas of graduates of the law department of the State University the force of an examination for admission to practice, passed.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The executive committee of the Republican State Central Committee met in Topeka Jan. 28 and audited the accounts of the receipts and expenses of the campaign of last summer and fall. The receipts and expenses were a little less than $5500, which is a very small sum considering the spirited canvass, the number of big rallies, the amount of telegraphing, printing, and speaking done under the auspices of the committee. Some candidates for the State Senate on the other side expended that amount each and yet got left. The committee passed the following resolutions.

Resolved, That on behalf of the Republican State Central Committee, and the Republicans of Kansas, we hereby tender to Hon. P. L. Bonebrake, chairman, and to Hon. Wirt W. Walton, secretary of the committee, our grateful thanks for their earnest, untiring, and successful efforts in behalf of the Republican party during the late campaign, and as a slight testimonial of our appreciation, we hereby give to Chairman Bonebrake the flag, and to Secretary Walton the office chair belonging to this committee, as mementoes of the canvass of 1884.

Resolved, Further, that duly attested copies of this resolution be furnished for publication, and one given each to the president and secretary.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

RECAP: F. M. Savage, Plaintiff, vs. Thomas J. Jackson, Martha Jackson, and George F. Crestenberry [non-resident], Defendants, request for judgment of $100.83 debt and $15.10 costs and interest, relative a deed to real estate. HACKNEY & ASP, Attnys. for Plaintiff.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

RECAP: James F. Miller appointed as Administrator of estate of Frances Hays. Hackney & Asp, Attorneys for Administrator.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.




Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Skipped Market Report.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Monday last was ground hog day. Tradition says that if the hog emerges from his hole on this day and sees his shadow, he immediately returns to his burrow and pulls the hole in after him and there remains for six week. As the sun shone the greater part of Monday, his hoggish weather adjuster certainly saw his shadow, which means cold weather till the middle of March. But we don't believe it. Down with antiquated superstitions!

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

A "Young Beginner" sends to this office an alleged poem about three feet long, entitled "How We Miss Herr." Yes, we should say you do miss "herr." You've also missed about every other word in your "poem." We would advise you to desist writing poetry, and take out-door exercise. Have someone introduce you to some of our prominent citizens who have wood to cut.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Died, at her late home in Winfield, Kansas, on the 25th ult., Mahala Jane Gamble. Mrs. Gamble was born in Bedford Co., Pa., May 4th, 1822. At the time of her death she was 62 years, 8 months, and 25 days old. She leaves two sons, W. H. and I. B. Shell, to mourn her loss. The funeral services were conducted by Rev. J. H. Reider, pastor of the Baptist Church.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The series of meetings now in progress at the Baptist Church are increasing in interest, and we believe much good is being done by them. They will be continued through the week. Preaching each evening, commencing promptly at 7:15. Prayer services in the lecture room at 3 P.M. All are most cordially invited to attend all of the services.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The registration books of the city will be open till about t he first of April, and City Clerk Buckman is collaring every man who enters his portals and investing him with the municipal power of voting. You must register every year to move beneficially that powerful little article, the ballot, and if you want to vote in April, register.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

From this date and until after our dissolution, we will positively sell goods only for cash. All accounts now on our books must be settled up either by payment or note. To accomplish our purpose we must reduce our stock and now will sell our goods at cash. Come and convince yourselves that such is the fact. Winfield, Kan., Jan. 21, 1885, Bryan & Lynn.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

School opened Monday last in the new Third Ward school building, with Miss Campbell, principal; Miss Iva Crane, intermediate departments; Miss Kate Rogers, second primary; and Miss Jessie Stretch, first primary. Miss Davenport takes Miss Stretch's place in the primary department of the First Ward.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Cowley's quarterly school fund apportionment is now being disbursed by County Treasurer Nipp, and the teachers of the county, some of whom haven't had a nickle yet for their winter's labor, excepting on discounted script, are rejoicing. The apportionment for Winfield City is $4,619.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Wendling will give us the Devil at the Opera House Tuesday evening next. Don't fail to catch it. Tickets at Goldsmith's, 50 cents; no charge for reserved seats. Proceeds for the refinement and education of Winfield in the maintenance of the Ladies Library Association.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Bring your wheat to our mill and get 25 pounds O. B. flour and 10 lbs. bran for a bushel of good wheat; 30 lbs. Superb flour and 10 lbs. bran for a bushel of good wheat; 35 lbs. Homo and 10 lbs. bran for a bushel of good wheat. A fair exchange robs no one."

Bliss & Wood.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Young People's Social and Literary Society was delightfully entertained last Friday evening at the pleasant home of Miss Mamie Baird. A splendid social and literary program was rendered and a large number of young folks were present.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Thursday last was Kansas' twenty-fourth birthday: just a little more than of age. No youth in our grand galaxy of States is smarter, handsomer, or more vigorous. She is the Belle of the Union and the Paradise of the World.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Southern Kansas has added a number of new routes to the list of tickets. Call and see us before purchasing. Sleeping car berths, etc., reserved by applying to O. Branham, Agt.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Louise Sylvester begins an engagement at the Opera House Friday evening in "A Mountain Pink." Herself and troupe are highly spoken of by the press at large.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

There will be a "roll call" at the Baptist church on the third Sabbath of the month. All the members are requested to be present.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Two mortgages, one of $15,000 and one of $20,000, on Arkansas City business property, were recently filed with Register Soward.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Three young persons were baptized at the Baptist Church on last Sabbath evening at the close of the sermon.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The ladies of the W. C. T. U. will meet with Mrs. F. W. Finch Tuesday, February 10th.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Winfield Restaurant is the place to get your Meals. Table set with the best the market affords.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

W. A. Lee is opening up a fine seed house.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Supposed Burglars Bound over.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

C. Lewis and Alice Jeffries, in the toils for the burglary of Smith & Zook's safe, had a preliminary hearing before Justice Buckman last Thursday, and Alice was bound over to the District Court in the sum of $700, and Lewis discharged. Lewis was rearrested and brought before Justice Snow, where he waived examination and was also bound over with bond at $700. Both failed to give bond, and languish in the "jug." The evidence was purely circumstantial, and substantially as given before in these columns--the detective story told by the woman to the Cherryvale landlord, who was one of the witnesses at the trial; her hasty exit from Winfield; her suspicious, though mum, actions before leaving on the early train; her previous "crooked" character, etc. The evidence against Lewis is principally the fact that he visited this woman's room at the Brettun, in a very sly way, on the Saturday before the robbery. Other developments will likely be made before their trial. Mr. E. I. Cook, who came here some time ago from Parsons, knows Mrs. Jeffries well, having lived next door to her in Parsons. He says Jeffries is a man of over sixty, and runs a billiard and gambling hall in that place. Mr. Cook and this woman had a battle in their home with plates and beer bottles. A little girl of Mr. Cook recognized Mrs. Jeffries in a store in this city, on the Saturday in question.

Down With the Jack and Cotton-Tail.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The citizens of Richland township made up five premiums aggregating $15 to be given to the hunters that would kill the most rabbits on Friday, January 30th. A. O. Welfelt was chosen as north captain and W. H. Lewis as south captain. Sixteen hunters on a side were chosen, and at 1 o'clock Friday morning the hunt began, and an uproar of guns was heard during the day, and at 6 o'clock in the evening the hunters met at Summit schoolhouse for a count of game and to partake of an oyster supper. The following parties won premiums: Loyd Coe, first, $5; W. H. Lewis, second, $4; Jack Shrubshell, third $1; Jack Randall, fourth, $2; and Bed Lewis, C. Groom, and Joe Calvin, fifth, $1. Total number of rabbits killed during the day were 889. Now can anyone say we have not accomplished anything? If other townships would do likewise, our county would be free of these pests.

E. M. McPherson, Secretary.

Clear the Sidewalks.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Theory is a habit among the businessmen of Winfield, which seems to have grown up by common consent, that is altogether a violation of a long-standing ordinance, and that is the obstruction of the sidewalk with boxes, barrels, implements, and other unsightly objects. If sidewalks are to be blockaded by such things, leaving only three or four feet, the council might as well reduce the sidewalks to that size at once and save property owners the great cost of paving. A merchant has no right to make the pavements on the main thoroughfare of the town present the appearance of a freight depot or a railroad wreck. The pavements of any street should not be permitted to be used as a storage room. If it is to be so used, let the ordinance be repealed and give everyone an equal right.

Our City Parliament.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The City "Dads" held their semi-annual commune Monday evening. The following bills were referred to the County Commissioners for payment: G. H. Buckman, transportation of Mrs. Cessna, a pauper, $21.75; B. F. Harrod, same, $4.78; M. L. Read, et al., rent for Mrs. Quarrels, a pauper, $24.00. Bill of Gas Company $1.50, gas furnished fire department, rejected. Finance Committee recommended payment of $838.15 on bill of Gas Company of $853.15, for lamp post rental to Jan. 15th, 1885; action laid over. Petition of J. C. McMullen, et al. For twelve foot sidewalk on the north side of block 129 was granted. Further time was given the Committee to report on the petition for the numbering of the buildings of the city. The Mayor's appointment of T. B. Myers as city assessor was confirmed. Council adjourned to February 9th.

They are Coming, Father Abraham.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Cowley is being advertised far and wide and from present indications her immigration in the spring will be unprecedented. The Real Estate Bulletin of Curns & Manser will be of incalculable benefit to the county. Its matter is most important and accurate and its cuts prominent. Five thousand copies will be distributed by the Southern Kansas railroad Immigration Bureau, and Messrs. Curns & Manser are sending the other five thousand to all parts of the East. "The Southern Kansas," a splendid descriptive paper, is being published in monthly editions of forty thousand copies by the Southern Kansas railroad company and its next issued will contain a number of fine cuts and much valuable matter regarding the Queen City of Kansas, Winfield.

Increased Telephone Service.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

In recognition of a petition and the large patronage extended in Winfield, the United Telephone Company, without additional cost to subscribers, has put on a night and Sunday service. Master Gus. McMullen will hereafter assist the local manager, Mrs. Bishop. This will be an appreciated convenience, giving opportunity for communication at any hour.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

One of Winfield's best young men awoke from his dreams the other night amid agonizing suffocation and sprang from his bed with the horrid thought of "passing in his checks." Unable to speak, he battered the walls of his room in such a way as to almost frighten the daylights out of his roommate and when unable to make further demonstrations, he flung himself on the bed to die. Just then a fit of coughing took charge of his angelic frame and leaning over the side of his couch his throat was delivered of--a set of false teeth!

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The beautiful snow has all disappeared and in its place is the beautiful mud--but hold! We swear upon Webster's unabridged that we would never again mention the weather when, only a few short weeks ago, we faberized about the mud and before the paper reached its readers, the items were frozen stark and stiff. Verily, the Sunflower State is a good one for variety and spice.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mollie Burke and Jennie Case, two professional demi-mondes, convicted at the present term of court, were released from jail on conditions that their fines, $10 each, and costs be paid and they leave the county forthwith; otherwise, their peace bonds of $300 will be enforced, which will compel them to again languish in the bastille. "Stone the woman and let the man go free," etc.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union received through entertainments and otherwise nearly two hundred dollars during last year and expanded as much in charity and for the public's benefit. This is a noble band of women, are doing much for the proper upbuilding of the community, and we are glad to see their labors recognized and honored.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The continual frigidity of December and January froze the ground deeper than ever before in Sunny Southern Kansas. David Dix started a well Monday and found the soil frozen "stiffer'n a poker" at a depth of thirty inches.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The pastor of the Baptist Church is delivering a series of Sabbath Evening Sermons to the young people. His text on next Sabbath evening will be "For Who hath despised the day of small things?"

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The friends and patrons of the Tannehill Sunday School are requested to meet at the schoolhouse immediately after preaching on Sunday, Feb. 8th, 1885, to elect officers and organize. K. J. Wright, Supt.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

All Select Knights, A. O. U. W., are requested to meet at their hall on Monday evening next for drill and important business. Order J. E. Snow, S. C.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

All those having tools belonging to Cairns & Reynolds will return them at once, as they are closing out business. Pumps and windmills at cost.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

For day or week board go to the Winfield Restaurant. Everything kept in first-class style.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Farmers, you can get the best Dinner for 25 cents at the Winfield Bakery.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

For the Best Bread and Buns, go to the Winfield Bakery.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.


Her Chronicle of The Comings, Goings and Doings of Persons at Home and Abroad.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Wm. Gall, the Architect, will locate at Arkansas City.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Judge Torrance left for a visit among Topeka solons Tuesday.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Sandy Burge has recovered sufficiently to stand on his feet, but is not yet out of danger.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mrs. Anna Hyde spent Saturday and Sunday in Arkansas City with Minnie Stewart.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Miss Mary Shivvers and Dora B. Sparr and mother paid the COURIER office a visit Wednesday afternoon.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

E. E. Trego, formerly with J. B. Lynn, came in from Wier City last Friday and returned Saturday with his wife and boy.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. Frank Pentecost, one of Eli Youngheim's sprightly clerks at Arkansas City, was in the Metropolis Wednesday.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Will Kirkwood is taking in the sights at Kingman and visiting his brother, Sain, who has charge of J. H. Bullene's lumber yard at that place.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mrs. Dr. Perry and daughter left yesterday morning for New Orleans, to be absent three weeks, and the Doctor is left to the vicissitudes of a lone "widdy."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Messrs. W. J. Wilson and Louis P. King left Topeka and the Legislative halls to spend Sunday with the folks at home. They report "our boys" corpulent, happy, and busy.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Our rustling young dry goods man, S. Kleeman, is enjoying a visit from his father, a merchant of Shelbyville, Illinois, who, like his son, is handsome, enterprising, and lively.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. J. C. Curry returned Saturday from a trip to the World's Fair in the interests of the Winfield Roller Mills. He reports the attendance rather small, but the exhibits grand.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Dr. L. S. Ordway left for his home in St. Louis, Thursday, after a week's visit with his brother, Mr. Geo. Ordway. The Doctor is a professor in the St. Louis Homeopathic Medical college.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Messrs. E. H. Nixon and Frank Balliet, a couple of Winfield's capitalists, friends of O. C. Ewart, were over the latter part of last week looking after some Medicine Lodge property.

Medicine Lodge Cresset.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Hodges returned from Bartow, Florida, Sunday, having had a most pleasant trip via the World's Fair. Charley is getting robust and corpulent and will remain in Bartow for some months.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The law firm of Hackney & Asp is taking on a metropolitan tone. They have now an accomplished shorthand reporter in the person of Miss E. M. Dodge from Terre Haute, Indiana, a friend of Mrs. Frank Raymond.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Fuller admirably entertained about twenty couples of married folks on Wednesday evening of last week. The pleasant receptions of Mr. and Mrs. Fuller never fail to elicit the warmest appreciation.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. H. A. Heath represented the Kansas Farmer, Topeka, at our Farmers' Institute last week. The Farmer is the best agricultural paper in the West, and has a good patronage among the enterprising farmers of Cowley.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Ordway have rented their home to J. J. Carson, late of Kentucky, and will travel during the year for Mr. Ordway's health. They start soon for New Orleans, will return in April, and in May leave for California.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Jake Goldsmith came in from Medicine Lodge last Thursday, where he had charge of the clothing house of Goldsmith Brothers, while Julius visited here. Jake thinks the denizens of the Lodge too "wild and wooly" for him.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Mayor appointed Capt. T. B. Myers city assessor Monday evening and the appointment was confirmed by the Council. Mr. Myers is possessed of every qualification for the position, and his appointment will give universal satisfaction.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mrs. S. J. Sparr and daughter, Dora, mother and sister of Mrs. A. B. Sykes, are over from Millerton on a weeks' visit. They were surprised to see how Winfield had spread itself during the past two years and speak in the highest terms of its many fine buildings.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The many friends of Uncle Jonathan Cessna, of Silverdale, will be glad to learn that he has received a pension from the government for the injuries he sustained in the service, and which so disable him now. It aggregated nearly a thousand dollars and will greatly smooth his old age.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Burden Eagle: "Henry E. Asp is receiving high encomiums for the manner in which he disposes of his business and brings offenders to justice. He is undoubtedly the right man in the right place, and his assistant, W. P. Hackney, will add all necessary strength to the office."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Joseph Abraham and Maggie Hemphill; Fred P. Vaughan and Ida E. Flue; Henry A. Shook and Lucy M. Henderson; George M. Goodwin and Mabel Moore have launched into the pleasures and vicissitudes of matrimony during the past week, according to Judge Gans' record. [Note: Paper had "Joseph Abrahams."]

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Sheriff G. H. McIntire and Deputy O. S. Rarick left Monday for the State hotel de criminal with J. N. Slade, sentenced one year for forgery; Chas. Neal and John Newton, grand larceny, two years each; R. H. Black, embezzlement, two years; Frank Hillman, highway robbery, ten years.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Spence Miner has sold his interest in the establishment of McDonald & Miner here, and bought Mr. McDonald's interest in the Ashland store. Mrs. Miner will accompany him to Ashland for a permanent residence next week. Spence sees great possibilities in that infant wonder of the western plains.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. N. A. Haight received an appointment recently as deputy United States surveyor, to survey certain islands in the Arkansas river, this county. An island has been applied for by W. S. Berkey, located in the river just below the Geuda ferry. The river being a boundary line, of course these islands are still government lands.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Geo. F. Thompson, one of the Professors present at our Farmers Institute, from the State Agricultural College, is an old Cowley County boy. He went to Manhattan six years ago from his home near Baltimore, this county, graduated, and is now superintendent of the printing department and going right up. Cowley boys always "get there."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Judge Torrance adjourned court from Saturday last to Monday next, to set the civil docket. The criminal docket was cleared of every case where the defendant could be reached, Several violators of Her Majesty, the law, were from under the jurisdiction of this Court, but will be brought up to the rack of justice in April. The civil docket will also be cleared easily this term.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Geo. D. Headrick, O'Meara & Randolph's handsome young salesman, came in Saturday last from several weeks visit at his old stamping ground, White Hall and Carrollton, Ill. He also spent a few days in St. Louis with Simon Sluss, one of Winfield's early day merchants. George tells of forty degrees below zero and snow two feet deep, with all the "sang froid" of an Alaskan.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

County Attorney Henry E. Asp and his able assistant, W. P. Hackney, are beginning to make the fur fly among violators of law. Every criminal case coming up under their prosecution has ended in conviction. There are a certain few violators who hope to avoid or stave off conviction by keeping from under the jurisdiction of this court, but Hackney and Asp will soon knock the wind out of these little schemes.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Capt. J. J. Carson and family have arrived from Kentucky and will occupy the pleasant residence of Mr. Geo. Ordway. Mr. Carson will shortly open an entirely new stock of clothing in the Jennings & Crippen building. He is a man of large experience in this business, of keen intelligence and enterprise, and just such a man as we are ready to heartily welcome as a citizen. Mr. Carson was a member of the first company that left "Old Kaintuck" to battle for the Union.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. P. P. Powell is enjoying a visit from his brother, W. Mr. H. Powell, of Chicago, who conducts a real estate business on the corner of Milwaukee and Powell avenue, a location that was pre-empted from Uncle Sam in 1834, when Chicago was a mere infant; as a "claim" by Mr. Powell's father. It is three miles and a half from the Court House and built up in a way that would profoundly astonish those "old timers" of 1834. Mr. Powell gives some interesting reminiscences of the early days of that wonderful mart.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Ed. P. Greer, of Winfield, the native Kansas legislator, born in Leavenworth County, is a young man but of that character of which the places of his residence and birth may congratulate themselves. He has not as yet had much to say in debates, and in that he shows his good sense, as there is more wind wasted and less accomplished in talky talks than in any other manner. He always knows what is what, and votes on every measure with a conscientious regard for the interests of and the wishes of his constituency. As chairman of the committee on printing, he has shown that he is in favor of economy, but not to the extent of crippling the public service. Cor. Leavenworth Times.


Five Victims Sentenced to the State Hotel De Criminal.

An Aggregate of Seventeen Years.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The criminal victims of this term of court were brought before Judge Torrance last Saturday evening and sentenced.

Chas. Neal and John Newton were given two years in the "pen" for breaking into a store at Udall a few weeks ago and getting a short distance with two guns and other valuables. They are in their teens of good appearance, and took their sentence more like a huge joke than the stern, terrible reality that it will prove to be.

Frank Hillman, a rather good looking, smooth faced fellow of twenty-five, gets ten years in "durance vile" for his first attempt at highway robbery. Last summer at Arkansas City, he planned with a confederate to decoy the latter's friend into an alley, where he would appear, and without resistance on the part of the confederate, "hold up" their young victim. But the result of his $50 haul is an eternal blight of his life, and an opportunity for silent, long repentance. His pal will probably be sent up by the April sitting of court.

Another bitter pill for a seemingly small offense was J. N. Slade's sentence of one year. He was a fruit tree agent of Hogue & Mentch. An order of $90 came in last summer, purporting to be from Silas Kennedy, of Beaver township, for full delivery. The order was delivered at the appointed time, but Kennedy refused it and claimed the order a forgery. Slade had received his percent for the order, not over fifteen or twenty dollars, and Hogue & Mentch had him arrested for forgery and embezzlement. Slade plead not guilty, the trial was ended and the jury hung, when the defendant withdrew his plea of not guilty and entered one of guilty, thereby lessening the sentence should conviction occur. One man hung the jury and nothing but conviction would have resulted in another trial.

R. H. Black is another fruit tree man that came to grief, being convicted of forgery and embezzlement, and sentenced to two years' State hospitality. He was an agent for Broward & Stenard, Ottawa, and gave several Cowley farmers surprises in fruit tree deliveries they had no previous knowledge of. His whole summer's work was forgeries, but after one or two deliveries were refused, the company "caught on," and ceased delivering and had the gentleman placed behind the iron bars.

Much Valuable Information.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

We present on the first page a detailed report of the Farmers' Institute held in this city on last Thursday and Friday. Though the attendance was not as large as was hoped for, in interest and valuable information the Institute was a grand success. The "old war horses" in Cowley agriculture were there and interchanged ideas and solved problems that will be of vast benefit in their vocation. This institute will be made a permanent thing, with annual or semi-annual meetings, and every farmer who desires to advance with the age and keep up with experiments and results should give it his warmest encouragement. A few energetic enterprising farmers, assisted by Professors of the State Agricultural College made this session a success, now let the farming community at large take hold. A careful perusal of the excellent papers read before the Institute and the discussions therein will furnish many splendid "pointers."

A Splendid Record.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

A remarkable record is shown by Winfield Lodge No. 479, Knights of Honor, in the fact that the first death among its membership in its eight years' existence occurred recently in the death of Mr. Frederick Zahl, whose widow came down from her home in Douglass last week and received from the Lodge two thousand dollars. The deceased had paid an average of sixteen assessments a year since joining the order in 1877, an aggregate of one hundred and ninety-five dollars. The Winfield Lodge of this order is the oldest in the State, has a large membership, and as a beneficiary society cannot be excelled.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

To the Patrons of Our Public Schools.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

By order of the Board of Education, all children under seven years of age will be excluded from our schools for the present. It was supposed that with our new school building, all the children of the city could be accommodated, but the rooms are crowded to that extent that the above action has been deemed necessary. The school population during the year has increased 460, and the additional building will provide for only 200, hence the imperative need of more school room. Steps should be taken, at once, to make preparation for the erection of a new building, to be completed by September of his year.

A. GRIDLEY, JR., Superintendent Schools.

A Splendid Lecture Course.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Ladies' Library Association has arranged a course of four lectures, embracing Hon. Geo. R. Wendling, "Personality of the Devil," Col. L. F. Copeland, "Tie Up That Dog," Col. J. P. Sanford, "Past, Present and Future of Our Country," Hon. Frank W. Smith, "In and Out of Andersonville." Wendling will appear at the Opera House Tuesday eve., Feb. 10th.

Grand Clearance Sale.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

I will sell my entire stock of winter Boots and Shoes beginning February 2, 1885, at actual cost in order to reduce stock and make room for a large stock of spring goods.

J. W. Prather.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. and Mrs. R. W. Anderson, as is mentioned by our Pleasant Valley correspondent, celebrated their twentieth wedding anniversary last Saturday evening in a most royal manner. Over one hundred guests were present and the presents were numerous and valuable. A happier, more congenial, or more substantial couple would be hard to find and we are glad to note the esteem in which they are held by the people of Pleasant Valley, as is evidenced in this celebration.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. Joseph Abrams, for nine years a resident of Beaver township but lately of Winfield has cast his fortunes upon the matrimonial sea with Miss Maggie Hemphill, of DeSota, Iowa. They were married yesterday afternoon at the residence of the bride's parents in this city by Rev. B. Kelly, and took the evening train for the World's Fair and other points.

They are both possessed of many admirable qualities and the COURIER extends hearty congratulations.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Dickens entertainment by the Philomathian society of our High School at the Opera House Tuesday eve passed off very creditably. The sketches on the prominent characters of Dickens' famous work, David Copperfield, showed much thought and capability. The entertainment deserved a much larger audience than it got, especially when the proceeds go to the purchase of a school library. However, a good excuse is offered in the terrible condition of the streets.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Arrangements are perfected that will make the Bal Masque of the Winfield Social Club at the Opera House this evening the grand society event of the year. Prominent ladies and gentlemen from Wellington, Arkansas City, and other points will be present. Mrs. Archer, the Kansas City costumer, is now at the Brettun.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Beaver township laid it over the "Dems" again Tuesday, in the election of the following Republican officers: Trustee, J. W. Browning; clerk, H. T. Bayless; treasurer, Irwin Gray; Justice, John Bower; constable, John Rupp. We are glad to see Beaver coming back to the ranks.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The reader will note the new convenience in our railroad time table, showing the time of arrival and departure of every station in Cowley. We also present a list of Winfield's societies, which will be a permanent directory.

[Note: Railroad Time Tables was shown on next page, and was impossible to read easily. Stations shown: Grand Summit, Cambridge, Torrance, Burden, New Salem, Winfield, Kellogg - going east and west; Udall, Seeley, Winfield, Hackney, Arkansas City - going north and south. Railroads were not specified.]

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Methodists will have their regular quarterly meeting next Sunday; love feast in the morning as usual, followed by a sermon by the pastor. Rev. T. Audis, the presiding elder, will fill the pulpit in the evening.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Walnut township elected her straight Republican ticket. Trustee, Uncle Johnny Roberts; clerk, Fred Arnold; treasurer, M. N. Chafey; justice, J. L. King; constables, Abe King and N. R. Wilson.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Vernon township elected her entire Republican ticket, as usual. Trustee, H. H. Martin; clerk, J. M. Householder; treasurer, P. B. Ware; road overseer for township, Fielding McClung; constable, E. B. Gault.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The excellent paper on "Important Suggestions," read before the Farmers Institute by Prof. Geo. R. Thompson, reached us too late for publication with the regular report, but will appear next week.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Pleasant Valley elected the following officers Tuesday: Trustee, D. S. Sherrard; clerk, Frank Chapin; justices, A. H. Broadwell and West Holland; constable, A. Bookwalter.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Feminine Enterprise and Generosity.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Now that the ladies have formed a relief society, the poor of our city are being well cared for. The society held a meeting in the Presbyterian church on Wednesday of last week, and large piles of clothing, provisions, etc., were sent in to be distributed among the needy by the different committees. This organization has been made permanent, with Mrs. W. R. Kirkwood, president; Mrs. J. L. Horning, Vice President; Mrs. W. G. Graham, Secretary, and Mrs. J. H. Reider, Treasurer. A committee of two has been appointed for each ward, as follows: First Ward, Mrs. W. R. McDonald and Mrs. E. D. Garlick; Second Ward, Mrs. J. S. Hunt and Miss Lizzie Graham; Third Ward, Mrs. J. L. Horning and Mrs. M. L. Robinson; Fourth Ward, Mrs. C. A. Bliss and Mrs. A. H. Doane. These ladies have sought out all destitute families in their respective wards, and are making them comfortable. And one who pursues the even tenor of his ways in every day walk would be astonished at the number of really needy families they found--those who have hands to do but can find nothing to profitably busy them with, the avenues of industry being almost closed. Many let pride carry them to the very verge of freezation and starvation, and only by the visits of these ladies did their real condition become known. The social and supper at the Presbyterian church Tuesday evening by the relief society was very liberally patronized by our citizens, and proved an excellent "weigh" of ascertaining the weight of the ladies, and putting about a hundred dollars into the relief fund. All honor to our generous-hearted, enterprising ladies!

Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circles.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Three or four of these circles have been organized in the city, and are of great profit and pleasure. The different courses come monthly from Chautauqua, New York, and cost about $6.00 per year, including the Chautauqua monthly, with simplified readings upon the subject of study. The course embraces everything of practical value, and requires forty minutes daily study and the circles meet at the different residences for weekly reviews. The object of these circles is to disseminate general knowledge without a collegiate course, a consummation derived by many old and young. There is no way we know of by which the same amount of literature, so well selected and ready for study, can be obtained so cheaply; and then the salutary effect that will doubtless be produced upon society, giving ladies and gentlemen something more to talk about than Johnnie has the whooping cough or the flirtations of the last ball. We also believe that if these societies could be largely attended by our citizens, it would cultivate a taste for refined literature and produce a desire for something more nourishing in our public entertainments than milk and water and our eyes would be less familiar with the sight of a half audience for a profound lecture, and a house overflowing for a negro minstrel or a second class theatre. Persons situated in the country where it is inconvenient to form associations can study in their own home, and by constituting mother or father president, the reading can be discussed. We cannot think of any means by which an evening can be more pleasantly and profitably spent.

Some Points About Winfield.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

We find the following interesting letter from Rev. J. H. Reider, our new Baptist minister, in the Indiana Baptist, Indianapolis.

I am delighted with my new field of labor. Am fully persuaded that my coming here has been of the Lord. I find my work opening up very hopefully indeed. This church is spoken of by those who claim to understand what they are talking about, as being the best church of our denomination in this large and beautiful state. Of the truthfulness of this statement, I cannot speak, but this I do know: they know how to welcome a pastor to their homes and hearts.

I never expect to find a kinder people than those I left in the beautiful city of Bluffton, Ind., where I spent eight of the pleasantest and, I trust, most fruitful years for good of my life. But I am fully persuaded that I have here a church that is as much devoted to the work of our blessed Master, and as deeply interested in the happiness and well-being of their pastor, as a church can be. I have had the pleasure of seeing my congregations steadily increase at each Sabbath service.

We commenced a series of meetings on last Monday evening, and have been greatly encouraged, not only because of the increasing attendance at each succeeding service but because of the Spirit's presence. A large number of unconverted persons have asked the prayers of the church, and six have been received into the fellowship of the church since my settlement here. We hope to visit the baptismal waters in the near future. My faith is strong in the promise of God and shall be greatly disappointed if we do not have a very large number added to the church, "of such as shall be saved," ere our series of meetings closes.

The seating capacity of our church home is about 500 in the main audience room, and by means of sliding doors we can add that of the lecture room, giving us sittings for 700, and in case of actual necessity we can open up our library and dressing rooms and add nearly 100 more comfortable seats.

Bro. Cairns, the former pastor of this church, was a wise master builder, and very great credit is due him by this people for the neat and commodious house of worship we have to meet in. Winfield is a city of between five and six thousand inhabitants, the county seat of Cowley County, one of the best counties in this state. It is at the crossing of the Southern Kansas, and the Atchison & Santa Fe railroad. The Arkansas and Walnut rivers pass through the county and thus furnish a great abundance of water for milling and stock purposes. Our soil is about equally divided for farming and grazing purposes. The city and county is settled largely by New England people, industrious and intelligent citizens.

I know of but few cities in Indiana better supplied with good church buildings than Winfield.

I have been on this field three weeks, and I have my first drunken man to see here yet. I have heard but one oath, and that was from a railroad employee, since here. So much I can say, as I believe this is the result largely of the stringent temperance laws of our state.

But I must not attempt a lengthy letter at this time, for my time forbids. I hear favorable reports from our Hoosier brethren, Bro. J. R. Edwards, of Anthony; Bro. A. B. Charpie, of Harper; and Bro. Harper, of Wichita. I understand that Wellington, 25 miles west of us, is looking to Indiana to furnish it with one of your best preachers.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Winfield has some excellent whist players, especially among the young ladies, and the following touching the game as it is played in Wichita will excite wonder. A guest who dropped in on a party of eight struggling with the beauties and mysteries described by Pole, gives a graphic account of the feminine way of playing the game in the great city on the banks of the Kansas Nile. The fair disciple begins in this wise, according to our informant, whose name we withhold as a sacred trust. "Oh, dear, I don't believe I can ever get these cards arranged. Now, let me see, that one goes there, and--Oh, dear, I've dropped one on the floor--won't you pick it up? Thanks. Now, let me see--Oh, is it my play? Mercy, I'm sure I don't know which one to play. There, I played the wrong one, but never mind. Have I got to follow suit? Well, if I can't follow suit, can I trump? Oh, I wish I could have thrown away on that trick. Could I? Oh, I'm so sorry. Now, how stupid I was. I didn't see it was my partner's ace when I trumped--but never mind." And so it goes on, and at the end of the game her partner generally has to stand the ridicule of the other side because he was so badly beaten.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Constable Siverd brought Milton Johnson from Omnia township before Justice Snow last Friday. He plead guilty to "licking the wadding" out of a school mate and the fine and costs aggregated thirty-two dollars. He was sixteen years old.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

John A. Murray, the new County Attorney of Sumner County, is making it hot for the violators of the prohibitory law in Sumner County. Last week, Tuesday, he scored fifteen hundred dollars in fines besides one hundred and twenty dollars costs against dram sellers.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The congregations at the Baptist Church on last Sabbath were very large, notwithstanding the bad condition of the streets. The increasing attendance indicates very plainly that the services are appreciated.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Gentlemen who are unable to sleep at night from thinking of the city poor are invited to remember that contributions sent to the ladies relief society will be carefully and economically distributed.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

A grand festival will be given for the benefit of the Vernon library at the Kellogg mill on the evening of February 13th, 1885. All are invited to attend. By order of committee.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Five high grade short horn bulls and seven high grade short horn heifers for sale by H. T. Shivvers. Inquire at the office of Shivvers & Linn, Winfield, Ks.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. H. Beck, the photographer, leaves today for Galion, Ohio, to visit his father, who is in poor health and quite aged.


Rambling Scintillations from our Itemizer's Pen, Paste and Scissors.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Terminus will dedicate her new Baptist church the last Sunday in this month.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Arkansas City thinks she has enough pious young men and will have a Young Men's Christian Association.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Two Nimrods arrived in Wellington last week from the Territory with fifty deer and thirty turkeys, the result of a two weeks' hunt.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Wichita had two suicides within a day or so last week, which, taken in connection with the attempt to move the idiotic asylum there from Lawrence gave that burg quite a boom.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

One of the largest jobs of hatching we have heard of lately was Hatch hatching the boomers. He didn't set on 'em exactly, but he "sot" around till they all hatched out and took to the grass under escort. They were mostly roosters.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Dr. Garnett tells us, remarks the Wellington Standard, that the dudes visiting New Orleans call the Exposition the "Expo." There are some things we can never learn. We can't call route, "root," depot "daypo," Buffet sleepers "Buffay," or a six o'clock meal "dinner."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Ery Miller and Alida Vandermark recently desecrated the Methodist church at Arkansas City by lodging therein; and the Traveler loudly condemns the heinous offense, and the authorities sat down on the rapscallions a hundred dollars' worth, which they were unable to pay and languish in the county bastille.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Wellington Standard: "Hon. Geo. R. Wendling, the famous lecturer, who is considered by many admirers to be the peer of Ingersoll, will lecture in Winfield, Tuesday evening, February 10. The lecturer is a brother of our fellow-townsman, M. B. Wendling, who is quite a fluent talker himself on the subject of 'abstracts.'"

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Wichita Beacon, 20th ult. "Chas. Beck, formerly of this city, but now of Eureka, was in town last night, on his way home from Winfield, where he has been to attend the funeral of his brother, Elgy, who died last Sunday. Elgy was here for a number of months, and was a great favorite of his employer, the proprietor of the Tarred store, and the people in general. We are in sympathy with his parents, who reside in Winfield."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

"Mr. Bob Strother had twenty sheep killed the other night by hogs, and thirty-one wounded, so that nine have died since," says an upper Timber creek correspondent of the Burden Eagle. "This is the second raid the dogs have made on Mr. Strother's sheep lately, he having lost seventeen a short time ago in the same manner. He now has a 'paddy' fixed up holding a burning lantern in one hand and a gun in the other."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

A colored gentleman was arrested at Belle Plaine last week and taken to Wellington, charged with stealing a suit of clothes, a pair of shoes, a Methodist hymnal and Bible. He entered a plea of guilty to the first half of the charge. As to stealing the Bible, he rolled his eyes out until they looked like new moons rising in a potato patch, and said, "Lord God, massa, I neber stole dat book. Fore God, I sware it am a present from my mudder--an' I hope God'll strike dis chile ded if dat ain't a fac."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Wellington Standard very sensibly remarks: "The dude that was so badly affected, on account of our shop girls being received in the best society, will unfortunately recover. Take out the young girls and women who have independence enough to make their living behind the counter, at the case, in millinery, dressmaking, and other vocations, and Wellington would be a dry old town. Western Kansas is not suitable for royal blood of the effected scrubs that try to ope its customs."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

"It is wonderful the number of cat fish that are killed in the Arkansas river just below the dam," faberizes the Arkansas City Traveler. "The fisherman go in below and drive the fish for a mile or more up the stream, and turn them like sheep into narrow channels, where they go in with spears and kill them by the wagon load. The fish trade of this place is becoming quite an item, and many pounds are being shipped as far west as Colorado. The wealth of the county might be increased by having Walnut and Grouse creeks supplied with 'seed.'"

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. D. L. Kretsinger, of Winfield, paid the Wellingtonian a visit on Thursday of last week. Mr. Kretsinger was here as representative of the Cowley County Fair Association at the meeting of the Southern Kansas Fair circuit. Mr. Kretsinger was for a couple of years city editor of the Winfield Daily Telegram, while that paper was under the management of the editor of the Wellingtonian, and is always a welcome visitor at his quarters. "Kret" is a bright and active young man and has come to the front in Cowley County politics to such an extent that he will some day rake in a fat office, or we miss our guess. Wellingtonian.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The boomers, ninety-nine footmen and forty-seven wagons and teams, marched into Arkansas City last Friday from Oklahoma, in answer to the invitation of Gen. Hatch. A meeting was held immediately on their arrival and arrangements made for a reassembling of the colony on March 4th, and 5th fixed as the date for another invasion. Couch said, as a reason for their outward march, that their provisions were exhausted. Deputy U. S. Marshal, Capt. Rarick, arrested W. L. Couch, Geo. L. Brown, H. H. Stafford, and Col. Wilcox on a warrant from the U. S. Commissioner at Wichita, for the resisting of Uncle Sam's array. The prisoners were immediately taken to Wichita.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

From numbers of persons who have recently returned from visits to the East and from those who have lately moved here from that quarter, it is confidently asserted that an enormous emigration will be made to the West this coming spring. They say that Dakota, that had the call for the last two or three years, has, on account of its extreme cold and severe weather, lost its grip. That Texas is looked upon as being too lawless, and that the happy compromise is Kansas. This is the almost universal cry and watchword of the discontented mechanic of low wages and short time, and of the farmer on high priced land. Times here at present are not first-class, yet there promises to be a grand rush for the cheap and good lands of this State though suffering for years under the blight of single visitation of grasshoppers and was by some called droughty, yet has risen superior and triumphant above all prejudice and opposition and now has the call over all the other western states of the union.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Wellington Press tells of a handsome young man who was brought before a Wellington Justice on the charge of seduction preferred by the father of Miss Sallie L. Williams, a young lady who resides on the classic shores of the Chikaski, in Sumner County. This couple had been engaged for three years and been kept from marrying by the objections of stern parents. The belligerent father eyed the defendant in no pleasant manner, but this feeling was now shown by his pretty daughter, whose drooping eyes spoke volumes, and as they met those of L. W. Connor, it was plain to be seen that it was a case of "two souls with but a single thought, two hearts that beat as one." The trial was about to begin when the defendant, Mr. Connor, drew from his pocket a marriage license, and expressed the opinion that the most amiable way to settle the trouble would be with a marriage ceremony. The father looked astounded and the girl happy. A messenger was dispatched for the Probate Judge, who arrived on the scene clothed with the majesty of the law, and in the twinkling of an eye the two "hostile" parties were united. The thing was so sudden--so unexpected--that the happy coupled looked at each other a moment, then realizing what had transpired, they rushed into each other's arms, and the scene that followed was touching in the extreme.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The Torrance Oklahoma Colony at their meeting Saturday, Jan. 24, 1885, adopted the following resolutions.

WHEREAS: A class of United States citizens known as Oklahoma Boomers, are now located on Government land known as the Oklahoma County property, endeavoring to gain homes for themselves and families, and

WHEREAS: We find the government sending its armies to expel these homeseekers, while other United States citizens such as cattle thieves and soulless corporations are permitted to remain unmolested and under the protection of interested officials, and

WHEREAS: The citizens of these United States, have abused their right of suffrage by electing men to Congress, ignorant of the vital questions of the day, and

WHEREAS: These servants of the people, have through ignorance, by brand and bribery enacted such laws as to place in the hands of Foreign syndicates and thieving-rings and corporations millions of acres of the public domain, which rightly belong to the honest toiling farmers, and

WHEREAS: We believe it is high time that the honest laborers arise in their might, asserting their rights and break the fetters with which the thieving swindling ringsters seek to bind them.

Therefore be it

Resolved: By the Torrance Oklahoma Colony, that our Representatives and Congress be warned of the importance of immediate action in regard to the settlement of this vexed question for upon such action depends perhaps the fate of American citizens.

Resolved: That we commend Capt. Couch and his brave colonists for so largely defending their rights to homes for the public domain.

Resolved: That the Winfield COURIER and Telegram and Kansas City Times be requested to publish these resolutions.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

While attending the inquest upon the body of Thomas Welch, the victim of the sad accident in Winfield on Sunday last, in which one man was in a moment ushered into the unseen, and another must carry to the grave the sad thought that in some way he was responsible, although conscious that he had committed no crime, there was much speculation as to how it could have happened without intention, and there are some who will affect to believe, or who are so constituted that they cannot help but believe that the shot was intentional, and that the jury did not do their duty in deciding it an accident. In fact, one of the prominent citizens of the city told me he was not satisfied with the investigation, unless some vague rumors of a quarrel between the men were examined into.

The testimony was skillfully handled by our acute prosecuting attorney, upon the theory that a terrible crime had been committed, and yet all who heard the testimony through were thoroughly satisfied that by some means the revolver was left with the hammer raised, and that Skinner did not notice it, and accidentally pressed the trigger when he lifted the pistol from the box. Col. Soward asked Skinner if he did not put his finger on the trigger? And he answered: "I must have, but I didn't know it."

The idea seems to prevail that fire-arms will not go off unless the lock is tampered with, and that a loaded gun with the hammer down is as safe as a stick of wood. It is also well known that the majority of accidents happen by pointing guns at others, with "I didn't know it was loaded."

An accident that happened to me today causes me to write this letter.

I have been familiar with the use--and danger--of fire-arms for forty years, and only from the fact of my carefully noting all the facts as I give them, and coming so soon after the inquest as above, am I impelled to give my experience to the public, hoping it will throw light upon some points in other cases.

I took up a double-barreled gun today and carried it across the room. I observed the lock and saw the cap was on the left side and the hammer down; the right-hand barrel was empty. I set the gun down carefully, and got out the ammunition, poured some powder in my hand, and proceeded to load the empty barrel. I set the gun before me in the room, with the locks from me, looked carefully to see that I was correct, and poured the powder into the right-hand barrel. I had just taken away my hand when there was a deafening explosion. For a moment I was confused, my forehead felt numb, my face smarted, and I put up my hand to see if the top of my head was safe. I found the only damage I had sustained was the burning of part of the eye-lashes of my left eye, and slight singeing of my hair, but there was a hole in the chamber floor over my head that I could put three fingers through, and the left-hand barrel was empty.

I know I did not hit the lock against anything, and the concussion of setting the gun on the floor did not set it off, as I put it down carefully, and it stood several seconds before it exploded, and I presume that if my head had been torn to pieces I should have been called a suicide, or very careless.

I never met with such an accident before, but it explains to my mind several mysterious accidents in the past, notably the one cited above, and the shooting, by himself, of C. L. Vallandingham several years ago. I think probably the motion in moving the gun disturbed some electrical condition obtained by decomposition of chemicals in the powder and compound in the cap. I cannot rationally make any other explanation, and I do not remember of ever seeing such a case as mine in print; but accidental explosions with fire-arms are common, and they are almost invariably attributed to carelessness, which is probably often the fact.

To my extreme caution in keeping my face from before the gun in this instance I owe my life; yet had the explosion been a few seconds later, I must have had my hand torn to pieces while loading. I think I may say I will not again attempt to load a gun with a cap on, especially of it has been loaded some time, and will continue, as in the past, to be very careful that the muzzle of the gun I may have in hand shall never, for an instant, be pointed at any person.

Fire-arms at best are dangerous, and the habit of having them lying around carelessly should not be indulged. H. W. MARSH, M. D., Coroner.


Political, Official, and Social Notes As Gathered By Our Regular

Washington Correspondent.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

The two absorbing topics of interest in Washington at the present time are the dedication ceremonies of the Washington Monument on the 21st proximo, and the inaugural ceremonies on the 4th of March. The preparations for the former are being rapidly perfected. Some of the invitation cards, prepared by the bureau of engraving and printing, have already been delivered. In the center of the card, which is six and one-half by nine and one-half inches, is a finely engraved head of Washington, back of which rises a representation of the monument, while flags jut out from either side. Figures of Peace and Justice, standing on either side, are represented in the act of crowning Washington with a laurel wreath.

Although the shaft of the monument is completed, much work is yet necessary to entirely finish the structure. The question of the design for the base is receiving much attention. Two methods of treating the terrace at the foot of the shaft have been suggested. One method proposes to erect a retaining wall of the most rare and beautiful marbles around the terrace, which wall is to be surmounted with a marble balustrade and ornamented with bronzes and mosaics. At the center of each face is to be set a broad, double stairs, extending from the general level of the site to the esplanade, which is to be paved in marble tiles of approved patterns, the whole work to be designed in all its details by the first artists and architects. The other method of finish proposed is to fill earth about the present terrace and joining with it, and to extend this filling so far from the monument as to fade the slopes of the embankment gradually into the surrounding surfaces, and this to be done with so much skill as to give the mound an appearance as far from artificial as possible. This mound is then to be planted with trees and shrubs, paths are to be laid out, a pavement to be put around the foot of the monument, and far enough from it to prevent the storm-waters from washing out the filling, and a keeper's lodge is also to be built near the work, to accommodate the watchman and visitors. The amount of filling required for this work is about 275,000 cubic yards, and the cost will be $82,500.

The first state dinner of the season was given by the President Wednesday evening, and again the White House was ablaze with brilliant light. Covers were laid for thirty-six guests, and the floral and botanical decorations of the parlors and the state dining room were fully in keeping with the company and the occasion. The large east parlor was designated as the gathering place for guests, and it was there that they all congregated and were met by the President. At the hour appointed for dinner, the party proceeded to the dining room, the President and Mrs. Frelinghuysen in the lead, followed by Secretary Frelinghuysen and Mrs. McElroy, Secretary McCulloch and Mrs. Hatton, Secretary Lincoln and Mrs. McCulloch, Secretary Chandler and Mrs. Brewster, Postmaster General Hatton and Mrs. Teller, Attorney General Brewster and Mrs. Carlisle. The President took the head of the table with Mrs. Frelinghuysen, of course, on his right and Mrs. McCulloch on his left, nd Mrs. McElroy opposite, with the Secretary of State on her right and Secretary McCulloch on her left. The table was a perfect garden of roses, and the dinner was replete in every detail with the choicest delicacies. During the dinner the Marine Band discoursed music in the vestibule; and the conservatory being thrown open and illuminated for the pleasure of the guests, many strolled in and out before and after dinner.

The Woman Suffrage Cause, to judge from campaign statistics, has not made much impression yet on the country; but these figures would not be accepted by the friends of the movement as an adequate expression of its strength. The ladies who have just held their annual convention in this city certainly make out a much better showing for their cause than students of blue-books would suppose possible from examining the Lockwood vote. They came in force with their usual formidable array of warriors, headed by Miss Susan B. Anthony, the faithful war-mare of the movement.

According to street talk there is a big lobby at work here in behalf of the Spanish treaty. This story is somewhat discredited by the fellow rumor that the lobby has only $20,000 to disburse. No lobby of proportions, entitling it to the title of "big," would bother with such a picayune plunder-fund as $25.000. LENOX.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Deputy United States Marshal O. S. Rorick arrived at Wichita, January 31, from Arkansas City, having in charge W. L. Couch, H. H. Stafford, G. W. Brown, and E. S. Wilcox, leaders in the latest Oklahoma boom. These gentlemen were arraigned before United States Commissioner Sherman by Deputy United States Attorney Hatten, when they were bound over for a hearing on the 10th of February, each in the sum of $1,000.

News About Ashland.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

A family consisting of husband, wife, and fourteen children, recently settled in that infant wonder of the western plains, Ashland. If that place keeps on receiving such accessions, she will soon be reaching out for water works, gas works, paregoric, and "sich."


Newsy Notes Gathered by The "Courier's" Corps of Neighborhood Correspondents.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.


The carpenters are at work finishing the interior of Mr. S. J. Day's two story stone building.

Mrs. Rev. Knight is quite sick.

Dr. Crabtree, whose illness we related last week, is again to be seen in his usual haunts.

E. W. Woolsey has moved from the apartments above the drug store of Crabtree & Woolsey, to the house of Charley Jones, who departed for the west some time ago.

The M. E. church had its fourth quarterly meeting here last Sabbath. Rev. Knight preached in the morning and the Presiding Elder, Rev. Audis, of Wichita, in the evening. The choir sang both times.

The Republicans of Silver Creek township met at the rink last Saturday afternoon and nominated the following ticket: Clerk, Jack Mercer; treasurer, Johnson Chandler; trustee, John I. Tate; road supervisor, Corbin Tredway.

The hotel toward the north end of Main street has again changed names, making the fourth time in as many months. It is now known as the Briscoe house, Mr. Briscoe having taken possession last Saturday. To celebrate the event an opening dinner was served on Sunday from 12 to 2 o'clock. The Commercial house has also changed hands, Mr. Leedy taking charge of it.

There will be a free entertainment given at the rink on Friday night, Feb. 13, by the Burden L. and L. Association. It is proposed to attempt at that time the formation of a lyceum or literary society, which shall act in conjunction with the Library Association, and shall give entertainments every few weeks, the proceeds of which will be spent in purchasing books. The evenings proceedings will close with the presentation of a French play of seven characters. The officers of the B. L. L. Association are: president, S. J. Day; secretary, Dr. A. M. Newman; treasurer, S. H. Toller. Nearly seven hundred dollars of the capital stock has already been subscribed and the success of the enterprise is assured. The probabilities are that a small building will be erected by the association within a year, and a fine library placed in it.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. Nelson has moved into his new house.

Rev. Wesley, also his wife and children, are on the sick list.

Mr. W. C. Douglass and family are visiting relatives in Longton, Kansas.

Quite a number of Salemites attended the Burden ball and report an excellent time.

Messrs. John and Frank Gilmore, also W. B. Hoyland, made a sleigh, and the young people had a fine time sleigh-riding last week.

Mr. John Davis is very sick. There are a good many complaining, and some are down. Such a cold winter is too much for Southern people.

Mrs. Archer has returned from her visit abroad; was among the number that were snow-bound between here and Burden. Mr. Pixley has also returned.

Mr. Edgar and family are home from Tennessee. They suffered with chills while there, and Mr. E. has been quite ill since his return. They had a fine time visiting kindred and friends.

Mr. and Mrs. Long, of Walnut Valley, were guests in the Hoyland family last week. Also Mrs. Frank Wilson and family visited there; also at Mrs. Vance's and Mrs. Watsonberger's.

Mr. William Starr is suffering with inflammatory rheumatism; is under the care of Dr. Irwin. Mr. McMillen is also under his care and is quite sick. Mr. James Chapell is down with rheumatism. Mrs. G. D. Vance is convalescing from her recent sick spell.

Mr. Edson Hutchison has left his nice little Salem home and, with his family, is a resident of Burden; has bought his brother Mc's interest in the restaurant in that place. Dr. Downs and wife will move into the house vacated by Mr. Hutchison. Glad to gain the addition of the Doctor to our circle and sorry to lose Mr. and Mrs. Hutchison.

The old Salem school had a spelling one night last week; invited Moscow school to spell with them. The contest, we hear, was not very long, and alas! For the glory of Salem, they let Moscow carry off the laurels. Only members of Salem's day school spelled, while Moscow had outside assistance and also some excellent spellers from their school. It will help them to have such contests often. Success to the spellers.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mr. E. Chapin is on the sick list.

The stockyards are nearing completion at Hackney.

Almost every farmer has running water on his farm now.

Miss Gincy Holland entertained visitors from Winfield last week.

Mr. M. S. Teter and wife visited relatives in Pleasant Valley last week.

The Belle of Beaver Center visited her sister, Mrs. M. L. Benson, a few days ago.

Rev. Castle is engaged in a series of meetings at the Mt. Zion church. He reports things lively.

Mr. Sidney Graham is visiting in this vicinity. Mr. Graham has been in Pratt County, holding down a claim.

Miss Abby Keever visited friends and relatives here last week. She returned to her home in Beaver last week.

Mr. Grundy's house caught fire and very near burned down recently, but the flames were extinguished in time to save the house. Cause: defective chimney.

Mr. and Mrs. Anderson celebrated their twentieth anniversary last Saturday evening, January 31st. There were about one hundred guests present. The ceremony was performed by H. Harbaugh, which ran as follows: "Mr. Anderson, do you promise to take Mrs. as your wedded wife; to live together all your life; to have her build all the fires; to milk the cows; to be the lady; to chop the wood and spank the baby?" The guests made Mr. and Mrs. Anderson a present of a set of china dishes which cost $60, after which refreshments were served and a jolly time in general enjoyed.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Ah the mud, the lovely mud.

A. A. Jackson, of Seeley, called on us the 3d.

Election in progress here today for township officers.

Miss Anna Green, of Halstead, Kansas, is visiting her aunt, Mrs. Sue Green.

The Methodist folks will give a festival at Akers' Hall on the night of the 3rd. A grand time is anticipated.

The Happy Hours Concert Company will give another one of their chaste and refined concerts on the evening of the 6th, at the Baptist church.

W. W. Mathews has traded his farm east of Udall to Mr. Hawkins, of Indiana, where he will remove very shortly. We are sorry to lose Mr. Mathews, as he was a good citizen.

Peter Baker and family, from Kentucky, arrived here on Saturday last. Also his brother and family. Peter at once purchased the H. [?] M. Crossen property and will locate here permanently.

For a long time the little coon of John Howard's, at the City hotel, has been depressed by a spirit of loneliness, but at last we are able to chronicle the fact that a "cooness" has arrived in Udall, coming with Mr. Peter Baker.

Some time ago Mart Kenton had a well dug on his place east of Udall by some parties by the name of Newell, and did not settle for the same as promptly as the Newells desired, and on Thursday last they went to his residence during his absence and drove off three head of cattle. Mart promptly swore out a writ of replevin and recovered the cattle. The rights of the property will be tried before Esq. Norman in a few days.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Mrs. Cain has a young daughter.

Mr. Burt is again able to be around.

Mr. R. B. Pratt has returned from out west.

Mr. Tom Covert is the happy father of a fine young son.

The meetings are now in progress after so long a delay on account of cold weather.

There is a bachelor in our neighborhood who said he got tired doing without milk, so he bought a calf.

Last Wednesday some of our scholars went to visit another school. They came home not much wiser but a great deal hungrier.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Look out for a wedding in Dexter soon.

Mr. Irving Cole has gone to Ohio to visit his aged father.

Miss Jane Hargiss is the guest of her sister, Mrs. Hardwick.

Mrs. McLean, of Wyandotte, Kansas, is visiting her son, H. G. McLean.

Miss Nettie McKimme, of Illinois, is visiting her aunt, Mrs. J. V. Hines.

Mrs. John Reynolds is spending the winter in Illinois with relatives.

We learn that Frank Hardin, of Cambridge, narrowly escaped death a few nights ago. Some unknown person attempted to rob the store, and shot him, but he is not seriously hurt.

Mr. Hardwick was off to Kansas City with some of his fat cattle last week.

Dexter is noted for professional skill. Four doctors are located here at present.

Mr. H. C. McDorman lost quite a number of his sheep during the late cold snap.

Mr. and Mrs. George McClellan are entertaining a little girl of regulation weight.

Mr. Hardwick took advantage of the cold weather and put up considerable ice for family use.

Mrs. H. G. McLean has returned home from McPherson, Kansas, where she has been visiting her parents.

L. B. Bullington has lost fifteen head of calves the past few weeks, supposed to be trouble from corn-stalks.

Charlie and Mattie Linsdale have gone to Lawrence, Kansas, to attend school. They are greatly missed in society here.

Mr. and Mrs. Mart Branson, formerly of Dexter, but now of Eureka, Kansas, are visiting Mrs. Branson's parents, Mr. and Mrs. Hite.

Little Nettie Bullington is very sick with pneumonia fever. Dr. Hawkins is attending her. Hope she will soon recover.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

J. P. Stuber sold twenty-two hogs delivered at Burden at four cents, averaging 330 pounds.

Mr. S. H. Battell, who has been visiting friends in this vicinity left for his home at Altamont last week.

Miss Nett Heizer is teaching at Summit. She has made us a good teacher.

We have Sabbath School at Summit, which is generally well attended.

The second Sunday in every month we meet to discuss on Temperance. When we fail to have speakers from abroad, we improve our home talent. I think this is a principle we all should be interested in.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Walter Myers has returned from the west.

Porter Seacat will go to Clark County to improve his claims.

Lon. Holcomb is recovering after several days sickness.

Mrs. Grantham has been very sick, but at last accounts was improving.

Ed. Watt, of Hackney, visited this locality last week. He is rusticating since his attendance at the Winfield school.

Judging from our friend, "Deacon Barnes," last week's correspondence to the Tribune, it would be inferred that nobody left items at the COURIER.

Mr. Frye and lady, of Colorado, are visiting Mr. Hughes'. Mr. Frye has been engaged in mining several years in that state, and after a brief visit in Kansas, they will return there.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

George Stephenson has gone to Harper to "boom" with the natives. If George hears the squawk of the blood thirsty cowboy, he will "hunt his hole" and report at home soon.

Mr. Broadwell has bought twenty head of grade short-horn cattle from the Joseph Vermilye estate. Mr. Broadwell is assuming a business attitude, and like other cowboys, longs to be near the "range."

Mr. Ray, of New York, visited Messrs. Vermilye a few days last week. Mr. Ray, of course, is very well impressed with our country after viewing Cowley's advantages.

"It's too utterly too too" that it becomes necessary to inform the youngsters that leap year is defunct. There is no good reason why South Bend should have more leap year than elsewhere.

Mr. Harrader is repairing the Pleasant Valley flouring mill and will soon employ the roller system at a cost of about $1,500. Mr. Harrader has put up some splendid ice, thus wisely preparing to mitigate the coming warmth.

A protracted meeting is in progress at our schoolhouse. Notwithstanding the unfavorable tendencies of the weather, the attendance has been large. Revs. Crawford and Stansberry very ably preside.

Jos. Mitchell is somewhat perplexed because he cannot solve the following: "How much land is contained in a triangle (?) whose dimensions are: 100 rods, 60 rods, and 40 rods?" Try again, Joe, you have a good solid head for "biz"--as has a fence rail!

Two young men, living in the dark recesses of the South Bend jungle, have resolved to never again masticate the "filthy weed." Verily, boys, you were wise to seek feminine counsel. Should your taste for the weed return, go to Mr. Bryant's and have another elm-bark surprise party.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

Try W. A. Lee's seed store for fresh new seeds.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

W. A. Lee can't have any old seeds for he never sold seeds before.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

FOR SALE. A good, medium sized work horse; kind disposition and works well. D. M. Adams, 3 miles south of city on Santa Fe R. R.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 5, 1885.

W. A. Lee has bought a large stock of garden and field seeds and will in a few days open up a seed store in the old Bank building west of the Winfield Bank. He will be glad to see his old customers and many new ones taking fresh, new seeds from his house.



Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The New York Athletic Club has just completed one of the finest gymnasiums in the world. It cost $300,000.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Several fights have occurred between the English troops and the Mahdi's Arabs, in the routes approaching Khartoum in Africa.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Legislature of Texas is struggling with the question of employing female clerks, which would be an entire innovation in that state.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Owing to colonial annexations during the past year, Germans, like Britons, are now able to say that the sun never sets in the German empire.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Considerable excitement was caused at Harper by the posting of bills by the vigilantes, notifying certain gamblers and saloon men to quit the country within 24 hours.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The LeRoy Reporter says that Jay Gould's new railroad line from Kansas City by way of Paola and LeRoy will be about the same length as the Santa Fe line by way of Topeka and Emporia.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

S. S. Conant, assistant editor of Harpers Weekly, has mysteriously disappeared and foul play is suspected. Had it been the editor-in-chief, George William Curtis, everybody would know that he had evaporated.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Miss Alger, of Boston, says that in her experience as a visitor for the Associated Charities, she finds no drunkenness among the Italians, and the greatest fastidiousness coupled with economy among the French.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The British public and parliament are glorifying over the news that Gen. Wolseley's army in Upper Egypt has had two or three victories over the Arabs, captured Metemeneh, and opened communications with Gen. Gordon at Khartoum.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

In one of our Indian languages, the word "woman" is rendered "Kewanojawjaw." There are a good many married men who can define the last two syllables at a glance, but the most of them are not aware that "kewano" means "lightning."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Has the establishment of 30,000 roller skating rinks in this country during the past two years had anything to do with the success of the Democrats and the depression of business? In Boston there are said to be 500 roller skating clubs and a rink in every block.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

In intelligence, like money, it is not so much what one gains as what he retains which becomes capital to draw upon for use. And unlike money intelligence can be given away without the giver decreasing his own supply. Intelligence therefore conduces to liberality.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

It is comforting to know that while we are wrestling with blizzards and monumental coal bills, California is indulging in all the luxuries of spring. Acacia in full bloom attracting the bees; roses are plentiful; violets, mignonette, and heliotrope are in early spring flower.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mrs. James A. Garfield was sued in the Common Pleas Court, at Cleveland, January 28th, by a woman named Thankful Tanner, for $25,000. Mrs. Tanner was run over by Mrs. Garfield's carriage, December 22, while in the public square, and she now alleges that she was seriously injured.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Edmund Yates, the London editor, sent to prison six months for libel, gets even with the London Times for its rejoicing over his sentence, by pointing out in the current number of the London World that the father of the present proprietor of the Times was put in the pillory for libeling the royal family.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The only State in the Union in which it is impossible to obtain a divorce is South Carolina. Notwithstanding this great local disadvantage, the people there seem to be quite as happy as in Illinois or Rhode Island, in either of which a divorce can be had for the asking and the payment of the court fees.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

A number of farmers in Kingman County have established ponds and stocked them with fish, German carp being the favorite. Many who a year or two ago received a small installment from the Fish Commissioner are now abundantly able to supply their tables from their little lakes with the most palatable food.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

In the United States Senate, Monday, the Interstate commerce bill was lengthily discussed on a motion to strike out the clause prohibiting railroads charging more for shorter distances than they do for longer distances, in which Senators Ingalls, Plumb, and many others took part. The motion to strike out failed to pass.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Peter Schultz, of Lawrence, boarded a train to go to the next station, and finding the train did not stop where he wanted to get off, he jumped from the train while under full headway, striking on his head, fracturing his skull, cutting the scalp from ear to ear, throwing it down on his face.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Last week near Cheyenne Agency, Indian Territory, the cow camp of Halsell Bros. was destroyed by fire in the night. Loss, over $1,000. The bedding, clothing, etc., belonging to the boys all went up in smoke. The boys went (undressed) ten miles to a neighboring camp for protection from the cold. It was a "cold day" for the boys in that camp.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

A Washington telegram says the excess in the value of exports over imports of merchandise in the twelve months ended December 1, 1884, was $120,076,072; total values of imports of merchandise for the twelve months ended December 31, 1884, $629,227,780; a decrease of $57,838,486; the value of exports of merchandise in twelve months ended December 31, 1884, $749,303,862; for the preceding twelve months, $795,206,316; a decrease of $45,905,514. If fiscal years ran even with calendar years, the people could keep clearer views of public receipts and expenditures, as well as exports and imports.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

A New York dispatch says: Mrs. Grant has given her consent to Mr. Vanderbilt's proposition to secure to the Government perpetual possession of General Grant's war relics and the souvenirs of his around-the-world journey. The relics were part of the security for a $150,000 loan that Mr. Vanderbilt gave General Grant to help out the firm of Grant & Ward, and became Mr. Vanderbilt's property when General Grant confessed judgment for the $150,000, on December 6. Mr. Vanderbilt offered to deed the relics and other property back to General Grant, but Mrs. Grant refused to accept the offer. When he changed the offer to a proposition to make her trustee of the relics, with the understanding that they should become the property of the Government at General Grant's death, she readily consented, and on January 10th, a deed was executed transferring the relics to her."


Many Points of Value to Cowley's Wide-Awake Farmers.

Paper Read Before the Farmers' Institute at the Opera House

On January 29 and 30 by Prof. Geo. F. Thompson of the State Agricultural College.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The suggestions which I shall offer are not new or untried ones. You may think this a good reason why they should not be given. But they have been proven by the experience of thousands to be indispensable with the most successful farmers; and so long as they are needed just so long will they demand recognition. New theories are always subject to discussion; but experience and proof have placed these things beyond the pale of theory, and established them as facts.

Certainly no one will deny the importance of agriculture in the United States. It is the greatest industry of our nation, and the one that has made it in point of prosperity the first among the nations of the earth. Of course, there are many things which make our nation preferable, but that industry upon which our prosperity is principally based is agriculture. Now this being the case, it is to the interest of the nation as well as every individual citizen to see that we maintain this supremacy. If, then, agriculture is of so much importance, we must not let it decline. The nation can and does do much to favor this industry, yet it is mainly left with the farmers themselves to see whether they will suffer it to advance or retrograde.

We all desire to see agriculture promoted; but this cannot be unless men are capable of promoting it. Hence a farmer must be educated for his calling--must think, plan, and read in order to keep pace with his industry. He cannot enjoy perfect success without this. There are men at the helm now who are pushing agriculture above and beyond the position it once occupied--that time when so many farmed because they were obliged to. In farming, as in every other calling, there is no standstill position, we must either go forward or backward. It is gratifying to know that we are now going forward. The day is already past when the anxious father will say to the mother that they will have to make a farmer of their son, as Nature has not fitted him for any of the professions.

There was a time when the idea was popular that it took more intelligence to successfully manage a corner grocery than it did to manage a farm. Now the "tables are turned," and men of intelligence run the farms, while invalids and men who have no natural taste for manual labor manage the grocery.

Farmers have not become intelligent without an effort on their part. They became so by constant reading and thinking. The popularity of newspapers has been a strong factor in this. One of the most important items in the rapid stride ahead which agriculture has made of late years is due to the agricultural press. Certain it is, judging from its present importance, farming would not have attained its present high standing without its aids. It is safe to presume that the man in any calling who does not read is not a very flattering success. It is true that in the western country, where the soil is naturally so fertile and crops are so easily grown, men who do no reading and little thinking succeed in a measure, as manual labor alone will insure a fair crop; for this, you know, is the land which if "tickled with a hoe will laugh with a harvest." But this state of things cannot always exist. We know by the experience of others that years of cropping on any soil, if it is not replenished, will reduce one of these laughing harvests to a smile, and finally to a frown. Then will the manual laborer get a back-set, and more intelligence be required; for the farmer will have to deal and act with the forces of nature in order to make the land produce. He must understand the composition of his soil; and the means by which it may be kept from exhaustion. Here is where the agricultural press, laden with the experiences of many, helps mightily in one's work. We learn there how to save time and money, and how to improve what we have.

Agricultural papers are a thing of recent date. The first one on this continent was published in 1818 by John S. Skinner, and was called the "American Farmer." The rapid increase in agricultural literature since 1818 shows very perfectly the degree in which the industry has prospered. Let me compare that date with the present. Then we had one agricultural paper; now we have 87, or the establishment of one for each year since the first, and twenty over. We have in Kansas more than half a dozen devoted exclusively to agriculture; and all Kansas newspapers have their agricultural columns. The most valuable feature of this kind of journalism is the contributions from practical farmers. These give the experience and incidents of farm life. In this way one writer may give a bit of experience which may be beneficial to thousands. The agricultural press has done much to make farming a favorite pursuit. It has done much to make it an attractive one to the wealthy classes, as well as to the laborer in the field. See what has been accomplished in the creation of the numerous agricultural colleges throughout the country, and in keeping the young men home on the lands of their fathers. Many of our journals such as the "American Agriculturist," "Country Gentleman," and "Prairie Farmer," have become household words in many rural districts. These papers are teachers; they are the business educators of the farmers. They bring to their notice all the improvements in tools and tillage; they tell lovers of good cows all about the best breeds; they elevate the farm and make the labor thereon a learned profession. Art, and science, and taste, and the resulting increased wealth are the work of these newspapers. All this is seen in the reaping machines, splendid barns, better breeds of cattle, better horses, superior butter, drained lands, and more grass outside the mansion, and music, and books, and beauty, and comfort and happiness inside the farm house. It has been a task to accomplish this; old farmers would not be convinced that there was any value in book or newspaper farming. They believed in the old dunghill, they were ignorant of the compost heap; old prejudices are hard to overthrow, with many they are not yet overthrown. A few years ago, farmers carried on their farms as their ancestors had done for generations before; there was no progress except in raising more corn and more hogs for the increase of population. Soon there was visible improvement, and now the agricultural press has about four million readers. The result of this is to be seen along every railroad, on the banks of every stream, in the vicinity of every city--in a word, everywhere. At the present day no farmer can keep abreast with his calling unless he reads the agricultural journals. In order to succeed one must have a thorough knowledge of his work, and this knowledge can more easily and profitably be acquired through the farmer's paper than in any other way.

The discussion of the agricultural press naturally leads to the consideration of the


We all believe that the farmers should be educated. We are glad that the nation has acknowledged the importance of our educating them in the creation and endowment of agricultural colleges. The rapid progress in farming brought about by the few has made the education of the many absolutely necessary. Classical institutions are not adapted to the wants of the farmer; they did not educate many men for the farm, and many farmers looked upon them as being the enemy of their industry. The agricultural colleges of the country have been established especially for the benefit of the farmers, and the courses of study are arranged with that object in view. I am glad to say that wherever these colleges have been tried longest, there they have succeeded best.

There are some people who claim that ignorant men often make as good farmers as educated ones. It is true they may be illiterate, yet they are not ignorant; they are shrewd, observing men, and have accumulated a vast amount of information by experience, that most expensive of all schools. Such men will agree with me, I think, that a course of study adapted to their calling together with the reading of farm literature would have placed them far beyond their present condition. Experience may be convincing, but it is better when possible to let some other person have it, and let us profit by their mistakes. It is a part of the business of a man in any calling to profit by the mistakes of others. No farmer can afford to neglect his education; time and wealth can be saved by preparing for our work.

As farmers constitute a majority in this western country, they ought to educate their children with the idea of farming in view. I do not believe that everybody should learn a trade; it is possible to have too many artisans. An overproduction of mechanics means lower wages for them, and as an outgrowth of this, poorer work by them. Our country is too new, and our farms too large to even consider the overproduction of farms. The children of our district schools ought not to have it instilled into their minds that farming is a business that men engage in because they are not capable of entering the professions. This is often done. Too many of them get the idea that to be successful or great, one must either be a lawyer, a politician, or a merchant. They are told how our presidents entered the professions and toiled earnestly for fame; but it is studiously kept from their young minds that the majority of these presidents retire from the chair to the seclusion of a farm for pleasure and contentment. Let the education of the future farmer begin in the common schools, and it will be quite certain to end in the proper school. Take from before the boy the gilded glory in the professions, for this glory is like the will-o'-the-wisp. Show him the beauty of that industry which is all important, and by which the whole human family and its humbler auxiliaries are fed. Children are too often impressed with the idea that farmers are ignored because they are farmers. This is a mistake. That man who thinks farming beneath his station will find on trial that it is above him. In this country people do not care what profession a man follows as long as it is an honorable one. We take the fittest men for our rulers, let them come from whatever walk in life they may. We take the rail-splitter from the backwoods, the tanner from the tannery; and the mule-driver from the canal, and make them presidents. It is intelligence that commands respect in this country, not position. Farming as a profession is honored or dishonored as its followers are intelligent or ignorant. It is what a man does that makes him what he is: brown hands and face are no disgrace, for they were made so by the same sun that causes vegetation to spring into life and mature, and without which nothing could exist.

My second suggestion to farmers, then, would be that they pay more attention to the proper education of their children than they do to the dollars and cents which might be immediately available by their labor. It will pay in the end, and will be fulfilling a duty all parents owe to their children.

Another suggestion would be that we


There is an error common to the pioneer farmers of any country, and that is they endeavor to farm too much land; they try to cultivate more than they can do justice to. They are not content to "make haste slowly." I have myself seen farmers in Kansas, less than ten years since, who were so anxious to plow just so much land they would "cut and cover" in order to get along faster. This wasn't cultivation, it was aggravation! After this kind of plowing was done, the land was planted to corn; and of course there was so much of it that it could not be cultivated but once or twice during the season, and in consequence weeds took the field, and what little corn matured was not nutrious. It would be better to cultivate less land, do it thoroughly, and more corn can be raised with the same amount of work. This is not only true of corn raising but of wheat raising or of any other crop. It is not often that farmers strike "bonanzas," as miners sometimes do in the mountains, that they should undertake the cultivation of more land than they can handle. It is foolish to think that some providential occurrence will cause a field to produce a hundred bushels of corn to the acre without cultivation, and at the same time raise no weeds. All a farmer's years of experience prove to him that the better the cultivation the better the crop. In New England the soil is not as rich as is Kansas soil, yet farmers there with less than half the land that most of our farmers have are able to support large families and are prosperous all the time.

A German woman near Port Jervis, New York, finds six acres enough for the comfort of a family of seven persons and a cow and a horse beside a money return of $600 to $700 a year from sales of vegetables and fruits raised in great variety. Of course, every foot of land is compelled to do its best service, but there is no neglect of any possible home resource of fertility, and even the fences serve as support for grapevines.

Those who think they have a small farm unless the number of acres runs up into hundreds should note how they practice farming in France. This is what a correspondent of the New York Sun found out in his travels: When I asked a French farmer how his farm happened, like all the rest, so long and narrow, he said: "It has been divided up so often. When a French farmer dies, he divides his farm, and each one of his children has an equal share. He always divides it lengthwise, so as to give each one a long strip. The long strips are easily cultivated because we plough lengthwise. These strips always run north and south so that the sun can shine into the rows." "How large is your farm?" I asked. "My father's farm was 300 feet wide and 2,000 feet long. When he died, my brother had half. Now my farm is 150 feet wide and 2,000 feet long. It is quite a large farm. There are many farms much smaller than mine." "What do you plant in it?" I asked. "See over there," he said, pointing to what seemed to be a gigantic piece of striped carpet. "Is a piece of wheat 30 feet wide. Then comes a strip of potatoes twenty-five feet wide, then comes forty feet of oats, then ten feet of carrots, twenty feet of alfalfa (luzerne), ten feet of mangel-wurzels, five feet of onions, five feet of cabbage, and the rest in flowers, peas, currants, gooseberries, and little vegetables." "Can you support your family on a farm 150 feet wide and 2,000 feet long?" I asked; for the narrow strip seemed like a man's doorway in America. "Support my family!" he exclaimed. "Why the farm is too large for us. I rent part of it now."

I believe this is due solely to systematic and thorough work. It is evident that nothing is gained, but considerable lost by cultivating too much land. That old maxim--"whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing well--" is as true in farming as in any other calling

Our farm should be subdivided and


practiced. The importance of mixed husbandry in this country cannot well be overestimated. I believe a farmer ought to raise more of those products which he himself can consume. If he makes wheat a specialty, and buys the other necessaries, he may suffer failure, in which case he would have nothing to depend upon; and, if not failure, his wheat would, of course, be subject to fluctuation of prices, and he might not. Mixed husbandry has many advantages, and I know of no disadvantage. In the matter of crops, it enables the farmer to practice rotation, which is very essential. When the market is low on one crop, he is not forced to sell, but can subsist on others which he may have, or may sell those which do command fair prices. Various crops and their rotation will enrich the land: cattle, hogs, and chickens will gather up a great deal of feed which would otherwise be wasted. All feeders of cattle now realize that there is profit in having hogs to follow their cattle. Pork can be made very cheaply in this way.

Raising one crop alone would seem to me to be very unsatisfactory at best; it would be undesirable even if a crop were assured each year. Such a merchant doing business in a Dakota town the other day: "There are not twenty farmers in this country. They are all nothing but wheat-raisers, and that is a long way from being a farmer. A large number of farmers in Dakota, who own quarter sections of land, seldom have a drop of milk in the house, and the butter they eat is bought at the nearest store. They don't even keep a cow or pig, or try to raise vegetables enough to provide for the winter."

A model farmer, in my judgment, is one who raises wheat, oats, corn, and potatoes, and all kinds of fruit possible; raises some cattle and hogs and poultry. Hardly a year passes without the failure of some crop; but seldom does a year come when all crops fail. It has always seemed to me that such a man farms for the enjoyment there is in it; he makes it a business for a lifetime, and not for a few years--expecting after a few years to live in a city--blessed with affluence. One thing is certain, he doesn't run the risk that "specialty" farmers do; and I am not certain that in the long run he makes more money with less work.

The historian, Jared Sparks, speaks of Washington's practice of farming. An excerpt is worth reading.

"He began a new method of rotation of crops, in which he studied the particular qualities of the soil in the different parts of his farms, causing wheat, maize [corn], potatoes, oats, grass, and other crops to succeed each other in the same field at stated times. So exact was he in this method that he drew out a scheme in which all his fields were numbered, and the crops assigned to them for several years in advance. It proved so successful that he pursued it to the end of his life, with occasional slight deviations by way of experiment."

If we had smaller farms, we could give more attention to the condition of the soil. I have already remarked that the land cannot always maintain its native fertility, and every year produce a crop, without being replenished. Notwithstanding the evidence of generations, too many of our farmers show, by their practice, that they believe the soil is exhaustless. Yet we often hear them complain that the soil is not as productive as it once was, and they did not consider for a moment why it is so. Let me borrow an illustration from a Michigan farmer.

"What would you think of the wisdom of the man having say $4,000 invested at interest, who, in addition to using the interest yearly, should also use a part of his principal? You would say at once, he will soon have neither interest nor principal; he will be bankrupt. A farmer has a farm worth $4,000. The farm is his principal. The producing power of his farm is his interest. As the person having the money at interest will become bankrupt, if he persists in using a part of his principal yearly, besides his interest, just so surely will the farmer become bankrupt, if he allows the producing power of his farm to become impaired. The analogy between the capitalist and the farmer is in this respect perfect."

This farmer sums the whole matter up in a nutshell. But I shall add, as further proofs, a few statistics. I know statistics are dry, yet they are the basis from which we determine our prosperity or our adversity. I shall give figures to show how rapidly land will deteriorate in fertility if not replenished with some kind of fertilizer; and, to do this, western states are taken, as they have had very little manure spread upon them.

Statistics show in Iowa the spring wheat crop in 1870 averaged 13 bushels per acre, while in 1880 it was but 10.21 bushels: a reduction in yield of three bushels per acre. In Minnesota in 1870 the average yield was 1¾ bushels, which, in 1880, had decreased to 11.33 bushels: a loss of 7.42 bushels per acre, or nearly 40 percent. In Wisconsin the average in 1870 was 15 bushels; in 1880 12.82 bushels: a decrease of nearly 15 percent. Let us apply these figures to our own state. Kansas had, in 1882, 1,465,745 acres of winter wheat, which gave a yield of 33,943,398 bushels, valued at $22,977,906.72 (about 68 cents per bushel). If her soil should lose her fertility between 1882 and 1892 as rapidly as Iowa did between 1870 and 1880, the same number of acres would produce in 1892 4,396,235 bushels less than they did in 1882--or $2,989,219.80 worth. If as rapidly as did Minnesota during the same period, the same number of acres would yield 10,875,828 bushels less: or $7,375,533.04 worth. If as rapidly as Wisconsin, 3,171,920.32 worth. Can the farmers of Kansas afford this?

Can the farmers of Kansas afford to thus diminish the productivity of the soil, especially when the materials by which it may be maintained are so abundant? Certainly not. Let it never be said of Kansas that her land is as unproductive as the rock-covered hills of New England. The figures just given show that the western states are rapidly tending that way, and it remains with the farmers to arrest this tendency.

The next hint refers to a matter which goes the rounds of the press once a year, and like the "old, old story" is still in demand. I refer to


If western farmers generally can ever be accused of being "penny wise and pound foolish," it is in the matter of providing shelter for their stock. While it is difficult to find a farmer who will not admit that shelter is essential, it is not seldom that when going through the country in midwinter we see thousands of head of stock with nothing to shelter them from the rigorous blasts of winter but barbed-wire fences or stone walls. A good wall is better than nothing, but not a great deal better. In one of the oldest counties in the state, I have seen large herds of cattle in December in yards with nothing for shelter but a wire fence and a windmill; the nearest shed to one herd was two miles, and the cattle had not been any nearer to it for two months. In the yard were two dead animals, and I was informed that the average was two dead ones a week. It ought to be plain to any man, especially one able to own a herd of cattle, that the cost of one of these dead animals, with a few days work, would have paid for shelter for a hundred: for it was evident that they died from exposure. Even if there was no money directly realized from humane treatment, people ought to have a sufficient regard for the sufferings of dumb animals to provide comfortable quarters for them during winter. But there is money in sheltering stock. Carefully conducted experiments and the testimony of men of experience everywhere, prove this. It may be many years before all farms are provided with large barns; but straw or hay stables are very comfortable, and are sure to be occupied by stock if they have the opportunity.


It is as difficult to answer this question as it is to tell why people in any other calling do not succeed. It has been my aim in the preceding suggestions to give some of the reasons why the farmer's efforts are not always successful. I shall now very briefly point out more reasons.

A farmer is not pushed to every act as a businessman is; many businessmen succeed because of this fact alone. They are forced by the exigencies of their business and by their association with other men of business to be prompt and economical. Farmers too seldom have their work systematized, and hence "take their time" about everything, forgetting that "procrastination is the thief of time." There is no class of people whom capitalists trust more than they do farmers. They feel happy with a mortgage in their hand bearing ten or twelve percent interest. If the interest ceases to come, the farm is taken. Money lenders have so much confidence in farmers that they use every means possible in order to loan them money, and I sometimes think that farmers borrow the money simply to accommodate the lenders. He must be a very successful farmer indeed who can afford to pay ten percent interest. Borrowing money is of more detriment to a farmer than a drought; he pays what would be his profits over to the capitalist in the shape of interest. Going in debt for machinery doesn't pay; and after it is purchased, leaving it outdoors, exposed to all kinds of weather, doubles the misfortune. A great many of our Kansas farmers have more machinery on their farms than they have grain. The folly of purchasing machinery on the strength of an assured crop has been fully shown during the last season; farmers are too prodigal as a general rule with their time; they waste too much of it at the end of the field on which they are ploughing. We all admire a man who is courteous and neighborly; but a farmer owes it to himself to waste as few hours as possible when cultivating corn or harvesting wheat. Any idler who may be wandering around has no claim to an hour or two of any man's time. Two hours conversation in the field will give the weeds such a start as four will not overcome. You may think this is a small matter, but if you stop to consider how much it amounts to in a season, I think you will conclude that it doesn't pay. Your neighbors may think you uncongenial and avaricious, but full cribs and bins after harvest will prove your wisdom. It is the man full of business who has the full purse.

That maxim "never put off 'til tomorrow what you can do today," is a good one; but I notice that the custom is to put off until tomorrow all that doesn't have to be done today. Do not wait until the harvest is ripe before the reaper is repaired; or until the time has arrived for plowing before the plows and harness are put in readiness. If those farmers who spend their winter days in the country stores would improve them in fixing things on the farm, they would be making good wages. How often is a machine broken in the midst of a pushing harvest, when a few hours of overhauling before it went into the field would have prevented it! A Chicago editor said: "We know a very prosperous farmer who says his idle winter months are the most profitable of the year. During the cold weather, when his neighbors go to town and loaf around the stores, shops, and saloons, he employs his time in a small shop in a corner of his barn, in repairing and repainting his plows, wagons, and other machinery, in building sheds and repairing fences. In the spring he is ready for active work in the field while his neighbor is either delayed or must hire an extra hand on account of repairs that must positively be made."

This lack of care and foresight can be extended to many other things about the farm: the care of growing crops, of orchards, small fruits, etc. It was a reckless habit our earlier settlers had of breaking their land, putting out orchards, and then leaving them to the mercy of fire and stock. This practice resulted not only in the loss of the trees but in the use of the land, and caused a delay in putting out an orchard which would be taken care of. Many of our orchards and forest trees are taken care of in the same way yet. There are few things on a farm as profitable as a well-kept orchard. It is a constant source of pleasure, health, and wealth.

In conclusion, I would observe that if the farmer would take a lesson from a prosperous merchant and systematize his work, be prompt in everything, practice economy, and keep abreast with his calling, he would enjoy the farm as he had never enjoyed it before. We should see better homes, better farmers, and better farms; well filled bookshelves would lure the boys from loafing places, and cause them to love farm life.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

"The Revolution of '84" is the rather sanguinary title of the latest edition of the B. & O. Red Book. The contents, however, are of the most peaceful character, and embody about as complete a review, statistical and otherwise, of the late political contest, as possible to imagine. Indeed, the publication is in advance of any of the Red Book series yet issued, and forms a most valuable addition to the political record of party triumphs and reverses. The article upon the general result by states is a strikingly complete review of the official figures and the exhaustive table accompanying it constructed after a manner at once intelligible and comprehensive. The book embraces a hundred and twenty odd pages, and those who have secured copies of former editions will not be long in enclosing a stamp to C. K. Lord, the G. P. A. of the B. & O. at Baltimore, for the latest. In addition to the great extent of political statistical data, much very interesting information is given relative to the approaching inaugural ceremonies, the different committees appearing to have given it a semi-official character by furnishing full details of the approaching event.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Eighteen hundred years ago the Chinese made paper from fibrous matter reduced to pulp. Now, each province makes its own peculiar variety. The young bamboo is whitened, reduced to pulp in a mortar, and sized with alum. From this pulp sheets of paper are made in a mold by hand. The celebrated Chinese rice paper, that so resembles woolen and silk fabrics, and on which are painted quaint birds and flowers, is manufactured from compressed pith, which is first cut spirally by a keen knife into thin slices six inches wide and twice as long. Funeral papers, or imitations of earthly things which they desire to bestow on departed friends, are burned over their graves. They use paper window frames, paper sliding doors, and paper visiting cards a yard long. It is related that when a distinguished representative of the British Government visited Pekin, several servants brought him a huge roll, which, when spread out on the floor, proved to be the visiting card of the Emperor.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Coffeyville girls amuse themselves with "orange races" at the rink.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

As passed by the Senate, the inter-state commerce bill provides for a Commission to be composed of nine members, one from each Judicial Circuit in the United States, to hold office for six years, except that of those first appointed, three shall hold office for two years only, three others four years only. Vacancies are to be filled by the President. Not more than five Commissioners shall belong to one political party. The duties of the Commissioners are defined to exercise powers and duties granted by the bill pertaining to methods and regulating the operation of all transportation companies engaged in inter-state commerce; "and take into consideration and investigate all the various questions relating to commerce between states, especially in the matter of transportation so far as may be necessary to establish a just system of regulations for government. The salary of the commissioners is fixed at $2,500, and they are authorized to appoint a secretary at $3,500. All necessary traveling expenses are to be paid by the government, and witnesses summoned before the commission are to be paid the usual fees. The commission has power to send for persons and papers, to administer oaths, and to require the production of all books, papers, contracts and documents, or properly certified abstracts thereof, relating to the matter under consideration. It is authorized to require inter-state transportation companies to furnish annual reports, giving full information as to their financial condition, cost of property, number of salaries of employees, etc. It shall report annually to the Secretary of the Interior. The commission shall, during the first year, investigate and report on the subject of maximum and minimum changes, pooling, watering stock, unjust discrimination, etc. The most important sections of the bill are in substance as follows.

Section 3. If any transportation company engaged in inter-state commerce shall collect more than a reasonable rate of compensation for the transportation or hauling of freight, such company shall be deemed guilty of extortion, which is declared a misdemeanor.

Section 4. If any transportation company engaged in inter-state commerce shall, by rebate or other device, charge any person a greater compensation than another for like service, or shall neglect or refuse to furnish the same facilities for the carriage and handling of freight to one person that is at the same time furnished to any other person under similar circumstances, such company shall be deemed guilty of unjust discrimination, which is declared a misdemeanor.

Section 5 provides that if complaint is made to the commission charging any transportation company with extortion or unjust discrimination, the company shall have reasonable time to answer the charge, and if it make reparation for the injury done, and the complaint be withdrawn, the case shall be dismissed. If the company shall not satisfy the complainant within a reasonable time, and it shall appear that the charges are true, the commission shall notify the company to discontinue the practice complained of, and pay to the complainant damage fixed by the commission.

Section 6 provides that if any transportation company engaged in the inter-state commerce shall refuse to pay damages assessed and agrees to desist from further violation of the act, the Commission shall certify the facts to the United States district attorney, whose duty it shall be to commence proceedings to recover the damages assessed, or to compel the company to comply with the provisions of the act, and the Circuit Court of the United States shall have jurisdiction to try the cause without regard to the citizenship of the parties. In case of failure to recover, the complainant shall pay the cost of the suit, attorney's fees excepted. Any transportation company convicted under this act shall pay for said offense a fine not exceeding $2,000, and if any such company shall refuse to give information or produce its books, etc., it shall upon conviction be fined not to exceed $1,000 for each offense; and such company or any person or persons violating the provisions of this act, or attempting to obstruct the provisions thereof, shall upon conviction, be fined not to exceed $1,000.

The route of any transportation company is by the bill made to include all railroad and water routes of the company, and the term "transportation company" is defined to mean any corporation, or individual owning, operating, or using any railroad or any vessel in whole or in part, or having a right to use the same, provided such company or individual is engaged in the transportation of freight from one state to another, whether by all rail or part by rail and part by water communication. It is also made applicable that all transportation companies not wholly water route companies, carrying freight from one place in the United States through any foreign territory to any other place in the United States or from any place in the United States to any place outside of the United States; all rights of action and remedies already secured by law are continued in force. The bill being in its present form a substitute for the House bill, it now goes to the House.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

In the manufacture of illuminating gas from bituminous coal, a large quantity (amounting to about eight percent of the coal), of a thick, black, strong-smelling liquid is collected, known as gar tar and coal tar. This is a very complex substance, and by distillation yields several oils, etc., leaving behind a solid pitch, called coke-pitch, and incorrectly, ashphaltum, true ashphaltum being a natural product. Gas tar, as it comes from the gas works, is used for various purposes, among others, for the preservation of timber, especially fences and fence-posts, for the making of roofing composition, and in laying what are called asphalt walks. We have had complaints that it appeared to be of little value in preserving wood; and several have inquired as to the proper method of using it. It is not unlikely, as there are different kinds of coal used in gas making, that the tar varies greatly in its properties. In England, where it is much more used than with us, one writer recommends as follows: Three gallons of coal tar, in an iron kettle, is set over a slow fire and allowed to simmer for about an hour. This should be done in the open air, as there is danger of its taking fire. After it has simmered for this time, add a handful of the quick-lime, and stir well together. Remove from the fire, and add a quart of benzine or naphtha, or sufficient to make it work well from a brush. The coal tar thus prepared is applied to fence-posts and other work while hot. The writer says: "Two coats will do, and will make any kind of wood proof from all weather for years." Another writer advises to make use of the tar as it comes from the gas works, adding enough benzine (from half a gill to one gill to each quart of tar), to make it work like thin paint. It is to be applied with an old brush to the wood, which should be perfectly dry.

American Agriculturist.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Ten years ago Genoa had a population of about 162,000, but I think there are more here now. I thought I counted more beggars than that, and there must have been at least two hundred people there who were not identified with that industry. I have always done what I could in America to relieve want, but where want seems to be the normal condition, I allow nature to take her course. The beggars of Italy glory in their shame. They are glad that they thought of it instead of yielding to a weak and foolish temptation to fritter away their young lives in manual labor.

Thus they live long and do well, especially if nature has blessed them with a crooked leg or a double hump on the back. To the Italian beggar a large voluptuous tumor on a face that would stop a clock is a bonanza, and America is the most liberal in its contributions.



Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The National Board of Trade tells President Cleveland to shut up the silver. The Silver Convention at Denver tells him to roll it out. What will he, what can he do?

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Dr. Kittor, of Galena, appears in print to defend Gen. Grant from the charge of profanity. He says the only "cuss words" he ever heard the General use was "dog on it!"

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Schuyler Colfax left an estate valued at $125,000. The family mansion at South Bend, together with half the residence, falls to the widow, and the rest to Schuyler Colfax, Jr.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

With the single exception of Denmark and the Netherlands, Switzerland enjoys the gloomy preeminence of drinking relatively more spirits than any other European nation.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Tennessee has 10,000 square miles of timber land which is as yet practically untouched; a tract larger by 1,500 square miles than Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut put together.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Louisville Courier-Journal calls Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, "a spanking team." This is true as respects Mrs. Stanton; but Miss Anthony, for the best of reasons, has never done any spanking.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

In Georgia a tax of $100 on dealers in revolvers, pistols, and pistol and revolver cartridges has so diminished the number of places where such arms and ammunition are sold that it is necessary to send seventy-five miles for cartridges in some localities. The license amounts to prohibition.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

In Pittsburgh, Pa., following the fearful and destructive natural gas explosions, has been a great scare and panic from the statement in the Telegraph that it knows that a large and powerful band of dynamiters are organized to destroy the city with dynamite, and supported by money and influence.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The people of England do not attempt to conceal their natural jubilation over the fact that the blatant inciter to assassination, O'Donovan Rossa, has had to take some of his own medicine. They express the strongest sympathies with Mrs. Dudley, and are raising a large fund to aid in her defense.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The school population in the United States is 16,000,000, of whom 10,000,000 are enrolled in the public schools. The number of teachers employed in public schools is 200,000, and the annual expense of the schools is about $91,000,000. If education can save a people, this nation is quite secure from serious harm.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Allen B. Lemmon was in Winfield last Saturday to Monday, wearing a hat which did not fit him, and supposed to be a minister's hat. He has been appointed a Regent of the State Agricultural College to succeed Rev. Philip Krohn, so we suppose the doctor's hat instead of his mantle has fallen upon A. B.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

An effort was made to induce the Department Commander of the G. A. R. for Kansas to call the next meeting of the encampment at Topeka during the meeting of the Legislature. Commander Pond has decided, and wisely we think, not to do so, and has called the encampment to meet at Ft. Scott on the 10th, 11th, and 12th of next March.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

A few years ago the legal rate of interest was reduced in New York from seven to six percent, and the Legislature of that state has now before it a bill still further reducing the rate to five percent. This is a pretty sure indication that there is plenty of money in the country and that any further additions to the supply will add to nobody's income.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The glory of Kansas is in her farms and houses. No other State in the Union has made such progress in agriculture in the same period of time. In ten years there has been an increase in the acreage of corn, oats, wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, potatoes, tobacco, and hay, amounting to 8,581,311 acres, or an increase of 335 percent. The value of the crops of 1883 over that of 1873 is $73,731,255.49. The record is phenomenal, and one that the farmers of Kansas can certainly point to with pride.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mr. Burton has introduced a bill in the House to prevent gambling in the State of Kansas. If Mr. Burton wants his bill enthusiastically supported, he should show some of the more curious members the "tiger," and see that they "go broke" all around, as the result of "bucking the animal," before the bill is put upon its final passage. The Capital suggest that if Mr. Burton could manage to deal Mr. Anthony three queens, and Mr. Overmyer, four jacks, and Mr. Butterfield a ten-full on deuce, and Mr. Gillett a flush, and A. W. Smith two pair, and Ed. Greer a "bobtail," and then throw himself at least four aces and "rake the jack pot," his bill would go through without very much opposition. Miama Republican.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Lincoln County boasts of one river and thirty-two creeks.

The Howard creamery has wound up its affairs considerably in debt.

A Riley County man harnesses up his boys and hauls wood with them and gives his horses a rest.

Fifty citizens of Cherryvale have formed a colony to locate in one of the extreme western counties of Kansas.

The annual session of the Kansas Conference of the M. E. church will be held in Clay Center, March 12th, 1885.

They charge a quarter to witness a marriage ceremony at Larned. Nearly $25 in money was taken in at the door at a recent marriage at that place for the benefit of the groom.

The noted foot-racer, one Kittleman, of Harper, Kansas, has been matched against a man from Australia, to run a race in California for ten thousand dollars. Kittleman started for San Francisco last week.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

There is a bill before the lower house of our state legislature, introduced by Mr. Bond, of Rice County, to encourage the cultivation of sorghum and promote the manufacture of sugar therefrom, by the payment of bounties. This is a means of multiplying our industries and increasing our wealth that we have not yet tried, but it will certainly be worth our while to try the experiment. As the Republican party nationally advocates protection and encouragement to home industries, so it does in Kansas, and Representative Bill is but the line of encouragement.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

A cold-blooded triple murder near the little town of Radical City, near Independence, Kansas, was discovered February 5, by Frank Bonham, the oldest son of a widow living on a farm near that place. On his return home after several days absence, he found his mother, brother, and sister murdered, and to all appearance they had been dead a day or so, as the young man had been away since Monday. Sheriff McCreary and Deputy Shadley have gone to the place, and will make a thorough investigation. Thee is no clue, as yet, to work on, but every effort will be made to capture the villain, and should he be discovered, it will not need a jury to settle his case.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

We have received a copy of "Advance sheets" of the State Board of Railroad Commissioners, and, while it shows a very large amount of work, a very large array of statistics, and great industry in the commissioners, yet it is very surprising and curious in the altered and subdued tone of the Commissioners in relation to the railroad corporations. A year and a half ago the commissioners were aggressive and persistent in the main object of their work of compelling the railroads to accept of reasonable rates and of preventing unjust charges and discrimination. Then they published a letter in answer to Manager Touzalin which was vigorous, aggressive, and just, and showed beyond doubt that the railroads of the state did not cost one half of what their officers claimed for them and that their stocks were nearly all water and not entitled to dividends. This report just received gives the cost of the several roads including the total amounts of stock issued as the greater part of the cost of the road, and they append an abstract of their verdict, made up from the sworn statements of railroad officers, of the costs of the several roads with their equipments. They inform the Governor, senate, and the people of the following.

Railroad. Cost per mile.

Union Pacific $86,000

St. Louis & San Francisco $63,000

Leavenworth, Topeka & S. W. $59,600

St. Louis, Ft. Scott & Wichita $52,670

K. C., Topeka & W. $49,000

M., K. & T. $48,400

Missouri Pacific $46,000

A. T., & S. F. $46,000

Southern Kansas $24,800

Wichita & Western $13,000

Kansas Central $15,000

Pleasant Hill & Desoto $10,900

Cost per mile for fifteen other roads ranges from $21,000 to $40,00.

Now, we do not believe that Munchausen, Ananias, Eli Perkins, and Tom Ochiltree combined could have beaten in mendacity the table referred to.

Let us compare the stated cost of the St. Louis, Fort Scott & Wichita, $52,670 per mile, with the Wichita & Western, $13,000 per mile, for instance. Both are new roads, both were built recently while steel rails cost less than $40 per ton and everything else in railroad building was cheap. The cost on the latter is not much exaggerated and is probably an honest report. Though the report states that its authorized stock is over $3,000,000 and that over $1,000,000 common stock has been subscribed, none is issued; therefore, the total cost of the road is only $582,000--furnished by the A., T. & S. F. company--which is the total debt of the road and is the total cost of building and equipping its 45 miles of road. But when it issues and donates to those who are permitted to subscribe, its $1,000,500 of stock, as most of the other roads have done with the bulk of their stock and adds it in when making up the cost of the road as other roads do, it will make the cost of the road $1,582,500, or $33,000 per mile, of which over a million or over 60 percent will be water.

Now the St. Louis, Fort Scott & Wichita road probably cost no more per mile than the Wichita & Western, viz: $13,000. Its company issued its mortgage bonds on the road from Fort Scott to Wichita to the amount of $15,000 per mile and sold these bonds at about 90 cents on the dollar, realizing therefor about $13,500 per mile. Out of this sum they built and equipped their road and had a surplus of some $1,500 per mile, which they divided among themselves individually as stockholders. They gave counties and townships about $334,000 of the capital stock for an equal amount of municipal bonds, which they sold, and likewise divided the proceeds among themselves. They issued and donated to themselves $5,500,000 of stock and added this also to the reported cost of the road, claiming that it was reasonable pay for their own services in working up the road, negotiating bonds, etc. Not one of these six individuals who received this five and a half millions of stock ever paid one cent for it. They got nearly or quite $600,000 out of the municipal and mortgage bonds in excess of the cost of building the road--or $100,000 apiece.

Yet with all these facts within reach of the Railroad Commissioners, they tell the governor and people that the road cost $52,670.51 per mile. Had they reported the whole truth, they would doubtless have informed us that the road and equipments did not exceed $13,000 per mile instead of more than four times that amount.

The same criticism may be applied to the reported cost of nearly all the other roads in the state though in a less degree in most cases.

While we think of it, we will interject here the remark that it looks as though the Southern Kansas road had made a comparatively honest statement of their affairs to the Commissioners. Their cost per mile, stated at $24,808.92, is not so very extravagant when we consider that the half of their road which is naturally much the most expensive was built fifteen years ago when railroad iron cost double what it does now and other material and labor was much more expensive, and the other half was built six years ago and before prices had come down to near later rates. In short, we consider this road the best appointed, best officered, and the best conducted road in the state of Kansas.

Now why do the commissioners issue such a report, so misleading, to be mild in our expressions?

If it be answered that they only report statements made by the officers of the railroad companies, we remark that this is just the criticism we are making. The whole report seems to us to be made just to suit the railroad companies, just such a report as we should expect the railroad companies to make in their own interest. It sounds to us as though the report had been made by the clerks of the corporations at the dictation of their employers, like a special plea to convince the people that the railroads cannot be run at less than they are getting.

A year and a half ago the commissioners made maximum rates for some leading railroads among which was the A. T. & S. F., though manager Touzalin "kicked," wrote letters, threatened law, and argued with the commissioners and the commissioners answered them manfully by unanswerable arguments. Later the commissioners receded from their position ("backed down" as it were), and allowed the railroad companies to fix their own rates to which they assented, with the excuse that the law did not give them the power to enforce their rates and decisions and the best they could do was to negotiate and compromise with the railroads.

We then saw that the law which we had before supported was defective, and we urged that the law should be amended so as to give to the commissioners power to fix a schedule of maximum rates for each of the railroads in the state and also giving them power to enforce their orders.

Now, latterly the commissioners have discovered that the present law is perfect and needs neither amendment nor change, that it works admirably and gives the commissioners all the power they want. Now they are hotly opposed to any further legislation. This is exactly the position of the railroad companies, but how they managed to convert the commissioners we do not know. The arguments we have seen and heard are not convincing to us.

It begins to look now as though there was no better way to reach this matter than by the legislature passing Simpson's maximum rate bill or so much of it as is not a repetition of the present law and unmodified that the last sections will be consistent with the first, and we think the great body of the people of the state now demand maximum rates. We also think our commissioners have already sadly damaged their usefulness and should be retired one by one as fast as their terms expire to give place to men fresh from the people who are able to see both sides of this question and hold opinions not originated by the corporations.

It is said that the Executive council as now constituted will not appoint anyone not approved by the railroads. We do not think our state officers are owned by the railroad corporations, but we think that they do not and cannot feel the sense of responsibility in the matter that one man would feel with the undivided burden; and we advise that the law be amended so that the governor alone make the appointment. Having the full responsibility on his shoulders, we doubt not that he would make the best appointments.

The Commonwealth says that no newspaper criticizes the railroad commissioners. It is mistaken. Several have been criticizing and more are coming, and there is a low rumbling among the people all over the state which betoken an approaching earthquake. If there is not something done and to the point by the members of the legislature and other officers who have duties in relation to this business, such officers will be likely to retire at the next elections, with uncomplimentary suspicions sticking to them. It is wonderful with what success the corporation managers and lobbyists ply their tactics to capture a legislature. A bill is presented which if passed would control the railroads in the interest of the people and justice. These lobbyists are not known as in the employ of the railroads, but mask as anti-railroad and friends of the dear people. They pretend they want some effective legislation to prevent the extortions of corporations but the present bill is bad for the people; in fact, was got up by the railroads themselves, and is just what the railroads want. "Why, say they, don't you see that the maximum rates are considerably higher than the railroads are now charging and they want the excuse of this bill as a law to advance their rates and besides they have put many other secret kinks into the bill which will work to their advantage." They will then tell of overhearing the author of the bill and some railroad officials laughing over how nicely they are drawing the wool. Then they will point out a dozen other objections to the bill and will convince the innocent legislator, and he comes to the conclusion that his constituents are mistaken and he will do his duty by them against their wishes and can then explain it to them and show them their mistake. He argues that he is in the atmosphere where he can see all the workings, tricks, and corruptions of corporations and his constituents are not. Thus he falls an easy prey into the hands of the enemy. Should he be less confiding and have too much sense to be captured by chaff, and if his vote against the measure is essential to its defeat, he may succumb to weightier arguments.

We want to tell these credulous members that the railroads do not want any kind of a law which fixes maximum rates and they will defeat all such bills if possible, and he who tells you they do want such, is either fooled himself or is trying to fool you.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

There are a few prominent newspapers in the state that are cranky in their advocacy of a constitutional convention. They have set out to carry the measure in the legislature and, having heretofore the conceit that they ought to control the policies of the state and that they usually have power and influence to do it, they conceive that a failure to pass the joint resolution calling a convention would be an outrage which they cannot condone. They have never got over the affront to them of the passage of the prohibitory amendment, and the prohibitory law. To them every effort to enforce that law has been a personal insult and now they have got down so low in their arguments for a convention that they plead that a failure to pass the resolution will "bust up" the Republican party, and they pose as the most particularly ardent Republicans in the state and beg the prohibition and anti-convention Republicans not to smash up things generally by voting contrary to their dictation.

Now the prohibition Republicans are at least as true and ardent Republicans as are the antis, as the history of our state politics for the last four years will prove. There is no evidence that any of them bolted the Republican nominations and went over to St. John, nor is there evidence that any of them voted for the Democratic candidate for governor at either of the two last elections. On the contrary, there is much evidence that large numbers of anti-prohibition Republicans went over to the enemy, and the argument is a threat that they will do it again if the great majority of the members of the Republican party do not submit to their dictation in all matters affecting state policy. These papers which hold out this whining, contemptible argument, might as well say: "If the members of the Republican party do not submit their opinions, votes, and acts to our dictation, become essentially our slaves and humble worshipers, we shall go over to the enemy and take with us our hosts of admirers and thereby demolish the Republican party for all time and leave the hosts of free Republicans out in the cold while we will revel in power at the head of the Democratic party as many other renegade Republicans have done."

But claims one of these papers, "We expect to stay in the party but the rank and file of those who think as we do will go."

"You bet" that paper will hang on the skirts of the party just as long as it pays, just as long as it can squeeze more money out of it than it can make by going over to the Democrats body and breeches.

Now the bulk of the Republican party are free men who have opinions of their own and will not be slaves to anybody. They place liberty above party success and will not submit their opinion and votes on any measure of state policy to any autocrat or set of autocrats whatever the result of their refusal. They are the intelligent, moral, respectable, and true portion of the party and so long as the people of this state are largely respectable, moral, and intelligent, so long these men will be in the majority and their views will rule the policy of the state. Of course, they may meet with temporary reverses as in the election of Gov. Glick, but each such reverse will end in adding to their political strength.

We want to tell these editors and all others who try to scare Republicans into supporting measures odious to them that they will not succeed and are wasting their ammunition; that the convention resolution is already "as dead as any mackerel," as dead as the resubmission joint resolutions are admitted to be and they may as well be making terms with the Democratic party at once.

[Note: In the newspapers for Arkansas City, I did not cover international, national, and state events for the most part as I was intent on getting the local news. RKW began to realize that it was very important to cover some world events as well. As a result, I had some information about the fall of Khartoum, etc. I will try to give all the news that was printed in the Winfield Courier for the years 1885 and 1886 covering all news events: local and otherwise. MAW]


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Intelligence was received at London, February 5th, that Khartoum has been captured by the Arabian rebels. The whereabouts of General Gordon is unknown. He is probably in the hands of the victors.

The Daily Chronicle says: "A telegram was received at War Office last night from General Wolseley announcing the fall of Khartoum."

General Wolseley telegraphs: Khartoum has fallen. He says when Col. Wilson, who went from Metemeneh to Khartoum, reached the latter place he found it in the hands of the rebels. He returned to Metemeneh under a heavy fire from both banks of the river.

The Daily Telegraph, an official authority, confirms the report of the fall of Khartoum, and it says the rebels secured the city by treachery. General Gordon is probably a prisoner in the hands of the victors.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mr. Simpson has introduced a bill in the House to establish maximum rates of freight on railroads. It only fixes rates on five classes of freight in carload lots, embracing coal, stone, grain, flour, potatoes, broom-corn, hay, fence-wire, agricultural implements, lumber, nails, salt, lime, and a few other leading articles. On A class it gives maximum rates at $10 per carload, and one cent per ton per mile; on B class, $9 per carload and nine mills per ton per mile; on C class, $8 per carload and eight mills per ton per mile; on D class, $7 per carload and seven mills per ton per mile; on E class, $6 per carload and six mills per ton per mile.

The general principle of these rates is correct and fair as between long hauls and short hauls, and are rates on which all the leading roads can operate and make money without doubt, but which would cripple some weak roads.

The bill repeals the present law in regard to commissioners and in other respects; and is substantially the maximum rate bill of two years ago presented before the present railroad law was passed, and contains much that the present law renders superfluous. It has however a new feature interjected into it, allowing the commissioners to raise these maximum rates in favor of any road which shall show by sufficient evidence that it cannot successfully operate the road at those rates.

Aside from this the bill does not seem to increase the powers of the commissioners, and as it now stands, is not as good as if it had undertaken less.

Our idea of what should be done, is the substitution of some such bill as the following, made as concise and clear as possible without repeating any portion of the present law, which should not be repealed.


Providing for the establishment of maximum rates of charges for transporting freight on railroads, and defining the duties of the board of railroad commissioners in relation thereto:

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Kansas:

SECTION 1. It shall be unlawful for any railroad company in this State, the gross earnings for freight transportation on whose road, branches, and eased lines for the preceding year exceeded $3,000 per mile, to charge, demand, or receive, after thirty days from the passage of this act, for the transportation of coal, brick, stone, sand, and ores, by the carload of 20,000 pounds or over, a higher rate than six dollars per 20,000 pounds, and in addition thereto six cents per 2,000 pounds per ten miles or fraction thereof; and on wheat, corn, flour, salt, cement, lumber, wood, cattle, hogs, sheep, horses, and baled hay, a higher rate than nine dollars per 20,000 pounds, and in addition thereto, nine cents per 2,000 pounds per ten miles or fraction thereof.

SECTION 2. It shall be the duty of the board of railroad commissioners, at as early a date as possible, to make a schedule of maximum rates including all classes of freight by carload and by smaller quantities, and for all distances; one schedule for each railroad in this State, which schedules shall be just and reasonable as nearly as practicable, and shall furnish each company operating a railroad with a copy of the schedule affecting its road.

SECTION 3. Any railroad company which, after thirty days from the receipt of such schedule, shall charge, demand, or receive higher rates than are fixed by such schedule, or shall violate section 1 of this act, shall pay a fine not less than $500 nor more than $5,000, with costs for each offense to be recovered by action of the commissioners, in the name of the State of Kansas, in any district court in the State; and the person so over-charged may recover in such court, double the amount of such over-charge, his costs and reasonable attorney fees.

SECTION 4. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its publication in the official State paper.


Political, Official and Social Notes as Gathered By

Our Regular Washington Correspondent.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Here and there a peevish criticism is still heard against the artistic fitness and beauty of the Washington Monument, though it is fair to assume that those who now decry the monument have not seen it in its completed form. Among those who have the advantage of thus inspecting it, there is a substantial agreement to its merits. Its simplicity and dignity appeal to every beholder as especially typifying the character of Washington, and will take its place among the commemorative shafts of the world as inferior to none in appropriateness and effectiveness of design. While the shaft was in an uncompleted stage, it had suggestions of the shot tower and manufactory chimney order, and serious doubts were entertained if it would outgrow these similarities, but such fears have been dispelled, as the loftiness of the structure, its tapering lines, and the cap of the obelisk have given the shaft all its anticipated grace. The effect is helped, too, by the material used in the construction, a fine white marble, which gives the obelisk a lightness, purity, and serenity that would have been lacking with a darker stone. It will be remembered that before Congress decided to complete the monument on the original plan, the most capable architects of the country were invited to suggest improvements; and that in answer to this request, a number of designs were submitted. But none were found to be satisfactory as that on which the monument was begun, and on this plan, therefore, with some slight modification, the work was prosecuted to a conclusion. The appearance of the now completed shaft simply justifies such a decision.

It is pretty well understood that in a short time Mr. Cleveland will visit New York City for the purpose of consulting with democratic leaders. He will take rooms at the Fifth Avenue hotel, and will, it is said, be "at home" to democrats who have views as to the composition of the cabinet and the policy of the next administration. The proposed consultations will have much to do with the construction of the cabinet. It is said that Mr. Cleveland does not regard old age as essential to success in the administration of any branch of government; but that on the contrary, he has an idea that men in the full vigor of physical and mental life are likely to do better than men who have fallen into the sere and yellow leaf.

Of late there has been some earnest talk about Representative Mitchell, of Connecticut, for the cabinet. He is about forty years of age, and has accumulated a fortune by business enterprise and application. It is no secret that ex-Gov. Waller is not popular among democratic leaders of his state, or at least that he is unpopular enough to be strongly opposed for the cabinet. Ex-Senator Eaton, who has been mentioned, is somewhat advanced in years, and Mr. Mitchell is spoken of by his friends as "the very sort of man Cleveland likes." It is claimed for Connecticut that she is entitled to a cabinet position, and taking such hints as Mr. Cleveland has dropped about the kind of men he thinks most fit into consideration, Mr. Mitchell's friends maintain that he fills the bill more accurately than any other party leader of the state.

It begins now to look in the vicinity of the Pension building as if the inaugural ball was going to be held there. A force of carpenters are putting in doors and windows, a gang of men are getting the cables for the roof in place, and the men in charge of putting in the heating apparatus have been at work. The contributions to the inaugural fund now amount to $10,898.

The State dinner given by the President last evening in honor of the diplomatic corps must take rank with the handsomest entertainments ever given at the Executive mansion. The dinner table, which had covers laid for forty, was most handsomely decorated, a miniature lake represented throughout the center of the table with plants and flowers gracefully arranged to form natural scenes along the bank, while little islands dotted the lake here and there. Over the immediate center of the table was a pavilion three feet high and six feet long, formed of flowers representing the "hanging garden of Babylon."

Secretary Chandler is not likely to find himself out of office on the 4th of March. If he desired it, the Governor of New Hampshire will appoint him a United States Senator on that day to succeed Senator Blair, whose term ends then. The New Hampshire Legislature does not meet until June, to choose a successor to Mr. Blair, and the office must be filled by the Governor in the meantime. LENNOX.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.


Quite a large number of bills were reported by the several standing committees.

A communication was received from the managers of the World's Exposition at New Orleans, inviting the Legislature and State Officers to visit that institution and tending a cordial reception.

Several resolutions were referred to appropriate committees.


Bills were introduced from No. 210 to No. 219, to-wit: To authorize adjustment and return of taxes adjudged illegal; relating to and governing assessment and co-operative life insurance companies; to provide for organizing and compensating militia; authorizing Lincoln County to levy bridge tax; relating to fugitives from justice; relating to Superintendent of Insurance; relating to appointments of stenographers in District Courts; relating to mortgages on personal property; providing for a report of the Price Raid Auditing Commission and making an appropriation.

Several bills were passed second and third reading. Among them the bill to provide for paying for postage stamps.

In committee of the whole the law student bill was killed by striking out the enacting. The bill concerning rape was approved. The hygiene in schools bill was indefinitely postponed. Another school bill No. 24 was approved. The Normal School endowment bill was laid over. Senate went into executive session.

The Price raid bill introduced by Senator Shelden appropriates to the sufferers by said raid all the moneys due from the United States to the State of Kansas for expenditures during the rebellion and in Indian wars.


Mr. Drought presented petition for payment of Price Raid Claims. Mr. King, to secure to Kansas safe insurance. Mr. , from Miami County, for a road from the Osawatomie Insane Asylum to the depot. Mr. Roberts, for a bridge across the Wakarusa river. Mr. Turner, relating to a uniform system of school books.


Mr. Smith, of McPherson, offered a resolution to provide each member with two bill files. Adopted.


Mr. Carroll, Creating a Court of Appeals. Also one amending charters of cities of the first-class. Mr. Rhodes, Authorizing Blue Rapids to issue bonds for road purposes. Mr. Mower, Relating to salary of County Superintendent. Mr. Roberts, Relating to bridges in Douglas County. Mr. McNeal, A private bill. Mr. Slavens, Amending law relating to Regents of State institutions.


Governor Martin messaged to the House an invitation from A. E. Burke, Director General of the New Orleans Exposition, to the State Officers and Legislature to visit the Exposition.

Another communication was also transmitted from Mrs. W. R. Wagstaff, of the Ladies Department of the Exposition, giving a statement of work done and still to be done; closing with a request for expense money to prosecute the work.


Among the reports of committees were reports from the Committee on Ways and Means, unfavorably upon an appropriation bill for the New Orleans Exposition. Also unfavorable upon an appropriation bill for the State Reform School. Also unfavorable upon an appropriation for the Live Stock Sanitary Commission.


Mr. Anthony called up his resolution relating to blanks for census officers for the purpose of enrolling the soldier citizens of Kansas; and explained its purport and purpose. It is intended to provide for a complete record of the military record of every soldier in the State, giving his regiment, etc., not for use by the Adjutant General alone, but for popular information. Mr. J. B. Cook favored the measure, stating that it does not conflict with the pending bill upon the same subject. Mr. Speaker ruled that the form of the resolution being in the nature of a law must be treated as a bill. It was therefore placed on the calendar for second reading. Upon Mr. McNall's motion it was then referred to the committee of the whole, to be considered with the census bills. Mr. McNall's further motion to make the census bills a special order for Friday evening at 7:30 prevailed.


Mr. Bolinger's H. C. R. No. 15, asking an investigation into the desirability of continuing the Sanitary Commission, was considered. Mr. Burton favored the special committee proposed. Although he thought the special session of the Legislature did some good, it is now apparent that the Commission is becoming too expensive. The resolution was adopted.

A discussion followed on Anthony's resolution to fix the punishment for crime definitely by law and leave nothing to the discretion of the court.

Mr. F. J. Kelley's H. B. 17, read the third time, subject to the amendment and debate. Mr. Kelley explained that the present law allows commissioners of counties having less than 25,000 population, $3 per day, with a maximum limit of $100 a year; while in more populous counties, they were given set salaries of $300. This bill is intended to grade the compensation of commissioners upon the basis of per diem pay, with maximum limits according to population, from $150 to $300; the first figure in counties having less than ten thousand, $200 in counties ranging from ten thousand to seventeen thousand five hundred, and $300 in counties having more than 17,500 and less than 25,000. The bill passed.

No. 90, 104, 142, 29, 31, 52, and 30 passed. The last named is a bill making seduction under promise of marriage a penitentiary offense. The others were of only minor or local importance.

A spirited discussion followed on McNall's bill to give a year's redemption after sale for land sold in foreclosure of mortgages.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Quite a discussion followed the motion of Senator Humphrey to postpone the special order (the Constitutional Convention) till Thursday evening at 7 o'clock, to which an amendment was offered to postpone till Monday. Senator Redden was very earnestly in opposition to any postponement, and he therefore demanded the yeas and nays.

The motion to postpone till Monday night was taken and resulted--ayes 26, nays, 13. It was then made the special order for Thursday night at 7 o'clock.

This concurrent resolution of thanks to the Managers of the New Orleans World's Exposition passed.

The House concurrent resolution relating to the Live Stock Sanitary Commission passed as follows.

WHEREAS, It is the National, as well as the State Government, to protect the financial interests of the citizens; and

WHEREAS, It is claimed that the operation and effect of the Commission of this State, known as the Live Stock Sanitary Commission, are not satisfactory to a very large number of citizens of this State; therefore be it

Resolved, By the House of Representatives of the State of Kansas (the Senate concurring therein) that a committee of seven be appointed, four on the part of the House and three on the part of Senate, whose duty it shall be to inquire as to the practical utility derived from said commission, and report at its earliest convenience, by bill or otherwise, as to the desirability of continuing said commission.

A lengthy discussion occurred upon the House concurrent resolution in favor of granting a reasonable pension to all unpensioned soldiers honorably discharged in the late war.

Senator Lowe offered an amendment to include all soldiers who had served in any of the wars provided they had never been engaged in rebellion against the Union. Also upon the resolutions in favor of a pension to all soldiers who had been incarcerated in rebel prisons. Passed.


Bills were introduced from No. 226 to No. 255 to-wit: To legalize school bonds in Linn County; for the relief of Charles Rath; exempting certain property from execution, supplementary to section 3, chapter 18, laws of 1868; prohibiting members of the Legislature from being appointed to offices created by them; to appropriate money to Labette and Montgomery for moneys received by the State as taxes on land not subject to taxation; relating to jurors, amending section 18, chapter 154, of the general Statutes of 1868; to prohibit and punish railroad companies and employees for obstructing streets; relating to fees of Sheriffs; to fix terms of District Courts in Douglas County.

The gambling act passed; also bill relating to rape; also in relation to third grade certificates of teachers.

Kellogg's bill to endow the State Normal School with twelve sections of salt springs was lengthily discussed in committee of the whole, as was also to amend the code of civil procedure.


Mr. Martin presented a petition from Blue Rapids, asking authority to vote bonds for road purposes. Mr. Bond, asked for municipal suffrage by women. (This is from Lincoln County.) Mr. Huckle, for creation of Nineteenth Judicial District. Mr. Bond, for a law against irresponsible mutual life insurance companies.


By Mr. Osborn, Authorizing Trego County to pay its bonds. Mr. Thompson of Harper, Creating the office of Bank Commissioner. Mr. Bond, relating to counties and county officers. Mr. Bollinger, to vacate a part of the Public Square in Uniontown. Mr. McBride, to legalize assessments in Phillips County. Mr. Edwards, concerning weights and measures. Mr. J. B. Cook, to establish Soldiers Homes. Mr. Beattie, relating to strays. Mr. McCammon, relating to drainage. Mr. Lewis, appropriation for a road from the Insane Asylum to the Osawatomie depot. Mr. Vance, appropriation for a report on the Price Raid Claims. Also one for the relief of Robert A. Frederic.

Committees reported on many bills unfavorably and favorably on some of minor or local importance. The pay of County Commissioners bill and some local bills passed.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Several standing committees reported back bills with recommendations.

The bill to regulate banking was discussed and left on the calendar.

The resolution instructing the judiciary committee to prepare a bill providing that in counties of less than 25,000, the county funds may be deposited in a bank designated by the county commissioners, was referred to the committee on banks and banking.

Bills presented, to abolish the office of county auditor; making appropriations to the agricultural society.

The Senate then went into committee of the whole on orders, Senator Green in the chair.

The bill to appropriate 12 sections of "Salt Springs" lands, with other bills of like character, were ordered to be made the special order for next Tuesday, at 3 p.m.

Senate bill No. 46, an act to amend sections 88 and 89 of chapter 34 of session laws of 1876, entitled "An Act to provide for the assessment and collection of taxes," was recommended for passage.

Senate bill No. 119, an act for the protection of birds, and amendatory of sections 2, 3, and 5, of chapter 115, session laws of 1883, was considered in connection with Senate bills 33, 43, and 108, and passage recommended.

Senate bill No. 73, an act to provide for honorably discharged ex-Union soldiers, sailors or marines, who may hereafter die without leaving means sufficient to defray funeral expenses, and to provide headstones to mark their graves, was amended and passage recommended.

Senate bill No. 109, an act to amend section 18, article 11, of chapter 122, of the laws of 1876, approved March 4, 1876, and to repeal chapter 133, session laws of 1883, approved February 23, 1883, recommending that it be placed on the third reading subject to amendment and debate.

Senate bill No. 94, an act to enable the County Commissioners of Sheridan County to fund the county indebtedness, was amended by substitution of a new bill, and that the bill retain its place on the calendar.

Senate bill No. 12, an act regulating the fees and salaries of County Treasurer, County Clerk, County Attorney, Probate Judge, and County Auditor of Cherokee County. This bill occupied a large portion of the time of the Senate in debate upon the constitutionality as well as expediency of legislation of that class.


Mr. Edwards, Regulating terms of court in the Sixth Judicial District. This was read twice and referred. Mr. Wright, Permitting certain stock to run at large in a portion of Cherokee County. Mr. Ogden, To abolish capital punishment. Mr. Raymond, Legalizing certain roads in Wabaunsee County. Mr. Scammon, Relating to assessments of mineral lands; also, an act relating to minority representation. Mr. Vance, Amending grand jury laws of 1868. Mr. Burton, Fixing time for holding terms of court in Eighth Judicial District.


Hygiene and Public Health. On petitions for law regulating pharmacy, with the information that a bill on this subject has been introduced by this committee. Also, an act to create a Board of Health, unfavorably. Also, favorably upon bill to regulate industry.

Political Rights of Women. On bill to give municipal suffrage to women, favorably. Also a minority report, unfavorable.

Insurance. On bill to incorporate Mutual Live Stock Insurance companies, favorably.

Ways and Means. An appropriation for the Leavenworth Soldiers' Home, that it go to the committee of the whole House.


S. C. R., giving the thanks of the Legislature to the management of the New Orleans Exposition for its invitation to attend the Exposition, was concurred in.

A considerable discussion on butterine and oleomargarine matters.

Mr. Slavens presented a bill to provide for the codification and revision of the laws of Kansas.

Bryant's bill regulating the tolls of millers was discussed in committee of the whole and approved.

Carroll's proposition to strike out the prohibitory amendment made the special order for next Tuesday.

The bill making it the duty of District clerks to cancel mortgages on the record when satisfied by judgment of the court was approved.

The bill to allow 2 percent tax for teachers wages was approved.

Several minor bills were rejected, some others were approved.

The Senate went into executive session for the consideration of appointments by the Governor. The following appointments were read and confirmed.

Trustees State Board of Charities, for the term ending April 1, 1886.

A. T. Sharpe, of Franklin County, and Philip Krohn, of Atchison County, to succeed August Bondi and George Rogers for the term ending April 1, 1887; Charles E. Faulkner, of Saline County, to succeed August Hohn and S. L. Gilbert for the term ending April 1, 1888. William S. Crump, of Cloud County, to succeed D. O. McAllister.

Regents State Agricultural College, for the term ending April 1, 1887.

Thomas Henshall, of Doniphan County and I. P. Moore, of Jackson County, to succeed H. C. Ketterman and F. D. Coburn, whose term expired by limitation of law; for the term ending April 1, 1888, Allen B. Lemmon of Harvey County and A. B. Forsythe of Montgomery County, to succeed Philip Krohn and C. E. Gifford.

Regents of the State University, for the term ending April 1, 1887.

George R. Peek, of Shawnee County and C. R. Mitchell of Cowley County to succeed George R. Peek and W. S. White for the term ending April 1, 188. Frank T. Fitzpatrick of Leavenworth County and Charles W. Smith of Rooks County to succeed F. T. Fitzpatrick and S. S. Benedict. Mr. Benedict declined a reappointment for the term ending April 1, 1886. M. P. Simpson, of McPherson County, to succeed James Humphrey, resigned.

State House Commissioners: J. B. Anderson, of Riley, and John Hammond, of Lyon County. One other member to be appointed.

Live Stock Sanitary Commissioners: To fill vacancy for term expiring March 25, 1885, John T. White, of Ottawa County.

The militia appointments are: Major General Thomas M. Carroll, of Miami County; Brigadier Generals A. M. Fuller, of Shawnee, T. McCarthy, of Pawnee, and Adam Dixon, of Republic County, one other to be appointed; Quartermaster General, with rank of Colonel, C. J. McDavitt, of Dickinson County; Paymaster General, with rank of Colonel, Henry E. Insley, of Leavenworth County; Assistant Adjutant General, with rank of Major, W. H. Ford, of Crawford County; Surgeon General, with rank of Colonel, J. B. Hibben, of Shawnee County; Aides-de-Camp, with rank of lieutenant-colonel, W. H. Caldwell, of Mitchell County, Harry Jones, of Butler County, and L. N. B. Taylor, of Marshall County.

The Governor has declined to make any change in the penitentiary management until after the close of the investigation of that institution by the joint committees of the Senate and House.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Reports were made by standing committee on a large number of bills.

The Lieutenant Governor appointed, on the part of the Senate, on the Live Stock Sanitary Committee, Senators Smith, Lingenfelter, and Marshall.


Bills were presented from No. 240 to 245, to-wit: Providing for negotiation of conditional sale notes and instruments in writing where the property sold is to remain in the vendor; to punish fraud upon hotel keepers; defining the liability of fire insurance companies; relating to cities of the first and second classes, with reference to general and special improvements; to amend section 422 of chapter 80 of the general statutes of 1868.


Senate bill No. 135, an act to amend section 504 of article 24 of chapter 80 of the General Statutes of 1868, entitled, "An act to establish a code of civil procedure."


Senator Jennings introduced the following resolution.

WHEREAS, There still remains of the Osage diminished reserve lands in the State of Kansas small remnants of a character unit for agricultural purposes, and only fit for pasturage, and

WHEREAS, Said lands cannot be preempted by reason of the fact that they are not of sufficient value to bring the price of $1.25 per acre in addition to the cost of making the improvements required by preemption laws of the United States, therefore

Be it resolved by the Senate of the State of Kansas, the House of Representatives concurring therein, That our Senators and Representatives in Congress be respectfully requested to take such steps as may rapidly bring said unsold lands into market, to be sold to the highest bidder at less than fifty cents per acre.

Laid over under the rules.


From County Commissioners of Republic County, asking for an additional term of Court. From Seneca, asking for maximum rates on railroads. Another from Marshall County on same subject. From Sumner County, two petitions for the Nineteenth Judicial District. From Allen County, for a State Entomologist. Another from Allen County for regulation of dentistry. From Company H., at Sterling, for an act for the benefit of the militia. Mr. Bond said that it asks pay for services at Dodge City, when called out by Governor Glick.


Mr. Reeder. For additional term of court in Republic County.

Mr. Bolinger. Amending law relating to County Auditors.

Mr. Wilhelm. Authorizing Jefferson Township, in Jefferson County, to issue bonds to erect a township house.

Mr. Coulter. Reducing legal rates of interest.

Mr. Vance, from Temperance Committee. Regulations under the Prohibitory amendment. Also two giving women the right to vote upon school matters in cities of the first and second class.


Assessment and Taxation. On bill relating to the assessment of winter fed cattle, unfavorably.

Banks and Banking. An act creating the office of Bank Commissioner, that it be referred to the Judiciary Committee.

Fees and Salaries. Relating to the office of assistant County Clerks, unfavorably.

Ways and Means. On idiotic asylum at Winfield, referring it to committee of the whole.

Mr. Gillette's H. B. 59, relating to forfeited bail bonds, passed 75 to 12.

Mr. Bryant's H. B. 12, relating to mills and mill tolls, failed to get a constitutional majority.

Mr. McBride's H. B. 2, providing for satisfaction of the record of mortgages canceled by judgment of District Court. Passed without opposition.

Mr. Benning's H. B. 20, to fix the weights of certain oils. Passed.

Mr. Randall's H. B. 24, relating to common schools. Passed.

Mr. Osborn's H. B. 6, attaching St. John County to Trego for judicial purpose. Passed without opposition.

Mr. McNeal's H. B. 8, relating to lines and boundaries of lots in the original town site of Medicine Lodge. Passed unanimously.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Petitions were presented from the citizens of Clay County, 62 from Johnson County, 348 from Sumner County, and 35 from Shawnee County, in favor of an act providing for a State Entomologist.

Senator Smith, from the Committee of State Affairs, stated that committee had prepared such a bill, which he presented.

Senator Redden presented petitions from 10,000 persons, representing thirty counties, in favor of instruction in physiology and hygiene in free schools.

A large number of bills were reported back by several standing committees, among them House bill No. 80, which makes a certificate of graduation in the Law Department of the State University full authority to practice in the courts of this State, with the recommendation by the Judiciary Committee for its indefinite postponement.

Senate bill No. 4, to provide for assistants to the Supreme Court was indefinitely postponed, in accordance with recommendation of the Judiciary committee.

The concurrent resolution offered by Senator Jennings, yesterday, in regard to refuse Osage lands; and by consent, on the motion of Senator Allen, the resolution was amended to include Osage ceded lands, and passed.


Bills were presented from No. 218 to No. 257, to-wit: Relating to Township elections; to authorize regents of State Agricultural College to purchase lands for experimental purposes; to establish the office of State Entomologist; to authorize Douglass County Commissioners to appropriate money to build bridges; to vest title of block in the city of McPherson in the Board of Education; to provide for the assessment and collection of taxes; relating to the same purpose; relating to the subject of common schools and fixing duties of Superintendents; relating to recording instruments; relating to bridges in Cherokee County.

Senate bill No. 59, an act authorizing the appointment of stenographers for District Courts, was passed.

On motion of Senator Smith, Senate bill No. 140, an act supplemental to an act entitled "An act concerning railroads and other common carriers," approved March 6, 1883, was made the special order for Wednesday next at 2 p.m.

The Senate adjourned till Monday at 4 o'clock p.m.


Petition from Edwards County protesting against changing the boundary lines of that county. From Cherokee County, for a temporary removal of the county seat from Columbus to Baxter Springs. From Clay County, for restriction of life insurance to responsible management. From ladies of Parkerville, asking for municipal suffrage. From Sumner County, for Nineteenth Judicial district.

Mr. Faulkner asked consent to move a reconsideration of the vote by which H. B. 12 was lost. Granted. The motion to reconsider prevailed. This is Mr. Bryant's bill relating to mill tolls.


Mr. Carroll. To remove political disabilities of certain persons.

Mr. Benning. Relating to evidence of indebtedness of cities of the first-class. Also one to amend charters of cities of the first class.

Mr. Bryant, by request. For the benefit of Anna Ritchie.

Mr. Beates. Amending act to incorporate cities of the second class.

Mr. Bond. Relating to mutual life insurance companies.

Mr. Hardesty. Relating to stock.

Mr. Vickery, by request. Relating to insurance.

Mr. McBride. Authorizing Solomon township, of Phillips County, to issue bonds to bridge the Solomon river.

Mr. Caldwell. Appropriation for the higher education of the blind.


Insurance. On township mutual fire insurance companies, favorably.

Judicial Appointment. On bill relating to certain actions pending in the District Court of Shawnee County, favorably. Also, favorably on change in terms of court in the Eighth District. Also, a favorable report on Superior Court for Sedgwick County. Also, favorably on bill for Twentieth District, in the Northwest, with amendments.

Public Buildings and Grounds. On bill to vacate a part of the public square in Uniontown, favorably.

Roads and Highways. To designate a member of the County Board as road viewer, favorably. Also, on bill to authorize a levy and appropriation of money for bridges in Franklin County, favorably.

Ways and Means. On the appropriation for the Idiotic Asylum, and for additional buildings, reporting a substitute. Also, on the bill for a boiler at the Blind Asylum, favorably.

Mr. Butterfield moved that H. B. 367, from the Temperance Committee, be substituted on the calendar for his H. B. 140. It was so ordered.


Mr. Slaven's resolution instructing the Committee on Judicial Apportionment to draft a bill to redistrict the State, was considered. He gave facts which convinced him of the propriety of this action. Mr. Benning favored the resolution. Mr. McBride opposed, and so did Mr. Butterfield. They were not ready to reverse the policy of the House as declared in voting down a similar resolution a few days ago. It is too late now to do the work of redistricting. Mr. Osborn took like views. Mr. Kelso had letters from all over this State pressing such action. Mr. Roberts knew his district wanted a new apportionment. Mr. Wellep mentioned Judge Chandler's and Judge French's districts as being now too small. The resolution was adopted.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Senator Humphrey, President pro tem in the Chair. Prayer by Rev. P. Price.

Senator Redden presented a large number of petitions in favor of House bill No. 5, requiring instruction in physiology and hygiene in common schools.

Senator Buchan, in behalf of the Senator from Franklin County, presented a petition of 142 persons in favor of a State Entomologist.

A considerable number of reports were made by the standing committees.

Senator Barker, Chairman of the Committee on Temperance, reported back Senate joint resolutions Nos. 1 and 3, on resubmission, recommending their indefinite postponement by a majority report.

A minority of the same committee made report recommending passage.

An extended discussion was had on the joint resolution to inquire into the term of existence of certain railroads chartered by territorial legislatures and their rights under such charters. The resolution was placed upon the calendar.

Another long discussion followed on the joint resolution for a constitutional convention.

A resolution denouncing Frank Bacon for honoring Jeff Davis passed.

Several petitions were presented in relation to changes in county lines in Western counties.

The vote by which House bill No. 4, to provide temporary assistance to the Supreme Court, on motion of Senator Congdon, was reconsidered and laid over.

The appropriation bills for State institutions, on motion of Senator Buchan, were placed at the head of the calendar.

Senator Barker's resolution asking the Railroad Commissioners for information as to the number of complaints, etc., was passed.


Mr. Wellep, for temporary removal of the county seat from Chambers to Baxter Springs. Mr. Stewart, asking a revision of the militia laws. Mr. Loofbourrow, for regulating dentistry. Mr. Finch, for payment of raid claims. From Sumner County, two for a Nineteenth Judicial District.


Mr. Reeves, amending law relating to personal property taxes. Mr. Coulter, relating to stock. Mr. Butin, removing political disabilities. Mr. Vance, amending the civil code. Mr. Clogston, from Judiciary Committee, authorizing District Judges to interchange and hold courts for each other. Mr. Gillette, amending law concerning railroads. This is H. B. 301.


An offer was read addressed to the Legislature by the Commonwealth Company offering to publish laws in the Daily Commonwealth.

Mr. Anthony offered H. C. R. 17, accepting this proposition. Laid over under the rules.


On motion of Mr. A. W. Smith, the House resolved itself into committee of the whole for the consideration of local bills on the calendar. Mr. F. J. Kelley was called to the Chair.

Passage was recommended of Nos. 232, 58, 87, 164, 238, 46, 309, 169, 312, 292, 255, 162, 294, 272, 93, 21, 149, 291, 318, 123, 203, 145, 151, 280, 54, 15, 266, and S. B. 10, all local bills of no general importance.

Wellep's bill to change the name of Butler County to Lockwood was brought up on motion of its author to dismiss the bill which elicited an amusing discussion.

Passage recommended of H. C. R. denouncing Frank Bacon.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

A large number of petitions in favor of State Entomologist.

A petition, largely signed, for Nineteenth Judicial District, comprising the counties of Sumner, Harper, and Comanche.

Senator John Kelly presented a petition numerously signed in relation to new counties to accompany Senate bill No. 197, with recommendation that it pass.

Senator Hewins, Chairman of Commission Counties and County Lines, made a report recommending that Senate bill No. 153, "An act creating the counties of Clark, Mead, Seward, Stevens, and Kansas, and defining the boundaries thereof," be indefinitely postponed, which was agreed to. They further recommend that Senate bill No. 197, "An act to restore or recreate the counties of Mead, Clark, and Kiowa, and defining the boundaries of Seward, Finney, Ford, Hodgeman, Edwards, and Comanche," be passed, which was adopted.

Several other standing committees made reports.

Senator Barker, from a majority of the Committee on Temperance, reported back Senator Allen's bill to establish a metropolitan police force in cities of the first class, with the recommendation that it pass, also that it be placed at the head of the calendar.

Senator Lowe and Sheldon made a minority report.

On the motion to adopt the majority report and place the bill at the head of the calendar, Senator Sheldon demanded the ayes and nays, which resulted: Ayes, 16; Nays, 12.

Ayes: Messrs. Allen, Baker, Blue, Buchan, Case, Congdon, Donnell, Edmonds, Granger, Green, Harkness, Hick, Humphrey, Jennings, H. B. Kelly, John Kelly, Kellogg, Kohler, Pickler, Redden, Ritter, Shean, Smith, Wasson, White, Whitford--26.

Nays: Messrs. Bawden, Crane, Harwi, Hewins, M. Kelly, B. Kimball, Lingenfelter, Lowe, Marshall, Miller, Sheldon, Young--12.

Senator Smith's resolution instructing the Attorney General to make inquiry in regard to the rights of railroads operating under Territorial legislation, etc., was taken up.

Senator Buchan moved to amend to exclude from the investigation the Union Pacific Railroad Company, and explained that that motion was made because the rights of that company were now pending in the courts and it would be unjust to the law officers to make the inquiry.

The amendment was adopted and the resolution of Senator Smith, thus amended, passed.

On motion of Senator Kellogg, Senate went into Committee of the Whole on special orders, Senate bill No. 77, an act to further endow the State Normal School. Passage recommended.


H. B. No. 104 was substituted for S. B. No. 64, to legalize acts of County Commissioners in Linn County, and thus amended, passed.

S. B. No. 92, an act for the better protection of the University and Normal School funds of the State of Kansas, passed.

S. B. 15, an act providing for the condemnation of sites for county buildings, passed.

S. B. No. 118, an act to authorize Larned township and Pleasant Valley township, in Pawnee County, Kansas, to appropriate townships' money for public highway purposes. Passed.

S. B. No. 67, an act providing for the disposition of surplus taxes in the hands of county treasurers. Passed.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mr. Wellep, for the temporary removal of the county seat from Columbus to Baxter Springs. Mr. Cummings, asking legislation relative to highway.


Mr. Lower, relating to a bridge in Morris County. Mr. Benning, amending the criminal code. Also to change the boundaries of the Second, Twelfth, and Fifteenth Judicial Districts. Mr. McTaggart, relating to bridges in Cherokee township, of Montgomery County. This was read twice and referred.


Charitable Institutions. Mad report of visit to the various State institutions. Had visited the various charitable institutions of the State. At the Osawatomie Insane Asylum they found the general condition very satisfactory. There is some sickness there, chargeable to want of ventilation in the old buildings. Drainage requires an appropriation. Of the Insane Asylum at Topeka the committee are pleased to say that everything said complimentary of the Osawatomie Asylum applies here. The Idiotic Asylum at Lawrence needs the new building called for. The management is worth of all confidence. There is of late a sufficient water supply, which has heretofore been limited. We recommend he continuance of this institution at Lawrence. We concur in the proposition for a higher education of the blind. The Wyandotte Blind Asylum is open to criticism in its management. The State Reform School at Topeka manifests the best of management. All the appropriations asked for are needed. We recommend that a quorum of the Board of Trustees of the Charitable Institutions be required to visit all of them at least once each month.

The Special Joint Committee to investigate the work of the State Board of Equalization of Taxes, made report. The complaints made in connection with the work of this Board arises mostly from the provision of law prohibiting them from changing the aggregate amount of any assessment. This should be remedied by legislation. Yet no bill is reported for lack of time to digest the subject.

Railroad bill No. 148 and Senate Resolution asking for sale of remaining Osage lands at such rates as they will bring, were discussed at length, after which 12 local bills passed.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Annual Clearance Sale.

A clean sweep all along the line of Clothing, Boots, etc.

Men's Good Warm Overcoats: $1.75

Boys' Good Warm Overcoats: $1.25

Other Goods in proportion. These goods and prices only need to be seen to be appreciated.

J. S. MANN, The Leading Clothier.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.




First-class teams and carriages furnished on short notice and reasonable terms.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.


Will put you up Combination Wire and Picket Woven Wire or any other kind of


you want. Give us a call. North Main street, Winfield, Kansas.


FRANK H. GREER, Local Editor.

[Note: Am skipping all of the Market Reports Given Weekly.]

An Important Meeting.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

A number of Winfield businessmen have united in a call for a meeting at the Court House tonight (Thursday) to form a permanent organization through which plans may be formulated for the material advancement of Winfield and Cowley County--plans to stimulate immigration, manufactories, public improvements, etc. It is unnecessary to even suggest the importance of such an organization; all can readily see it. Let everybody turn out and unite in efforts to push our city and county onward and upward.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Says the Wellington Press: "The itch has broken out among the scholars of the Winfield schools. It is believed that the children caught the contagion from their fathers, who itch for an appointment under Cleveland."

Yes, brothers, it is "orful"--but just as bad in your own town, if you only open your eyes. It is purely a Democratic disease, comes only once in twenty years, and its disastrous, deathly sweep can hardly be computed at this early stage for the terrible epidemic. The whole Democratic party is infested, and ere long sackcloth and ashes will be at a high premium. Winfield will certainly have a number of deaths among her hundred or more afflicted. Republicans are all vaccinated.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The presence in the city of Italian musicians last Monday imbued the city's many lovers of the fascinating waltz and quadrille, and a "hop" was arranged for that evening in McDougal's hall that proved by far the most enjoyable party of the season. Our dancers were out in full force, and a jollier, more comely or more refined company, we will challenge any city of Winfield's "calibre" to produce on a few hours' notice. The "light fantastic" had full vent under the charming Italian music.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Program of the evening session of the Cowley County Teachers Association to be held at New Salem, February 20th, 1885: Music. Address of welcome, Rev. Irwin; response. R. B. Moore; music. Paper, relation of teacher and pupil, Fannie Stretch; talk, Prof. A. Gridley; music. Recitation, Jessie Stretch. Paper, W. C. Barnes; Exercise by New Salem school; roll-call of teachers with five minute responses.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

P. H. Albright & Co., within the past sixty days, have invested nearly $12,000 of a fund of $50,000 willed to a church at Hartford, Connecticut, the interest to go towards supporting preaching, singing, etc. The music of this church alone costing $4,500 the past year. What would one of our Winfield churches think of a windfall of $50,000?

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mr. S. B. Hynes, general freight and passenger agent of the Southern Kansas, who championed the distribution of five thousand of Curns & Manser's Real Estate Bulletin, says it is the most instructive paper that has ever reached passengers over that line, and will be of incalculable benefit to Cowley.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mechanics predict one of the busiest seasons for years in the building line, and already many are getting orders filled for material for spring work. With an improvement in money matters, we look for a general revival of business when the weather becomes settled.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Parties who are contemplating borrowing money upon farm security will do well to consult Jarvis, Conklin & Co. for rates and conditions. They give the best conditions and the best rates, and transact business promptly.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The jury in the case of C. W. Gregory vs. The County Commissioners faced the blasts and endured the jolts of the roughest roads Cowley ever saw, yesterday, and went to Silver Creek to inspect a certain county road.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Jarvis, Conklin & Co., at the old stand south of A. T. Spotswood's, loan the cheapest money in the state of Kansas. Their rates cannot be met. Do not fail to call and see them if you want a loan on farm property.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The machinery for the Kellogg Roller Mill will arrive in a few days and the mill begin to grind in April. The building is a grand structure and will be "opened" Friday evening with a grand festival.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Southern Kansas has added a number of new routes to its list of tickets. Call and see us before purchasing. Sleeping car berths, etc., reserved by applying to O. Branham, Agt.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Otter township takes the cake on the baby question. Mr. and Mrs. Henry Rigna are tip-toeing it over the advent of twin girls, weighing nine and eleven pounds.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Ninnescah bridge over the Arkansas went down under an ice gorge Saturday, compelling Wellington trains on the Santa Fe to reach that place via Winfield.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The beautiful mud of last week gave our grain buyers a good time sitting around whittling their fingernails. Scarcely any grain came in.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

There will be a "roll call" of the membership of the Baptist church on next Sabbath morning. All are most cordially invited to be present.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

A series of very interesting meetings are in progress at the Methodist church. Some fifteen or twenty have made confession this week.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

School district No. 13 wants a good teacher for a four months school. Address A. A. Jackson, director, Seeley, Kansas.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The meetings now in progress at the Baptist church are increasing in interest, and much good is being done.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Don't you know that Bliss & Wood are exchanging all grades of their flour for wheat on reasonable terms?

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The W. S. A. will meet on the 17th instant at the residence of Mrs. Mary S. Gates, at 3 o'clock p.m.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

We wish to call the attention of our citizens to this association, which is exerting a quiet but potent influence for good and which has for the President and Secretary two of the most well known and public spirited citizens of the county: J. F. Martin and Jacob Nixon. A few enthusiastic farmers and horticulturists organized the Cowley County Horticulture Society, and they, with the assistance of some new members, have steadily worked away under many discouragements, circulating valuable information as to the different varieties of fruit and modes of culture adapted to this climate; warning the people against being hum-bugged by irresponsible "tree peddlers"; and in many ways contributing to the success of fruit growing; until now Cowley County stands in the front ranks for fruit raising and the products of her orchards and vineyards were sought for to add to the beauty and variety of the state exhibit at the New Orleans Exposition. While much has been accomplished, yet fruit growing here is comparatively in its infancy, as is shown by the fact that many thousands of dollars worth of apples and other canned and dried fruits are annually shipped into this county. There are new dangers which our fruit growers must face; such as the codling moth and other insects, which have done destructive work in older eastern counties, and are already appearing in our own. These can only be successfully fought by organized and united efforts, and the owner of a town lot with a dozen fruit trees is, or should be, interested in this organization as well as the growers of fruit for market. The Horticultural Society desires to extend its work to meet the increased importance of the fruit interests of the county. It has the opportunity to obtain valuable collections of insects made by our own citizens, for which it should furnish proper cases, and employ an expert to classify. It also desires to make the beginning of a horticultural library which may be added to from time to time, and to which its members may have free access. These and other important things for the public good, it desires to do; but to do them will require funds, and in raising these it asks the cooperation of the citizens of the county, not by donations but by simply joining the society and paying the very moderate annual membership fee of one dollar. If a hundred new members could be obtained--and this would be but a small proportion of those who should join--the fund so raised would enable the society to do much of the work it desires to do, and be of incalculable benefit to the fruit interests of the county. We do not believe that there is a landholder, from the one who has a lot with a few fruit trees to the large fruit grower with twenty or more acres in orchard but will receive much more than a dollar's worth of benefit from a year's membership in this society besides having the satisfaction of contributing his share towards a work of such great importance to the present and future population of the county. The society at its last meeting appointed one of its members, Mr. F. A. A. Williams, to make a special effort to increase the interest in, and membership of the society, and those desiring to join the association or obtain information about it can do so by conferring with or addressing him, at Winfield.

(County papers please copy.)


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The city "Dads" met in adjourned session Monday evening last, Mayor and all Councilmen present.

The bill of Winfield Gas Company, $853.15 for lamp post rental to January 15, 1885, was ordered paid with a deduction of $345.10, for lights not furnished as per contract. Regarding this deduction, the City Attorney was instructed to agree upon a case with the Gas Company, if after investigation he sees no objectionable features, and submit the matter to this term of the district court for determination. Written opinions of City Attorney O'Hare and J. Wade McDonald, setting forth that the city was not liable to the Gas Company for lights furnished on moonlight nights--for which the above deduction was made--were filed. The Council reconsidered its action in ordering the sidewalk on north side of block 129 widened, and the petition was rejected for the reason that it was insufficient in form.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

We present elsewhere two letters on silk culture, one from Mrs. M. E. Williams, of Douglas, who accompanied her letter with white and yellow cocoons and a skein of silk in the unwound, natural state. The skein is of golden yellow and very attractive. The other letter is from L. Horner, of Emporia, a member of the Russian Mennonite Colony of Harvey, McPherson, and Reno counties, who are making a success of this industry. Mr. Horner visited Winfield last week and succeeded in attracting the interest of a number to the feasibility of silk culture in this climate. Mrs. Elder Thomas, of East Winfield, is now engaged quite successfully in this industry, and others are touching it experimentally.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Appeal of C. W. Gregory from County Commissioners. By order of court: a jury was empaneled; case unfinished.

R. R. Conklin vs. James Galliher. On motion of plaintiff, case was dismissed without prejudice at plaintiff's cost.

Cahn, Wamfold & Co. vs. Sheldon Speers. Judgment by default for $683.12 with interest at 7 percent and the costs of suit.

Sugg & Berdsdorf vs. J. H. Punshon. On motion of plaintiff, case dismissed with prejudice.

Mary S. Seaman vs. Samuel H. Seaman. Divorce decreed the plaintiff.

H. H. Siverd vs. County Commissioners. Trial by court. Judgment for plaintiff in the sum of $40.85.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Winfield has a new manufactory in the Winfield Bottling Works, which opened up in the block north of the Brettun on Wednesday of last week. It is owned and conducted by Messrs. J. M. Barnthouse and C. Dufey, from Columbus, Ohio. They have machinery for manufacturing all kinds of light drinks--sarsaparilla, ginger ale, pop of all kinds, etc., and have capacity for two hundred dozen bottles daily. They are having an elegant wagon constructed at the Winfield Carriage Works for local and county deliveries, and are starting in a way that means business. Their experience in this line is extensive, and their facilities and territory insure success.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The lecture of Hon. Geo. R. Wendling at the Opera House Tuesday evening was grandly eloquent and profound. The advertised theme, "Personality of Satan," was changed owing to its being the latter one of a course of lectures, beginning with "Beyond the grave, or shall we live again?" which he delivered on this occasion. Though not so abounding with pleasant reliefs as Col. Copeland, his logic, manner of deliver, etc., are unsurpassable. It was an excellent opening of the course of lectures the Ladies' Library Association promise us.

Grand Clearance Sale.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

I will sell my entire stock of winter Boots and Shoes beginning February 2d, 1885, at actual cost in order to reduce stock and make room for a large stock of spring goods.

J. W. Prather.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The flue of Jap Cochran's home sprung a leak Sunday. The fire bell rang, the hose companies and about two hundred citizens got on the ground, when the excitement was spoiled with a few innocent pails of water, lucky for Jap. No fire would stand a ghost of a show in competing with our ever-alert fireman.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Udall Sentinel warns its readers to give a cold shoulder to certain frauds claiming to be traveling for the North American Lightning Rod Company, and especially warns against allowing them to put up lightning rods free.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Burden took down her Blaine and Logan pole, the tallest one in Kansas, last week, and in its indignation it fell on and splintered a fine awning.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Cheyenne Reporter says the oldest Indian in the Territory is said to be one belonging to the Ottawa tribe, whose age is 118.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

There have been fourteen additions to the Baptist church of this place since the settlement of Rev. Reider as pastor.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The congregations at the Baptist church last Sabbath morning and evening were very large.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The secret orders of the Terminus talk of erecting a building in unison for Lodge purposes.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The World's Fair threatens to depopulate Winfield.


Her Chronicle of The Comings, Goings and Doings of Persons at Home and Abroad.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Miss Lena Walrath spent last week with Wellington friends.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Lou Zenor took his course westward Tuesday on business in Kingman

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mr. W. W. Andrews left Monday for an extended sojourn in California.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Billy Dawson and C. Cohen are doing Medicine Lodge this week, on "biz."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

H. F. Hicks, "which is p.m.," of Cambridge, was in the capital yesterday.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Miss Gussie Marx, of Wichita, is visiting her friend, Miss Hulda Goldsmith.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Col. H. C. Loomis and Mr. A. J. Thompson are off for three weeks at the Crescent City.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Wm. Rothwell and Elizabeth Stewart are the only matrimonial victims for the past week.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Dr. W. R. Kirkwood assisted Rev. S. B. Fleming in revival services at Arkansas City last week.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Curns departed last Friday for the World's Fair, for two weeks' sight-seeing.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

M. J. O'Meara and Henry Noble left for Medicine Lodge Sunday to visit a few days with O. C. Ewart.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Hon. C. R. Mitchell, of Geuda, has been appointed one of the Regents of the State University, at Lawrence.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Miss Pearl Van Doren will entertain the Young People's Social and Literary Society on Friday evening next.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

P. H. Albright has commenced the erection of a neat residence for himself and mother, in the Courier Place.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Fred Barron got in from Ashland Tuesday, having left his "foundation" on one hundred and sixty acres of Uncle Sam's domain.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Miss Mary Majors came in from Pierce City, Mo., last week for a visit with her sisters, Mrs. Geo. Rembaugh and Mrs. James Vance.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mrs. M. J. Green, a sister of Mrs. J. H. Finch, with her son Frank, came down from Junction City last week, owing to Mr. Finch's illness.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Annie Briggs, Wash Bercaw, Isaac Frier, and Wm. Hall were released from the county bastille by the County Commissioners yesterday.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

J. A. Lord, of the "Louie Lord Comedy Company," died at Socorro, N. M., a short time ago. Louie is now free to hook on to her Wellington mash.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Frank Leland, in his double-forward-backward-or-any-other action, pussy character was voted the cake as the best looking masker at the masquerade party.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

S. W. Chase, of Tisdale township, sold a carload of fine twelve hundred lb. two-year-old cattle to Geo. W. Miller yesterday as has ever appeared on our streets. He got $4.12½ per cwt.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Rev. D. W. Sanders, of Columbia City, one of Indiana's best preachers, is visiting Rev. J. H. Reider's family this week. There is some prospect of him taking charge of the Baptist church at Wellington.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Misses Anna Meigs and Florence Grosscup and Mrs. Lizzie Benedict, and Messrs. Ivan Robinson, L. Howard, and Frank Grosscup were among the Arkansas City folks who attended the masquerade.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Dr. A. S. Capper has traded his property in this city for land in Ninnescah township, and will likely move to his farm near Seeley in the spring. The Doctor now has three farms in Ninnescah.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mrs. J. F. McMullen and daughter, Miss Gertrude, returned last week from their winter's sojourn in the East. Miss Gertrude is a great favorite among our young folks and her return is hailed with pleasure.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The office of constable sought Spence Miner during his absence from Ashland, and overwhelmingly "sot" down on him. Spence got about every vote in the township and is prepared to bear the honor gracefully.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

John C. Long is elated. At the prize drawing of M. Hahn & Co., he drew an elegant set of miniature household furniture. Now he has use for them. A little girl weighing 8½ pounds made her appearance at his home Tuesday.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mr. I. N. Cantrell delivered a load of wheat last week to the Winfield Roller Mills that was drawn by six slapping big horses--a novel sight for sunny Cowley. The roads were heavier last week than ever known before in these parts.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mr. Geo. T. Walton, editor of the Burden Enterprise and one of Cowley's most genial and substantial pioneers, dropped into the COURIER den last Saturday. The Enterprise is a very readable paper under Mr. Walton's management.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Miss Julia Deming, of Carthage, Mo., and Mr. and Mrs. Smyth and Mr. Rube Israel, of Wichita, spent several days of this week with Mr. and Mrs. Ray Oliver. Miss Deming will be remembered as one of Winfield's school misses of an early day.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mrs. C. Strong and daughter, Miss Emma, returned Thursday last from their visit to the Crescent City. They found everything at the World's Fair complete and grandly entertaining. Their expectations were high and fully realized.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Constable H. H. Siverd "took in" Jas. Cantrall, charged with conducting a secret liquor and gambling den over Best's music store, yesterday. He was placed under bond of $500 to appear before Justice Snow for a preliminary hearing on the 20th inst. The bond was given.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Hon. J. Wade McDonald, attorney of the Oklahoma boomers, went to Wichita Monday to defend W. L. Couch and his associate boomers, whose preliminary hearing on the charge of resisting Uncle Sam's army occurred there on Tuesday before U. S. Commissioner Shearman.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Jake Goldsmith left Tuesday for Medicine Lodge, to spend a few weeks with Julius, and be present at the ball and banquet of the 15th, in celebration of the opening of the "Southwestern," said to be the finest hotel in the southwest, and whose landlords will be Frank Lockwood, John Crenshaw, and Ben Phillips, well known in Winfield.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Arthur Bangs went over to Wellington Monday to "spot" opposition. Arthur has been holding the field all to himself there in the "bus line," but some other fellow opened up this week, and Arthur is concocting a scheme to "do him up"--probably free 'buses for awhile. It's a cold day when Arthur can't make opposition hunt a hole.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Messrs. W. C. Robinson and Grant Stafford left yesterday for the World's Fair. Mr. and Mrs. M. L. Read, Mr. and Mrs. M. L. Robinson, and Mayor and Mrs. Emerson also leave today for the Crescent City, joining the first named persons at Kansas City. This will make a delightful party and their Southern vacation will certainly prove most enjoyable.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Charles Forgey now wears the belt undisputed as Winfield's champion skater on wheels. His competitive exhibition of fancy skating at the rink last Saturday evening with Merna Pitts, resulted in victory for the former, though the skillful performances of both almost nonplused the judges and made a decision difficult. Many of Winfield's young people are becoming adepts in the roller gliding art.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

A. H. Doane is again happy; he has filled the vacuum in his menageries of living wonders with a pet monkey: a regular little "tar-flat daisy." Only a few short months ago A. H. traded his remaining pet monkeys for a parrot, but that usually talkative bird has persistently refused to say a word. It's only stock in store is a faint whistle. But the monkey will make things interesting. The boys at the Brettun miss something.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

As the following, from the Wellington Standard, is Democratic authority, it will have to be taken with some grains of allowance. "Ed. P. Greer, of the COURIER family, is making a record that Winfield and Cowley County may well feel proud of. We have taken considerable interest in watching to see what our young friend would do for himself in the role of legislator and while we expected a good report, must express our surprise and satisfaction at the success he is making. In a majority of our prominent daily exchanges, 'Mr. Greer' is often to be seen and the name always appears in a creditable way."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

"Does farming pay here?" is a question that is asked in almost every letter of inquiry that reaches us regarding this county." remarks the A. C. Democrat. "It was a question that every new settler in the county asked himself anxiously when he came here years ago. But there is but one answer that can be given now. It DOES pay. Hundreds of men who came to Cowley County eight or ten years ago are today independently wealthy. Why, a man can hardly remain poor if he tries, when his land produces for him such crops as those of Cowley County. One man can hardly plant and cultivate one hundred acres of wheat and fifty acres of corn. That would give him, according to last year's average, 2,000 bushels of wheat and 2,500 bushels of corn. Wheat is worth sixty-five cents and corn thirty-five cents per bushel. This would make the total crop worth $2,175. Yes, farming will pay in Cowley County."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

For the best Bread and Buns, go to the Winfield Bakery.


Another of Winfield's Charming Social Events.

The Participants and Characters Represented.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The annual masquerade party of the Winfield Social Club has been the crowning social event of every winter for years past, and the one at the Opera House last Thursday evening was all that past successors could have spoken for it--in fact, many pronounce it superior to preceding ones in selectness and refinement of conduct. It was free from the promiscuous crowd and jam that usually characterize such gatherings, there being just maskers enough to fill the floor nicely and make dancing most enjoyable. The characters represented were varied and unique, elicited much admiration from the large number of spectators, and we regret our lack of space to mention each in detail. Following are the names of the maskers and the characters represented.

Ladies: Miss Nellie Cole, Cerus; Miss Mattie Harrison, Milk Maid; Miss Iowa Roberts, Water Nymph; Miss A. Marks, Wichita, Fancy Costume; Miss Leota Gary, Flower Girl; Mrs. J. L. Horning, Ghost; Miss Nina Anderson, Fancy Costume; Misses Emma and Mattie Emerson, Fancy Costumes; Miss Anna Hyde, Spanish Lady; Miss Sarah Kelly, Fancy Costume; Miss Carrie Anderson, Fancy Costume; Mrs. Ed. Cole, Folly; Mrs. Lovell Webb, Cards; Mrs. D. Rodocker, Daily News; Mrs. George Dresser, Sailor Girl; Miss Mattie Kinne, Frost; Miss Jennie Snow, Cotton Girl; Miss Hulda Goldsmith, Flower Girl; Miss Jennie Lowry, Butterfly; Miss Hattie Stolp, Fancy Costume; Miss Ida Johnston, Music; Miss Lou Clarke, Fancy Costume.

Gentlemen: B. W. Matlack, Jumping Jack; Dr. C. C. Green, Monkey and Dude; Everett Schuler, British Artilleryman; Eli Youngheim, Humpty Dumpty; Eugene Wallis, Noble Red Man; Ed. McMullen, Phillip's Best; F. F. Leland, Double-action Pussy and Flying Dutchman; George Read, The Devil; Fred Ballein, Hamlet; D. A. Sickafoose, Page; Frank Weaverling, Mexican; A. B. Taylor, Indian War Chief; Charles Roberts, Old Uncle Joe; W. R. Hodges, Highlander; Jos. O'Hare, British Officer; Addison Brown, Highlander; J. E. Jones, Sailor; George Schuler, Page; Tom Eaton, O'Donovan Rossa; M. H. Ewart, Page; Jake Goldsmith, Clown; M. J. O'Meara, Humpty Dumpty; S. Kleeman, Black Dude; Laban Moore, Monkey; John Hudson, Clown; Frank K. Grosscup, Spanish Cavalier; A. Snowhill, Prince; A. Gogoll, King Henry; Frank H. Greer, Beggar's Student.

The excellent music of the Winfield orchestra and the experienced prompting of Mr. Chas. Gray, captivated all, while the careful floor managing of Messrs. A. H. Doane and Lacey Tomlin made everything go off without a hitch.


Result of the Official Canvass of the Vote by the County Commissioners

Last Tuesday.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Beaver Township: J. N. Browning, trustee; H. T. Bayless, clerk; Irving Gray, treasurer; John Bower, justice; J. Rupp and S. Thorla, constables.

Bolton: John A. Scott, trustee; John Sturtz, clerk; V. Trimble, treasurer; J. Critchfield, justice; James Winchel and J. Booker, constables.

Cedar: J. F. McDowell, trustee; Nathan Parisho, clerk; A. Bruce, treasurer; Q. A. Olmstead and J. G. Custer, justices; J. Stewart and O. Sparkman, constables.

Cresswell: F. M. Vaughn, trustee; I. L. Wade, clerk; G. W. Ramage, treasurer; T. C. Bird and Washington Allen, justices; B. Sommerville and James Coffey, constables.

Dexter: S. H. Wells, trustee; D. W. Webster, clerk; Stephen Bibler, treasurer; no justice to elect; I. C. Pattison and J. W. Evans, constables.

Fairview: R. B. Corson, trustee; T. S. Covert, clerk; J. H. Curfman, treasurer; W. L. Burton, justice; Marsh Schofield and A. Newbury, constables.

Harvey: Elisha Haynes, trustee, J. Ringwald, clerk; Wm. Hall, treasurer; A. L. McCaw, justice; Frank Batch and L. W. Moore, constables.

Liberty: J. A. Cochran, trustee; M. M. Manahan, clerk; J. M. Mark, treasurer; C. M. Boyd and Alex Hoel, constables.

Richland: Willis Wilson, trustee; J. P. Groom, clerk; J. R. Cottingham, treasurer; H. H. Hooker and D. C. Stevens, justices; A. O. Welfelt and J. S. Hamilton, constables.

Rock: J. E. Gorham, trustee; Albert Brookshire, clerk; H. F. Horniday, treasurer; A. P. Carmine, justice; Austin Booth and E. J. Wilber, constables.

Sheridan: W. N. Day, trustee; W. L. Wilson, clerk; W. D. Dawson, treasurer; Robert Parmley, justice; Isaac Bowles and W. C. Ausbrook, constables.

Silver Creek: J. R. Pate, trustee; A. J. Mercer, clerk; Johnson Chandler, treasurer; no justice to elect; S. S. Leffler and Sam'l Blakey, constables.

Spring Creek: H. S. Libby, trustee; A. J. Mercer, clerk; Johnson Chandler, treasurer; no justice to elect; S. S. Leffler and Sam'l Blakey, constables.

Maple: J. H. Willis, trustee; Adam J. Walck, clerk; C. M. McKinnie, treasurer; Andrew Walck and J. H. Williams, constables.

Ninnescah: J. L. Stewart, trustee; Jas. T. Dale, clerk; H. H. Buss, treasurer; A. J. Werden and A. A. Jackson, justices; Lot Senseney and S. H. Garrard, constables.

Omnia: G. B. Darlington, trustee; Geo. Haycraft, clerk; C. P. Cogswell, treasurer; W. R. Stolp, justice; Dave Baldwin and C. Northup, constables.

Otter: John Bartgis, trustee; J. Aley, clerk; George Horner, treasurer, no justice to elect; George Webb and D. M. Barnes, constables.

Pleasant Valley: D. S. Sherrard, trustee; F. A. Chapin, clerk; A. De Turk, treasurer; A. H. Broadwell and West Holland, justices; A. Bookwalter and L. Brown, constables.

Silverdale: P. F. Haynes, trustee; John Algeo, clerk; H. T. Hummell, treasurer; R. C. Smith, justice; Ed Scott and Monroe Felton, constables.

Tisdale: Daniel Bovee, trustee; J. H. Sparrow, clerk; John Cox, treasurer; C. C. Krow and E. P. Young, justices; J. Ferd and W. Conrad, constables.

Vernon: H. H. Martin, trustee; J. M. Householder, clerk; T. B. Ware, treasurer; E. H. Earhart and E. B. Galt, constables.

Walnut: J. C. Roberts, trustee; Fred Arnold, clerk; M. N. Chaffee, treasurer; J. L. King, justice; Abe King and N. R. Wilson, constables.

Windsor: Chas I. Phenis, trustee; W. L. Koons, clerk; James B. Rowe, treasurer; I. B. Todd and J. T. Rittenhouse, justices; S. Greenleaf and Joseph Jackson, constables.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

No thanks necessary, Mr. Wellington Standard: "Winfield is troubled about the merchants blocking up the sidewalks with boxes, barrels, implements, silence, discontent, dull trade, Queen City of Kansas talk, and other unsightly objects, giving the principal thoroughfare the appearance of a railroad wreck or second-class freight depot. The COURIER, from which we glean at least a portion of the above, has our thanks for explaining the trouble with Winfield; we thought something was wrong but never got it down fine until now." Our wail was purely in the interests of the vast crowds of people that constantly throng our streets. Wellington is never troubled with jams (except jim-jams). Oh, no! And then she has no beautiful flag-stone pavements to desecrate with "unsightly objects." What few "plank" sidewalks she has are kept clear only to make room for the feet of the dozen or so Wellington girls who occasionally perambulate them. Nothing but an elephant would stand any show in contact with a Wellington girl's foot.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Osage City Free Press has issued a proclamation to the effect that the proprietors of that paper, being not only willing but anxious to pay for everything they get, will not, from and after this date, receive any favors whatever in the form of complimentary tickets to theatrical, religious, social, or other entertainments; or in fact anything, for sweet charity's sake, that concern not being a charitable institution. Furthermore, they propose to charge full advertising rates for everything of an advertising nature, and that they are not "beholden" to anybody for anything. We believe that the Free Press is upon the high road to fame, and has established itself upon a foundation which will stand "the wreck of matter and the crash of worlds."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Wichita is an awful sink hole. According to the Eagle, a hat was seen in a street mud-hole, and when the street commissioner went to get it he found that it was on a man's head. The commissioner sent for his shovels and dug the man out. Under the man was a mule sixteen hands high.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Messrs. Curns & Manser mean to stop at nothing short of metropolitan in everything. The latest attraction in their real estate office is a beautiful walnut, ash, and butternut-colored circular counter, the handwork of Mr. J. C. McKay. It is highly artistic and coincides nicely with its surroundings.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Five high grade short horn bulls and seven high grade short horn heifers for sale by H. T. Shivvers. Inquire at the office of Shivvers & Linn, Winfield, Ks.


Rambling Scintillations From Our Itemizer's Pen, Paste and Scissors.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Wichita Eagle calls that city's questionable females, "painted pullets."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

What a cruel punster is Brother Higgins, of the Udall Sentinel. "C. H. Dome was hurt somewhere between Udall and Seeley. COURIER. Wrong, neighbor, he was hurt on his head."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

It is rumored that all Caldwell saloons have closed up, and that the drug stores there refuse to sell liquor. That berg is certainly on the stool of repentance, and may yet get rid of her hades of a reputation.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The reports of cattle dying in the Territory seem to have been greatly exaggerated, according to parties recently from the ranges. The losses, they report, have not been unusually large and as a general thing are doing well.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The A. C. Democrat says that steps have been taken to form a stock association composed of farmers for the erection of a flouring mill on the canal. It is the intention to build a $50,000 mill, which will have a capacity of 500 barrels per day.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

A Wellington reporter, in writing an account of a recent ball in that city, tried to say that the belle of the evening "looked au fait." But, the printer, being familiar with the great failing of Wellington girls, made the types say that she "looked all feet."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Yours, truly, Mr. Burden Enterprise: "Capt. Nipp was in town Tuesday night. It is the first time that we have met him, although we have lived so near each other so long. We do not blame the Cowley County folks for almost unanimously electing him treasurer."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Wellington Standard: "The Farmers' Institute held at Winfield on the 29th and 30th of January was one of the most important meetings ever held in the State, and the Winfield papers made the most complete reports of all particulars. We will try to give our readers a digest next week."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The late thaw raised the numerous streams of the county and the Cambridge News tells of several narrow escapes by persons venturing to ford swollen creeks. A man wants to "luke a leedle oud" before casting himself on the troubled waters.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Frank Sheets entered a "coon" arena at Arkansas City last week and succeeded in drawing the compliments of one of the belligerents, Bob McGinnis. The darkey nearly severed Sheets's throat with a razor. McGinnis was taken before Justice Schiffbauer, County Attorney Asp prosecuting, and bound over to the District Court.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Wellington papers are making "much ado about nothing" in their muddle over which publishes the most news. Gaze an honest gaze on the COURIER and Telegram, brothers, which always contains more news of all kinds than any weekly papers in Kansas, and then if you don't feel above kicking "airy" things, kick yourselves around four blocks for your sad want of comparable "meat."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mr. McLean, of Burden, according to the Eagle, has a parchment deed in his possession that bears the crude marks of a century ago and was made to John Penn, a brother to the noted William of the Keystone State, and also a brother to Mr. McLean's grandfather. If the grandfather was a cotemporary of William and John Penn, who flourished about two hundred years ago; that family must be very long-lived--kind of parchment like.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Wellington Press gives this pointer: "A good joke is told at the expense of a young farmer, living near this city, who the other day brought in a load of corn, which he disposed of to one of our grain buyers. The same team and load were weighed upon the city scales and then the young man drove off to unload. On his return to weigh the empty wagon, he stopped and watered his horses, which were very thirsty, and then drove on the scales again, thereby cheating himself out of several bushels of corn."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Democrat says that Arkansas City has been leading Winfield two to three cents per bushel during the past two weeks in the price of wheat and corn. This assertion comes in rather poor grace in the fact of the market quotations in the A. C. papers--60 and 25 cents; than 63 cents on wheat and 29 on corn for three weeks; and No. 2 red brings 65 right along in large deliveries. Winfield markets on wheat are always equal to Kansas City and Chicago--often above them--as can be seen by weekly reference to our comparative table.

[Because of last item, am giving part of Winfield report. MAW]



Wheat No. 2. Winfield - 65 K. City - 63 Chicago - 55

Wheat No. 3. Winfield - 60 K. City - 57

Corn, mixed. Winfield - 30 K. City - 31 Chicago - 39½ & 40

Oats, No. 2. Winfield - 25 K. City - 28 Chicago - 27½ @ 28

Rye K. City - 55 Chicago - 62

Barley Chicago - 64 @ 66


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

When the varied superiority of the Queen City of Southern Kansas is fired at a Wellington citizen, it completely paralyzes him. Listen to the Standard's honest acknowledgment: "Frank Raymond, our 'short-hand' friend of Winfield, came over to take the evidence in the Edwards trial and during the week put in his odd time blowing up our sister city. He seemed attached to the Standard man, who in an unguarded moment made some complimentary remark about Winfield, and for that one foolish statement we were referred to for all kind of facts that we knew no more about than 'the man in the moon.' Frank Raymond and Judge Torrance are very agreeable companions until you mention the subject of 'Winfield.' The best course after the conversation takes that turn is to skip for any place where you can get out of sight."


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

I take pleasure in sending the COURIER by today's mail specimens of silk cocoons raised in this state last season; also a "Manual of Instructions" on silk culture by Miss Rossiter, one of the most successful silk culturists in this country. Silk culture has become a subject of general interest and attention, although it has not as yet received the attention its merits deserve. There are millions of dollars sent from this country to Europe annually for the products of the silk worm and to quote from a celebrated authority, "The labor and time needed for silk culture in this country can be had as cheaply here as in Europe, because it will come from persons who are, at present, not able under ordinary circumstances to obtain remunerative employment." He refers more to the woman of a family. No doubt there are many women, housekeepers and others, who have spare time from other duties who would be very glad to add to their income by expenditure of a few weeks of light work at home. This opportunity would be furnished by the silk culture industry. He estimates an average family may earn from $75 to $200 in a season which agrees with the teachings of silk culturists and this would be nearly all clear profit. When we consider that it only takes from four to six weeks to complete the whole process from the hatching of the worm to the spinning of the cocoons, we find this gives a very fair return for the labor of women and children who would have no other way to earn something in spare hours. The cost of starting is trifling and the work simple and easy. Kansas has peculiar advantages in soil and climate for the production of both the silk worm and its food. The Mulberry tree grows very rapidly here and we have plenty of Osage Orange already grown. There is no perceptible difference in the silk from worms fed on Osage and those fed on Mulberry. I claim that when all the advantages we have in our state and the wealth that it would bring us are fully realized, it will take the lead in "America's New Industry," silk culture. I shall be glad to furnish any required information on this subject at any time. Hoping you will aid in advancing and encouraging this "infant industry," I remain MRS. M. E. WILLIAMS, Kansas agent for silk worm eggs and all silk culture requisites, Douglass, Butler County, Kansas.

Preparation for Silk Culture.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

As the silk industry is making rapid progress throughout the United States, and since the experiments of the German Mennonites who in Russia were regarded as accomplished silk growers, has settled the question of successful silk culture in Kansas, the industry merits the attention of all who are interested in the development of the manufacturing interests of the state, and as the first preparatory step to be taken for the production of silk is the planting of well facilitated groves to procure plenty of food for the worms, I will submit a few thoughts for the benefit of those interested in the industry.

It has been claimed, even by professional (?) silk culturists, that "there need no further preparations be made in this western country, as the country is well supplied with Osage Orange hedge, which can be utilized for silk culture."

While I quiesce in recommending "Osage Orange" (on an experimental basis only) I have no scruples in condemning the idea of "Osage Orange" for practical, extensive culture. There are many good reasons that may be given to show the fallacy of the "Osage theory." I will, however, in this article give only one, which, in itself, is sufficient to cause the "Osage" theory to be abandoned by all prejudiced in its favor. In "practical, extensive silk raising," the handling of leaves on branches in large quantities is required, which cannot be done by the use of Osage Orange on account of the thorns, rendering the labor very unpleasant, which would tend to discourage and embarrass the development of the industry. I recommend that the Mulberry alone should be planted for the purpose of silk culture. I. HORNER.


Proceedings of Its Regular Monthly Meeting at the Courier Office Last Saturday.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The secretary, Jacob Nixon, reported that he had made no arrangements as yet regarding the publication of compiled reports.

The following paper on "Dishonest Fruit Dealers," was read by Mr. D. M. Adams.

At a recent meeting of the Ohio Horticultural Society, a speaker stated "that within a circle of twenty miles of Dayton, Ohio, there is more nursery stock raised than on any other spot of equal territory in America." Living the most of my life within this circle, I have had a limited opportunity to know how they do business. To sell this vast amount of stock, it requires an army of men. As far as my acquaintance extends, the most of the nurserymen are honest men and strive to do an honest business. But, as in all other trades, there are some exceptions. So it is with the peddlers--some are honest and others cannot be relied upon. What I propose to deal with at present is the dishonest one.

Some of the nurseries employ their own agents. There are men that know nothing of the business of growing trees that make the bulk of the sales. The tree jobber makes his contract wherever he can, to the best advantage. He then employs other men to sell for him, equips them with lithograph chromos and large specimens of fruit in bottles. They travel from the frozen north to the sunny south, from the Atlantic to the Rockies, with fruit better adapted to each locality than can be grown on the spot by an experienced nurseryman. I will tell how some of these wonderful specimens are obtained that are shown to the wondering farmer out west. One jobber sent to California obtained the best specimens to be had in that market. A leading agent, who was using these specimens, told me that he did not represent them as fruit from the trees he was selling. "He showed these fruits to get the man interested in fruits, to arouse his enthusiasm. When he got him interested, he then talked business, told him what he had." Those of my hearers who have had visits from agents can tell how they talk to the farmers here. Some of them will take an order for anything you can mention. It is not uncommon to sell things that are not known to the trade. Some years ago one set had a run on "Alpine tree" strawberries, and "White" blackberries. The samples of the latter were made of wax. To fill the orders for the farmer, they dug the wild bushes from the woods and fence corners. There was a Scotchman who was proverbial for his honesty. He received some gooseberry bushes from Scotland and had them in his garden. A peddler got some of them and represented them as the kind of bushes he was selling. The Scot found how they had been used. The agent came back for more berries. The Scot indignantly replied, "No sir! You do not get my fruit to swindle with." Agent then sent another person to get them, but did not succeed. Rival agents say that he climbed the fence and stole some one night.

Another practice is to give another name to some common plant or tree. They present in glowing terms the excellence of the "Custard apple." When they get to bearing, you find you have that pest of the farm, paw paw. To fill the order for horse chestnut, they go to the woods and dig the common buckeye. Where different kinds of fruit bear a resemblance, they have palmed off one for the other--taken Siberian crab for new kinds of cherries. (We had no sand-hill plums there.)

I have seen samples exhibited as cherries since I came here that were a good imitation of our active plums. As he did not let me cut them open and examine the seed, we will have to take his word for it that they were cherries.

All do not resort to such means. If they are strictly honest, they have to sell at prices higher, including freight, etc., far higher than our local nurseries can sell for. The prices the foreign agents sell for here are from four to ten times what the grower gets for them.

Apple trees, they pay about seven dollars per hundred, and other trees in proportion.

Some will say we must have trees, how shall we get them? First, go to the nearest reliable nurseryman. Get his prices, see what he has. If he has what you want, get of him. He has a reputation at stake and cannot afford to give interior stock or that which is not true to name. I say experienced, for this is a business that requires a greater knowledge than merely to grow a nice thrifty tree. A man, to be successful in this business, must have a knowledge of the habits of trees so that he can go into a strange nursery in winter and select the different varieties of fruit as sure as he could if they had ripe fruit on them. Second, subscribe for and read one or more good agricultural papers. A new fruit that has merit has cuts and descriptions of them generally published in the agricultural papers. It has been stated that a person having a valuable new variety gets the endorsement of experienced horticulturalists or horticultural societies.

Third, obtain the catalogue of several nurserymen who advertise in agricultural papers. In these circulars they give descriptions and prices. As trees and seed can now be sent by mail, we can order them direct from the grower from any part of the United States at a small cost.

If the excess that has been paid to peddlers over what the grower has received for the same stock was expended in first-class agricultural papers, it would go far forward placing a copy in every farm house in Cowley County.

Mr. J. G. Pierson stated that a tree agent from Dayton, Ohio, said that he had a peach grafted on the maple, which would grow, but would be no improvement.

Mr. Wellman: I have the Toronto cherry growing.

Mr. Adams: An agent offered the Toronto to me lately.

Mr. Pierson: The Morrellos are the only reliable kinds to plant.

President J. F. Martin read an essay on "Forestry" as follows.

Experience is a stern teacher, yet the masses of men learn only in this school.

If all that has been said and written in favor of planting trees for wind breaks and otherwise cultivating forest trees here in Kansas was not sufficient to arouse attention and appreciate their advantages, the past two months of terrible winter ought most certainly teach the lesson. To think of cattle and horses tied in the open prairie to a stake; hogs and sheep unprotected from the terrible blasts, piling upon each other, suffocating those beneath, which seems to have been an acceptable mercy; and the tens of thousands of cattle on the plains starving for want of food (fuel to supply the waste of the heat of the body from the fierce and unresisting blizzards continually pouring upon their shivering frames). The stock man turning away from this indescribable suffering, thinks and speaks only of those that were relieved by death.

Many farmers are not much better prepared for properly caring for their stock during winter.

Most all these terrible lessons were given that man may learn better methods in regard to his stock as well as his purse.

Hundreds of farmers and stockmen in the past few weeks have felt that a forest shelter or wind break would be one of the greatest blessings that could be conferred in their dire extremity.

How many, pray, will remember the lesson?

We need not now speak of artificial forests being beneficial to man and his stock, for all feel deeply its absolute necessity.

Who, in seeking a home, will not prefer to purchase the farm, not only with buildings, but with orchards and groves of timber not merely for their beauty, but for their intrinsic value in giving health and protection to his family and his stock; where he can be secure from the winter's blasts and the scorching rays of the summer's heat; where the beautiful birds, heaven's sweet songsters, will be your companions?

If such improvements in purchasing a farm are so highly prized and so greatly enhances its real value, why not, at once, make every necessary effort in planting and cultivating such trees as are known to be of value for the various purposes of the farm and the mechanic arts, and that are adapted to the special locality? Yes, why not act by this inspiration, knowing that you are bringing blessings to you and yours and those that will follow you?

But some may be disposed to say that there is more profit in growing grain, etc., than in growing timber. That the profits are so remote that their financial condition will not permit such an investment, valuable as it may be for your children. Asking your patience and earnest attention, we will endeavor to show that such conclusions are incorrect.

We hope to be able to follow this by other articles showing, 1st, The profits of timber culture; 2nd, The varieties for timber culture; and 3rd, Methods of propagation.

Mr. Pierson would plant peach for a quick growing wind break. Mr. Gale stated that the box elder made a thick, dense shade. Mr. Householder fixed the appearance of the Russian mulberry, Secretary Nixon said the Russian mulberry does well with him.

President: The cedar is good.

Secretary Nixon reported Hales early Amaden and Foster peach buds badly winter killed.

Mr. Thirsk: The Downing and Crescent strawberries do the best if you do not give them good attention.

Mr. Gale: I have the currant planted on the north side of a small house that does well. The opinion of members present was that the currant should be planted on the north side of a stone or board fence.

Dr. Capper: I have the Morrello that blooms twice each spring.

Mr. F. A. A. Williams was appointed an agent to solicit memberships among our citizens.

Mr. Williams presented a list of applies for a family orchard.

Mr. Robertson: The Sweet June, Missouri Pippen, Dutchess of Oldenburg, Willow Twig, and Grimes' Golden Pippin have done the best of my earliest planting.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mr. Cleveland has opened his office in New York, and is doing a rushing business. He will probably hear more small gossip and petty back-biting during the next three days than during any equal period of time in his life; and any reputation that survives the siege in fair condition can be depended on as genuine. Politicians reserve most of their eulogies for the dead. If Mr. Cleveland wishes a good opinion of public men, he should read the obituary numbers of the Congressional Record, and not listen to what our statesmen say in a whisper about their living associates and rivals. Quite a number of members and senators have received invitations to visit him this week, and it is understood by those who have been invited that they are to be questioned by Mr. Cleveland upon subjects with which they are most familiar, and that the consultations will have more to do with the policy of the new administration than with the selection of a cabinet.

There is, however, no dearth of cabinet talk in the lobbies of the Capitol, and the impression now among those who know President-elect Cleveland best is that Messrs. Garland, Vilas, Hewitt, and Merrick will probably be tendered cabinet positions week after next.

"General" James F. Legate, the famous political diplomat of Kansas, who is reported to have conducted negotiations between the prohibition candidate, Mr. St. John, and the Republican National Committee, is in the city. He has been summoned here by the Springer committee. He was pointed out to me in the corridors of the Capitol today, and my view turned upon a large portly man having the appearance of one who has lived well. I interrogated him upon the question of the reason of his summons before the Springer committee and he claimed to know nothing about it. I then mildly suggested that perhaps they wanted to pump him about the St. John matter. "Well, sir," said the Kansas General, "they'll be d n smart if they get any answer out of me about it--good day," and he whirled on his heel and left for the region of the House.

It is reported today, upon the authority of one of the counsel for Gen. Swaim that the findings of the court in his case will "not be guilty" as to the first charge: that of conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman; as to the second charge, neglect of duty and conduct prejudicial to good order and discipline, in failing to report to the Secretary of war his knowledge of the alleged duplication of Col. Morrow's pay accounts, guilty, with a recommendation that Gen. Swaim be temporarily suspended on half pay.

A well-known Pennsylvania representative, early this session of Congress, received a communication from a party of constituents stating that they had organized a club in his district and would like some Congressional literature. Careful search was made through the various department catalogues, and works on geology, etymology, and all the other "ologies" were selected and sent on to the dear constituents. Recently the Representative in question was at home mending his fences, and thought he would like to visit the new club. A delegation of the boys proudly escorted him to the rooms, and among other features showed him a handsome book-case filled with the books that he had contributed. Expressing his pleasure with the surroundings of the new club, he asked if he had been shown everything. There was a wink or two exchanged among the boys and "the member" was invited into an adjoining room. His visit there cost him $150, growing out of a desire on his part to make a full hand beat fours. It is not safe to talk to him about cards, clubs, or constituents.

The failure of the Nicaraguan treaty is taken with great equanimity in Washington, and is evidently so received by the country at large. The issues were important, and the matter was not one to hurry. There is a feeling that fairness to the incoming administration required that it should be consulted in the negotiations. It is not true that the treaty is permanently defeated. A motion to reconsider is pending; and even if the Senate were to pass finally on the treaty in an adverse shape, negotiations could be easily reopened.

The "Red Headed Ranger of the Rockies" again glows in his seat in the House. Belford came to Washington for the first time this session the other day, and first gave to his pent up oratory in the consideration of the river and harbor bill, and the issues at work in the last campaign.

Notwithstanding these mighty efforts, the river and harbor bill is stuck on a bar.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Your weekly visits gladden our hearts as we hear from sunny Kansas, the hub State of Uncle Sam's domains, of which we are justly proud. We propose to clasp hands with you across the Rockies, on the ground of your having prohibition and we woman's suffrage, and further agree that if you will adopt impartial suffrage, we will adopt prohibition, and as soon as we have a government again, "of the people, for the people, and by the people," we will take our place with Utah, in the proud sisterhood of States.

Woman suffrage works to a charm here; with women judges at the polls and juries in court, men are held under restraint. In our recent session of court we had six women on the grand jury, and as many on the petit jury. Business was done with dispatch, and impartial justice administered to the prisoners. Judge Hingard is the right man in the right place. Dayton is the county seat of Columbia County, situated in the grand Walla Walla valley about thirty miles northeast of Walla Walla. Its population is 2,000, with excellent water power, the Touchet river, having its rise in the Blue mountain range, gives us a very nice water fall. We have one woolen mill, two large grist mills, two planing mills, which manufacture doors, sash, mouldings, etc. Our schools are first-class. Our central school building has eight rooms, and we have three ward school buildings besides.

We have but one line of railroad, under the management of the O. R. N. company, who also runs steamers on the Columbia and Snake rivers. They connect with the Northern Pacific at Walulla, and the Union Pacific at Umatilla. Speaking of the railroads, contrary to all our former expectations, the Northern Pacific is, on this coast, what the A. T. & S. F. is in Kansas, the prince of lines of travel. During our deep snow, which commenced December 10, and continued until January, we have had 54 inches fall, and the Northern Pacific only failed to make connections once, while on the Union Pacific and Oregon short line, the trains were delayed 25 days at one time, and very uncertain all the time during the winter, so that we would advise all our friends in the States to come by the Northern Pacific. Their management is such that for the whole three years they have been in operation, they have seldom been behind time. We are 274 miles from Portland, and we had no mail for five weeks, and, but for 250 men from the Northern Pacific going to the aid of the O. R. N. company, it would have been a much longer time.

The thermometer got down one night to 26 degrees below zero, but it is so calm that we don't suffer as we did in Kansas. We have here what is called a "chinook wind," which comes and will take off two feet of snow in twenty or thirty hours. There has not been so much snow at one time before, in twenty years, and yet several droves of horses have lived all winter without feed.

Business is still very dull and money is very scarce, but hopes are entertained that with returning spring, which takes place in February generally, times will improve. More anon.



Newsy Notes Gathered by The "Courier's" Corps of Neighborhood Correspondents.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mrs. E. W. Miller visited at Mrs. Alexander's last week.

C. C. Byers, of this vicinity, visited his brother in Pleasant Valley last week.

John Hughes treated some of his friends to a wild goose roast last Saturday.

Beaver township was well represented at the lyceum at the Oldham schoolhouse last Friday night.

Will Knox give out going to the World's Fair; therefore, he attended the Centennial wax works last week.

After an absence of two weeks from the COURIER's columns, by special request of a neighborhood correspondent, I again come to the front.

The COURIER's South Bend correspondent seems to be growing. I should compliment his rapid progress and strike him light until he arrives at the age of maturity.

Not a thousand miles from Beaver Center there is a so-called bread and butter school, where the scholars cast their bread upon the plaster and gather it many days hence.

John Vandever's latest arrived Feb. 1st. It's a girl of standard weight and John can now be heard singing "fortune smiles upon us, we have little children three," and patiently he nurses one while two play around his knee.

Another opportunity was recently afforded the young and rising generation of this and other vicinities to exercise the educated toe at the home of Mr. and Mrs. McDonald. The occasion was largely attended, there being 38 numbers sold at one dollar each, and we hope they had a good time; but we do pity those who were compelled to go home bare-headed and bare-handed in the cold of the morning, as their hats were torn into carpet rags and their gloves mysteriously disappeared.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

The Sabbath School of this place has been reorganized and an efficient Board of officers elected to superintend and look after the interests of the school. The former patrons of the school are cordially invited and earnestly insist upon everybody living within a reasonable distance of said school to attend and take an active part in the study of God's word. By so doing we can (ere the year is gone) boast of having the banner school of the county.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

There was no preaching in this place on last Sunday owing to the non-appearance of the preacher.

J. M. Allen is quite sick. I failed to learn what was the matter with him. J. L. Higbee is also under the weather.

Mrs. Fox, of Coffeyville, is visiting her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Gardenhire, of this city. I have not learned how long she will stay.

Mr. Otis Shaw, of Taylorville, Illinois, is here visiting his brother-in-law, Chas. Peabody, who is suffering very badly with a frozen back.

Mr. Hendry has moved back to this place again from Butler County. He is occupying the old store house owned by John Allen.

Henry Salmons, of Torrance, was in Winfield on Saturday last. He says it was the muddiest place he ever saw: worse than "old Kaintuck."

A. H. Limerick, our county superintendent of schools, was in our town one day last week visiting the schools. He says we have a fine school.

Link Branson received a severe kick from one of his mules on Saturday night last; however, he is still on his "pins" and able to be up and about.

A gentle zephyr came over from Nebraska and Dakota last Sunday, stayed over till Monday night, and caused quite a change in the appearance of things.

G. W. Gardenhire has returned home from the Nation where he has been for the past week. He says the beef cattle did not stand the cold weather as well as the stock cattle.

Our school will close on Friday of next week with appropriate exercises and a grand dinner, in which all three of the schools will take part. They are anticipating a fine time.

A petition is being circulated in this village to be sent to the Post Office Department to have the mail carried from here to Dexter instead of from Winfield. It would shorten the route and make the mail reach there six hours earlier each day.

Miss Emma McKee, the teacher of the primary department of our schools, was in the metropolis on Tuesday and Wednesday of this week. Miss Eva Reynolds, one of the upstairs scholars, took charge of her school during her absence.

Mr. John Fussleman, of Douglas, who is in the employ of K. W. Allison, came over on Saturday and Sundayed at Capital Hill. He is quite a nice young man; has hosts of friends, and of course is always welcome--by the girls especially. Come again, John.

Miss Lou Wilson came near crippling herself for life on Sunday morning last. She was carving bread for the breakfast when the knife slipped and she let the bread drop, exclaiming, "I am ruined for life," but on examination found she had just clipped off the end of her thumb; so hopes are entertained of her speedy recovery.

It has been my pleasure this winter to write for the COURIER under the name of "Jay-Eye-See," but as this is to be my last letter, intending to depart for other fields, will sign my real name, but before I do so will thank the people of Torrance for their forbearance with me. If I have told anything which should not have been told, I ask your forgiveness. And now allow em to thank you for the manner in which I have been treated since I have been in your midst. H. G. NORTON.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Dr. Knickerbocker took a trip to Wichita on the 6th.

Miss Anna Green returned to her home at Halstead on the 10th.

Mr. Ammon has sold his residence to one of our late Kentucky arrivals.

Wm. Irene is closing out his stock of goods at cost. Now is the time for good bargains.

Captain Sam Steele was on our streets last week, looking after his grain interests here.

Bob Ratliff is the acknowledged champion billiard player, while Frank Gray occupied the same relative position in checkers.

The thermometer stood 12 deg. below zero on the 10th, which caused a playful smile to linger around the countenances of our coal dealers.

Our election for township officers passed off quietly. Mr. Steward was elected trustee; A. J. Werden, J. P.; J. T. Dale, clerk; Henry Buss, treasurer; Ol Jewett, constable.

The A. O. U. W. will give an oyster supper and ball on the evening of the 13th. All are cordially invited as a grant time is anticipated. Partners will be sold at one half cent per pound--that is lady partners.

Monroe Masters, Esq., from Hamilton, Mo., is here visiting his old friends and townsman, J. P. Voorhees. Mr. Masters is engaged in breeding fine horses and mules and will return here in the spring with a carload of choice animals.

The Mill Company have awarded the contract for their machinery to the Nordyke Milling Company, of Indianapolis, Ind., and will build of stone three stories high with a capacity of seventy-five barrels per day.

Don't ask Bradley, Pam Voorhees, or Buffington anything about the "cake" that George Gray purchased at the Methodist festival and presented to a lady friend, as they nearly caused a "Werd--en" interference to settle the same.

We would call the attention of the management of the town hall to the shabby seats the public are compelled to use, which is a simple plank laid on chairs; this is an outrage on the public who cheerfully pay their money and then are compelled to sit like so many turtles on a log; can't move for fear of sliding off; and is especially wearisome to the ladies. We sincerely trust that a more suitable as well as more comfortable set of seats may be secured ere our next entertainment occurs.

Your correspondent had the pleasure of meeting Hon. E. P. Greer, our worthy Representative, on Saturday last on the train to Winfield. We are all proud of our Ed., for he is one of us, one of the mass; not one of any particular class of people who will seek to do class legislation, but one who will work for the interests of the state at large and Cowley County as she needs it, and we would suggest to him that more legislation was needed on the prohibitory law, as the recent decision of our Supreme Court making no one but a purchaser competent to file information against violators practically makes the law a nullity without the aid of the grand jury.

The Happy Home Concert Company's entertainment on the night of the 6th was successful in all its respects. A crowded house assembled to listen to their closing entertainment. The conditions of "Don't leave the Farm," by Miss Hattie Lincoln was very fine; also, Miss Maggie Martin singing the obligato, which was received by rounds of applause by the audience. By the way Miss Maggie is one of our best singers, having an excellent voice which only needs cultivation to place her in the front ranks of our musical world, and as an organist she cannot be excelled. The evening's entertainment wound up with the laughable serio-comic song entitled "Twelve months after Marriage," by Mr. and Mrs. Weaverling, which was heartily enjoyed by all. The troupe went from here to Mulvane and have the best wishes of all our citizens.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Mr. Gates says the weevil is creating destruction in his wheat bins. He has every bushel of the crop of 1884 yet.

Our stockyards are now completed and ready for business. They comprise three strong and substantial pens with the latest improved shute.

Dave Shaw has lost thirty head of young shoats by some lung disease resembling quinsy. He thinks the fatality is due to too warm sleeping apartments.

Old Boreas has swooped down on us with another blizzard. It is time to protest against this protracted courtship of Miss Sunny Kansas with Mr. North Pole. Leap year is now past.

Rev. Brink, a beardless youth of twenty-five winters, is now pastor of the Pleasant Valley M. E. Church. He will hold a series of meetings at the first favorable opportunity. Of course, all the young ladies will be impressed with the error of their ways.

The Holtby estate has yet nearly one hundred acres of wheat to thresh. Two attempts were made at threshing the past two weeks, but Old Boreas ruled such proceedings out of order. The stalks have kept dry and the pesky weevil has not injured the grain any.

The corn trade is getting quite lively at Hackney. Steele & Co. shipped in three carloads last week. Messrs. Dave and Wilson Shaw each received a car; and Brown & Fisher one. They paid 25 cents per bushel. M. H. Markum is feeding the second carload of corn and will soon be ready for a third.

"Mark" very much regretted his unavoidable absence from the china wedding entertainment at R. W. Anderson's residence a few nights ago. However, he is glad to know that the one hundred grown people present had an enjoyable time. This large attendance shows the high esteem in which Mr. Anderson and lardy are held by our people.

Prof. Thos. Hadley took the train at our station last Wednesday for his home near Emporia. He spent the past two months doing missionary work among the Indians in the Nation and visited two weeks in this community with his niece, Mrs. Gus. Hunt. Prof. Hadley has spent twenty-five years of his life among several of the tribes of Indians in the Territory, and speaks several of their dialects fluently. He was for a long time agent for the Kaws and principal of their school. He is an enthusiast on Indian civilization through the means of education.

It must be gratifying to the projectors of the Farmers Institute, recently held at Winfield, to realize that it was a decided success. The newspaper press of Winfield is entitled to many kind considerations for the active interest taken in the success of the Institute, and the accurate and exhaustive publication of its proceedings. While the attendance was not as large as it should have been, it is a matter of no surprise; for a few energetic and enterprising men must always take the initiatory steps toward forming an organization. An effort will be made to have the future programs interspersed with exercises by farmers' ladies, thus making it more attractive to the opposite sex.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Messrs. Vermilye Bros. have put up sixty tons of excellent ice.

Mrs. Eastman is convalescing from a severe case of erysipelas.

Mr. Graves and family, from Comanche County, are visiting relatives in the Bend.

Chas. McDade came up from "Poor Lo's" country a few days ago to smile on S. Bendite and family.

A gentleman whose name I have not learned speaks of starting a writing school at our schoolhouse.

Mr. Andrews brought eight hundred head of sheep from Grouse creek to this locality last week.

Supervisor Martin has repaired Posey creek crossing, which was rendered almost impassible during recent thaws.

The P. V. Stock Protective Union met at Odessa on the evening of the 2nd inst., to elect officers and arrange business generally. This organization has been a benefit to stock men and a terror to those who seek to gobble up the farmers' steeds.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Anyone wishing to rent the Dr. Davis farm east of Winfield, or a part of said farm, can get terms and particulars by calling on J. H. Sorey, 3 miles northeast of Winfield.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Russian Mulberry trees can be had of I. Horner, Emporia, Kansas, at very low rates per thousand.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Joseph S. Hill made administrator of estate of J. H. Boggs, deceased. Hackney & Asp, Attorneys for Administrator.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

Settlement of estate of Nellie Sellers by James A. G. Forth, Administrator. Hackney & Asp, Attorneys.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 12, 1885.

H. L. Walker, Register, Land Office at Wichita, notice by settler, Joseph J. Cunningham, re land. Witnesses: James Hanlen, Charles H. Holmes, and Ben White, of Rock.


By Prof. F. H. Snow, of the State University,

Entomologist to the State Board of Agriculture.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885. Front Page.

An accurate knowledge of the insects injurious to our most valuable "small grain" will undoubtedly increase the number of species now known to infest it. It was a surprise to entomologists as well as fruit growers when Mr. Lintner, the New York State entomologist, presented a list of 176 insects known to commit depredations upon the apple tree. A similar surprise will follow a full enumeration of the wheat insects. Dr. Fitch, writing thirty years ago of the obstacle to wheat production in New York, makes the following statements: "I have the present season discovered small flies in abundance in every wheat field in my neighborhood. On sweeping with a net anywhere among growing wheat, a multitude of them will be gathered. They are of several different kinds. One of these species was so abundant the latter part of June that at almost every step in any part of our wheat fields a dozen or more could be seen. I doubt not it is from the number of these and other depredators which abound upon our wheat that we are no longer able to produce such crops of the grain as were uniformly harvested when our lands were newly cleared. How is it possible for wheat to grow with any thriftiness when it is incessantly assailed by such hosts of these enemies, bleeding it at every pore?" Of the above flies, Dr. Fitch names and describes nine species, all found upon wheat in wheat fields, except one which was reared from larvae drawing in immense numbers from unthreshed wheat in a barn. Of the other eight species nothing has been published of their depredations, habits, or transformations, but we shall not probably err in accepting them as serious pests which are annually levying no inconsiderable tax upon our wheat crops. (See Lintner's First Annual Report.) It is true that not all the New York wheat insects have yet reached the borders of Kansas.

Fortunately our State, by reason of its rapid settlement and its wide separation from the older and most thoroughly insect-ridden States, has hitherto enjoyed a comparative immunity from many of the most destructive insect pests. But this favorable condition cannot much longer continue. Unless a rigid quarantine be established against these species which may surely be kept out by this method, and unless vigorous measures are enforced for the stamping out of other species upon their first appearance in any neighborhood, our farmers and fruit growers must submit to the inevitable and prepare to abandon their prominent position among the grain growers and fruit raisers of America.

It is not the purpose of the present paper to furnish an abstract discussion of wheat insects in general, but to briefly consider those species which have been most prominent in their destructive operations during the year 1884. Happily the chinch bug, until now the foremost foe of the small grain producer, has not injured the wheat to any considerable degree, only two counties reporting its presence in numbers worthy of notice. In the Arkansas valley, Reno County reports the crop damaged 10 to 15 percent, and in the southeast, Labette County, 2 percent. The abundant rainfall of the year was unfavorable to the excessive multiplication of this insect. Nor has any report been received of injury from the genuine army worm (Leneania unipuncta). The Fall army worm, however, an entirely different species (the Laphygma frugiperda of Riley), has made its presence felt in several counties, notably in Jefferson, Leavenworth, Douglas, and Labette. The weevil is reported as doing considerable damage in Stafford, Sumner, and Cowley counties, especially to wheat in the stack and in the private bins and granaries of the producers before it is delivered to the wholesale buyers at the various shipping points. But the most conspicuous entomological event of the year 1884 was the successful entrance within our borders of the far-famed Hessian fly (Cecidomyia destructor) in such numbers as to properly entitle the movement to be called an invasion. The fist mutterings of this invasion were heard in the month of May from Wyandotte and Johnson counties on the eastern border. In these counties it was reported that the "May" wheat was most affected, and that the depredations were most extensive on lands cultivated in wheat the preceding year, and much worse on lands cultivated in wheat for three successive crops. (M. B. Newman.) Late in the autumn reports began to come in of a very general distribution of this army of invasion throughout the eastern third of the State. The weather of the year, while unfavorable for the chinch bug, was all that could be desired by the Hessian fly, this species thriving in wet seasons, but languishing in dry seasons. Thus, then, the species seem to be each other's counterparts--bad weather for the one being good weather for the other. Direct reports have been received by the writer during the past two weeks from correspondents of the State Board of Agriculture in thirty-five different counties. Of these, twenty-one report the Hessian fly as present to an extent varying from slight indications to very serious occupation. The western line of the invading army now rests between the 97th and 98th meridians, and the line is unbroken from Sumner, in the southern tier of counties, to Washington, in the northern tier. This line passes through Sumner, Sedgwick, Harvey, Marion, Dickinson, and Clay to Washington. No counties west of this line report the presence of the foe. No reports have been received from the southeastern counties, excepting Cherokee, which reports a light attack of the fly. The other counties reporting its presence are Cowley, Morris, Davis, Riley, Pottawatomie, Wabaunsee, Shawnee, Douglas, Johnson, Wyandotte, Leavenworth, Atchison, Jackson, and Doniphan. Thus there is not only an unbroken line of the enemy from Sumner north to Washington, but also from Sumner northeast to Doniphan in the northeastern corner of the State. The counties reporting the most serious injury are Doniphan, Atchison, Leavenworth, Wabaunsee, Davis, Riley, Morris, Dickinson, and Marion. The following extracts from correspondence will be of interest in this connection.

R. R. Clemons, Alida, Davis County: "This is their first appearance here, and I should judge would decrease the yield from 15 to 20 percent."

J. M. Johnson, Harveyville, Wabaunsee County: "Since the 18th of November, I have been nearly all over the county and found Hessian fly wherever I went. With the exception of a few fields of very early sown wheat, they have not done any material damage; the late sown looks very well."

E. R. Brown, Atchison: "Our growing wheat crop has been seriously injured by the Hessian fly. From present indications the wheat crop will be a failure. Much of it died before the hard winter set in. In the early fall it was seriously affected by what many supposed to be rust, but it turned out to be the work of the Hessian fly."

Joshua Wheeler, Nortonville, Jefferson County: "The only insect that has troubled the wheat in this county has been the Hessian fly. The extent of the damage is somewhat difficult to learn. In this part of the county it is quite limited. All the early sown wheat is somewhat damaged. Wheat sown after September 25 does not seem to be damaged at all."

J. L. Shore, Skiddy, Morris County: "There is great complaint of the Hessian fly in the wheat crop and many fields are badly injured. The eggs are laid in the foliage, and some resorted to pasturing the wheat, thinking if grazed close that many of the eggs might be stripped off and the wheat saved. Some fields are entirely killed."

J. W. Williams, Cope, Jackson County: "I have heard but little complaint in our county of depredations on the wheat plant. In some few fields in early planted wheat the Hessian fly did some work--in a few instances to cause reseeding. But the fly has made its appearance in our county, and no doubt will be a pest to the farmer in years to come."

A. H. McLain, Newton, Harvey County: "The Hessian fly is engaging the attention of the farmers of Harvey County at present more than any other insect that is molesting the wheat in the fields; and in fact, I think it is the only insect doing any material damage to the crop at present. The Hessian fly has not been numerous enough in this part of the State until the past fall to do any noticeable damage, but at present some fields have enough to materially damage the coming crop unless something takes place to destroy them."

W. E. A. Meek, Dillion, Dickinson County: "It is currently reported that there are some fields damaged by the Hessian fly. I have seen none, but am inclined to believe the report is well founded. I have but little doubt they have been induced by the very early sowing and by the vast amount of volunteer wheat in our State, the result of following wheat with wheat indefinitely. Break up this practice and sow clover, timothy, fall meadow, oats, grass, or anything which will make a sod or turf and stop sowing earlier than September 15th, and we will have but little trouble. This is all the secret there is to it. Pasturing closely with sheep during the fall and winter is good also."

H. Springer, Newbern, Dickinson County: "The Hessian fly did considerable damage to the wheat crop of this county the past season. They are now quite plentiful in the fly-seed state in the wheat sown last fall. Except for the fly the last season has been unusually free from insect depredations."

The foregoing extracts are fair samples of the reports received from the twenty-one counties infested by the Hessian fly. The first attack of the enemy has not been so much in the nature of a determined onset, as of a general armed reconnaissance in varying numbers at different points along the line. The invading army is now resting upon its arms and waiting the arrival of reinforcements with the opening of spring. The extent of their reinforcements will depend largely upon the meteorological conditions of the months intervening between the present time and the harvest. These reinforcements will in reality constitute an army of substitutes, and will consist of the second brood of the fly. The individuals now in a quiescent condition in the lower joints of the wheat plant in the so-called "flax-seed" state, will in early spring complete their cycle of transformations and emerge as winged flies. The females of this final form will again deposit their eggs in great numbers upon the wheat plants about the 1st of April, and if the season be sufficiently moist, the young larvae will find the conditions necessary for their successful development and the damage to the crop will reach its maximum. If, however, the month of March and April shall prove exceptionally dry and hot, the damage to the wheat crop of 1885 will be reduced to a minimum and hardly will be worthy of remembrance. The necessary uncertainty of a result thus dependent upon meteorological conditions impossible to be predicted cannot but afford some anxiety in the infested districts and will certainly justify those who are holding 1884 wheat in continuing to withhold their wheat from market until a more satisfactory price can be obtained.

A brief glance at the history of the Hessian fly in the United States is sufficient to convince the most skeptical reader that no pains should be spared to prevent its finding a permanent home in Kansas. As long ago as 1788, according to Packard, the wheat crop about Trenton, New Jersey, was in many cases a total failure. As wheat was at that period exported to Great Britain in large quantities, accounts of the appalling havoc that this insect was making excited the attention of Government there and aroused their fears lest so dreadful a scourge should be introduced into that country by means of the American grain. As a result, the exportation of grain from America was prohibited until the English Government was assured that the fly with eggs could not be introduced in the grain. As long ago as 1800 Dr. L. L. Mitchell, of New York, affirmed "that the insect was more formidable than would be an army of 20,000 Hessians."

In 1843 great havoc was committed in many fields in Maryland and Virginia. In the following year it did much injury in Northern Indiana and Illinois and the contiguous parts of Michigan and Wisconsin, in many cases occasioning almost a total failure to the crops. In Michigan the wheat crop was almost an entire failure. On Long Island at Rochester, New York, and throughout Pennsylvania, the losses this year were severe; the following year it did more or less injury all over the state of Illinois, while in the central parts of Maryland the crops in many instances were rendered worthless. In Georgia, moreover, its ravages around the counties near Milledgeville are said to have been disastrous; whole fields were totally destroyed and others yielded not more than a fourth of an ordinary crop. In 1846, in the upper counties of Georgia, it was said the fly had commuted such ravages upon the wheat as scarcely to leave enough seed for another year. Throughout the State of New York it was destructive this year; in the western section the loss from this insect was estimated at not less than 500,000 bushels. About twenty years ago the cultivation of wheat in the New England States was abandoned on account of the ravages of the Hessian fly and the wheat midge. This heroic treatment secured the destruction of the fly and wheat culture has been resumed in those states without further detriment from this source. In Kansas this insect has previously made three appearances: in 1871, 1877, and 1880. It did not inflict any serious injury upon the wheat in those instances and its distribution did not so nearly approach a general invasion as at the present time.

The following summary of the habits of the Hessian fly and remedies against its ravages is taken from the third report of the United States Entomologist Commission.

1. There are two broods of the fly, the first laying their eggs on the leaves of the young wheat from early April to the end of May, the time varying with the latitude and the weather, the second brood appearing during August and the early part of September, and laying about thirty eggs on the leaves of the young winter wheat.

2. The eggs hatch in about four days after they are laid. Several of the maggots or larvae make their way down to the sheathing base of the leaf, and remain between the base of the leaves and stem near roots, causing the stalk to swell and the plant to turn yellow and die. By the end of November or from thirty or forty days after the wheat is sown, they assume the flaxseed state, and may, on removing the lower leaves, be found in little brown, oval, cylindrical, smooth bodies--a little smaller than grains of rice. They remain in the wheat until warm weather; in April the larvae rapidly transforms into the pupa within its flaxseed skin, the fly emerging from its case about the end of April. The eggs laid by this first or spring brood of flies soon hatch, the second brood of maggots live but a few weeks, the flaxseed state is soon assumed, and the Autumn or second brood of flies appear in August. In some cases there may be two Autumn broods, the earliest (August) brood giving rise to a third set of flies in September.

3. There are several destructive ichneumon parasites of the Hessian fly, whose combined attacks are supposed at times to destroy about nine-tenths of all the flies attacked. Of these the most important is the Chalcid, four-winged fly, Semiotellus destructor, which infests the flaxseed and a small parasite of the genus Plotygaster.

4. By sowing a part of the wheat early and if affected by the fly, plowing this in and sowing the rest after September 20th, the wheat crop in most cases can be saved. It should be remembered that the first brood should thus be circumvented or destroyed in order that a second or Spring brood may not appear.

5. If the wheat be only partially affected, it may be saved by fertilizers and careful cultivation; or a badly damaged field of Winter wheat may thus be recuperated in the Spring.

6. Pasturing with sheep, and consequent close cropping of the wheat in November and early December may cause many of the eggs, larvae, and flaxseeds to be destroyed; also, rolling the ground may have nearly the same effect.

7. Sowing hardy varieties. The Underhill Mediterranean wheat, and especially the Lancaster variety, which tillers vigorously should be sown in preference to the slighter, less vigorous kinds, in a region much infested by the fly. The early (August) sown wheat (to be plowed under afterwards) might be Reihl; the later sown, Lancaster, Clawson, or Fultz.

8. Of special remedies the use of lime, soot, or salt may be recommended; also, raking off the stubble; but too close cutting of the wheat and burning the stubble are of doubtful use, as this destroys the useful parasites as well as the flies.

To these recommendations of the National commission the writer would add another, based upon the suggestions of two of our correspondents, viz: To reduce to a minimum the amount of volunteer wheat. This serves as a convenient place of deposit for the eggs of the summer brood of the fly and thereby through a possible third brood communicate the pest to the later sown wheat of the regular crop. This reduction can be made by changing the wheat lands at least as often as once in two years. The destruction of the volunteer wheat, and the postponement of the fall sowing so that the wheat plant may not come above the ground until after the first frosts have killed the fly, will constitute the best safeguard against future damages from this source.


Gossip About Their Career. Mr. Clemens as a Washington Correspondent.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885. Front Page.

Mark Twain and George W. Cable have been reciting extracts from their works to large audiences here this week, writes a Washington correspondent of the Cleveland Leader. The two men are as different as the poles, and both are surprises.

George W. Cable is under medium height, very straight, very slender, and as sallow as many of the creoles whom he portrays in his novels. He has a face rather effeminate than manly, and his beard of silky black and his long mustache twisted with its ends hanging down below his chin and making a bow over his mouth, carries out this illusion. His nose is straight and small, his eyes bright, black, and piercing, and his forehead medium. His hair is the color of jet, and as glossy as oiled ebony. He does not weigh, I should say, over 130 pounds. He has a good voice, well trained and melodious. He articulates distinctly, and his gestures have all the grace of a woman. Ten years ago the world knew nothing of Cable; now he stands in the front rank of the American literati. He was at one time a merchant, then tried newspaper writing on the New Orleans Picayune, and while doing so began to study the early history of New Orleans. He became interested in the creoles, and wrote several sketches of them for the Century Magazine. These attracted attention, and he found the field upon which he had entered one worth developing. In the carrying out of his idea, he has shown that he is an accomplished novelist and has made a reputation which will last.

Mark Twain is just as big and awkward as Cable is small and graceful. He has a big head stuck on by a long neck to a pair of round shoulders. He came on to the stage as though he were half asleep, and he looked to me as though nature, in putting him together, had, somehow, gotten the joints mixed. He has a big face, a nose large enough to represent any kind of genius, and eyes large, black, and sleepy. He has a thick, bushy mane of hair which is now iron gray, and a bushy mustache which overhangs his characteristic mouth. As he stood on the stage he reminded me much of a mammoth interrogation point, and as he drawled out his words with scarcely a gesture, his voice made me think of a little buzz-saw slowly grinding inside a corpse. He did not laugh while he uttered his funniest jokes, and when the audience roared, he merely stroked his chin or pulled his mustache.

Still he could not help being satisfied, and I do not doubt the contrast of his first days in Washington, when he came here years ago and had hard work making money enough to pay his board bills, came forcibly before him. Though it is not generally know, Mark Twain was once a Washington correspondent. He came here from the West with Senator Stewart and for a time wrote letters to the Alta California and the New York Tribune. He used to drink a good deal in those days, and was hardly considered a reputable character. It was shortly before this that he made the trip from which he wrote "Innocents Abroad," and this book he wrote here from the notes he took during his tour. The book made him both famous and wealthy. His manuscript he first sent to several prominent publishers, but they all rejected it, and he was about giving up in despair when a Hartford company took hold of it. The result was they made $75,000 off the book and sold more than 200,000 copies of it. It was after this that Mark Twain tried editing the Buffalo Express. A man who worked on the paper at the time told me today that this venture of his was not a success. He loafed around the office, guying the office-boy, and telling jokes and stories rather than writing, and the only fruit of his Buffalo experience was his marriage, which, like "Innocents Abroad," turned out well. His wife brought a pot of gold into the family, and when he got to Elmira, he found that his father-in-law had made him the present of a brownstone front, and thrown in a coachman with a bug on his hat. Twain did not remain in Elmira, however, but went to Hartford and began to write "Roughing It." This was also successful and established his fame.

Mark Twain probably makes as much out of his books as any other writer in the country. He has his Hartford firm publish his books for him, and he so arranges it that he gets a royalty on those printed in Europe. He is better known in foreign lands than any other American writer, and he is an international character. Many of his scenes are taken from real life, and his descriptions of travel are in the main true. He is a hard worker, and while at Hartford he writes in his billiard-room in the attic. Like Trollope, he believes that there is nothing like a piece of shoemaker's wax on the seat of one's chair to turn out good literary work, and, like Blaine, he has a fixed amount of writing for each day's duty. He rewrites many of his chapters, and some of them have been scratched out and interlined again and again. Mr. Clemens--everyone knows Mark Twain's name is Clemens--will be 49 years old on the 30th of this month. He is a Missouri man by birth, and has taken care of himself ever since he was 15. He has been a practical printer, a steamboat pilot, a private secretary, a miner, a reporter, a lecturer, and a book-maker.

Too Ugly to Catch Fish.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885. Front Page.

Robert Toombs, of Georgia, whose chief ambition at one time was to call the roll of his slaves at the foot of Bunker Hill Monument, was known as the "unlucky fisherman." When he was a boy he was quite ungainly in appearance, and his companions used to say that he was so ugly that he scared the fishes away. All through his career he never had any luck in angling. He would sit for hours on the banks of a stream, impatiently awaiting a bite, and cursing his luck, while others around him were landing fish by the dozen. After fishing all day in a Georgia stream, he drew up a huge mud turtle. He cut his name in full on the hard shell, and threw the turtle back into the water.

Two years afterwards he was fishing at the same spot, and again drew out a turtle. It was the very same turtle on which he had inscribed his name, but he was astonished to find below his name the words: "Too ugly to catch fish." A waggish friend had caught the denizen of the mud and cut the line below. The story went that Toombs caught this identical turtle no less than five times, and the last time, in a fit of rage, cut its head off. Baltimore Herald.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885. Front Page.

It may not be generally known, says the Musical Herald, that Gilbert and Sullivan had a superstition that the letter "P" in their titles brought them luck. "Pinafore" made the first great hit, and then came the "Pirates of Penzance," with two "P's." Then followed "Patience," and then "Iolanthe," with the sub-title of the "Peer and Peri," again a double "P," and at first they even thought or adding to this by calling it "Perola." "Princess Ida" followed, but the "IV" seemed to break the charm. Sardon, the great French playwright, has fallen into a similar way of thinking, and believes that fate blesses his "Doras," so he has written "Dora," a success; "Fedora," a great success;; and is now at work on "Theodora."


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

An old physician, retired from practice having had placed in his hands by an East India missionary the formula of a simple vegetable remedy for the speedy and permanent cure of consumption, Bronchitis, Catarrh, Asthma, and all throat and Lung Affections, also a positive and radical cure for Nervous Debility and all Nervous Complaint, after having tested its wonderful curative powers in thousands of cases, has felt it his duty to make it known to his suffering fellows. Actuated by this motive and a desire to relieve human suffering, I will send free of charge, to all who desire it, this recipe, in German, French, or English, with full directions for preparing and using. Sent by mail by addressing with stamp, naming this paper. W. A. Noyes, 146 Power's Block, Rochester, N. Y.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

WIVES! MOTHERS!! DAUGHTERS!!! Be your own physician. A lady, who for many years suffered torments worse than death from Uterine troubles, such as Falling of the Womb, Leucorrhaea (Whites), painful and suppressed Menstruation, finally found remedies which completely cured her. Any sufferer from such diseases can take the remedies and thus cure herself without revealing her condition to anyone, or subjecting her womanly modesty to the shock of an examination by a physician. The recipes with plain directions will be sent to any address free of charge securely sealed. Address Mrs. M. J. Brabie, 428 Marshall St., Philadelphia, Pa. Name this paper.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

SPLENDID HONORS. The public should note the fact that the only proprietary medicine on earth that ever received the supreme award of Gold Medal at the great International World Fair, Industrial Expositions and State Fair, is St. Jacobs Oil. After the most thorough and practical tests, in hospitals and elsewhere, it has universally triumphed over all competitors, and been proclaimed by Judges and Jurors, including eminent physicians, to be the best pain-curing remedy in existence.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

FREE DISTRIBUTION. "What causes the great rush at J. N. Harter's Drug Store?" The free distribution of sample bottles of Dr. Bosanko's Cough and Lung Syrup, the most popular remedy for Coughs, Colds, Consumption, and Bronchitis, now on the market. Regular size 50 cents and $1.00.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885. Front Page.

The Minneapolis Tribune has arranged the procession for inauguration day as follows.

Thomas A. Hendricks.

Squad of Copperhead Police.

Carriages containing Rev. R. R. Burchard and John P. St. John.


Carl Schurz on foot.

George William Curtis reclining in a gorgeously decorated hearse.

[Note: Paper had "Gawge" William Curtis.]


State Shotgun Guard of Mississippi, 10,000 strong.

Maria Halpin's Glee Club.

Watterson's cross eyed Goddess of Reform, on a Bicycle.

Chairman Barnum in a gilded chariot drawn by seven mules.

Conkling's Brass Band.

Mugwumps in carriages and on horses.

Mugwumps on foot.


Henry Ward Beecher riding two magnificent white stallions.

Stephen Grover Cleveland on foot.

Forty-nine thousand good Democrats with Postoffice petitions.

The following law re prohibition was printed in full on front page. I am covering only the first part of it...MAW


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885. Front Page.

The following prohibitory bill has just passed the House.


Amendatory of and supplemental to chapter 128 of the session laws of 1881 being an act entitled "An act to prohibit the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors, except for medical, scientific, and mechanical purposes, and to regulate the manufacture and sale thereof for such excepted purposes."

Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Kansas:

SECTION 1. That section two of chapter 128 of the session laws of 1881, shall be and the same is hereby amended so as to read as follows: SECTION 2. It shall be unlawful for any person or persons to sell, or barter, for medical, scientific, or mechanical purpose, any malt, vinous, spirituous, fermented, or other intoxicating liquors, without first having procured a druggists' permit therefor from the probate judge of the county wherein such druggist may at the time be doing business; and such probate judge is hereby authorized, in his discretion, to grant a druggists' permit for the period of one year for any person of good moral character who is lawfully and in good faith engaged in the business of a druggist, in his county, and who, in his judgment, can be entrusted with the responsibility of selling said liquors, for the purpose aforesaid, in the manner hereinafter provided. In order to obtain a druggists' permit under this act, the applicant therefore shall present to the probate judge of the county wherein such applicant is engaged in business, a petition signed by at least twelve citizens of the township or city wherein such business is located, certifying that the applicant is a person of good moral character, and lawfully engaged in the business of a druggist. If satisfied that the petition is true, the probate judge may, in his discretion, grant a permit to the applicant to sell intoxicating liquors for medical, mechanical, and scientific purposes only; and such permit shall be recorded upon the journal of the probate court, and shall be posted in a conspicuous place in the store wherein such business is carried on, before it shall be of any validity. The probate judge shall receive for his services the sum of five dollars, to be paid by the applicant.

SEC. 2. That section three of the act to which this is amendatory shall be and the same is hereby amended so as to read as follows: SECTION 3. Any physician who is lawfully and regularly engaged in the practice of his profession as a business, and who, in case of actual need, shall deem any of the liquors mentioned in section one of this act necessary for the health of his patient, may give such patient a written or printed prescription therefor, or may administer the same himself. But no such prescription shall be given, or liquors administered, except in case of actual need, and where in his judgment the use of intoxicating liquors is necessary. And every physician who shall give such prescription, or administer such liquor in violation of this act, and every physician who shall give to or write for any person a prescription for intoxicating liquors for the purpose of enabling or assisting any person to evade any of the provisions of this act, or for the purpose of enabling or assisting any person to obtain any intoxicating liquors for use as a beverage, or to be sold or disposed of in any manner, in violation of the provisions of this act, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars nor more than one thousand dollars, and by imprisonment in the county jail not less than thirty days nor more than ninety days.



Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Congress is chiefly engaged in the discussion of the general appropriation bills.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Frank Jennings, Will Wilson, and Louis P. King came down from Topeka, to spend the Sabbath at home.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

We give our readers today a copy of the bill presented by the Temperance Committee of the House. It means business.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Anti-fencing the public lands by cattlemen bill passed the Senate. It is a House bill but was amended in the Senate and must go back to the House for concurrence.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

At a meeting of the stockholders of the Western National Fair Association at Lawrence, Kansas, Feb. 11th, it was decided to hold the fair this year at Bismarck Grove September 7th to 12th, inclusive, and to make it a grand exhibition.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

It turns out that the assassination of Postmaster Abbe at Sarasota, Florida, was deferred for several months, so it should not embarrass Cleveland in his canvass for the presidency. The crime of Mr. Abbe was that he came originally from the North and was a Republican. He has relatives living in Fort Scott.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The supreme court of Iowa has recently awarded a tramp $7,000 damages for injuries received on the Rock Island. He was climbing up the side of a box car when the brakeman tramped upon his fingers, causing him to release his hold. The train was at that moment passing over a high open bridge, and the man fell through, breaking his thigh in two places.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

A driving snow storm prevailed at Chicago, Feb. 15, nearly all day, ceasing in the evening after darkness set in. The snow was fine, moist, and clinging, and drifted badly before a strong north wind. Trains coming in were delayed and fears expressed at the condition of affairs. With such vast quantities of snow piled up along the tracks, the blockade of last week was renewed.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

BLOOD-DRINKING is the latest sanitary mania in New York. People go to abattoirs where cattle are slaughtered for dressed beef shipment to England, and drink the warm blood handed them in glasses by the accommodating butchers. Delicate people of both sexes, able to pay for all sorts of medical experiments, are the customers, and marvelous cures are of course reported.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

We have had accounts from all parts of the country of the severe cold weather and deep falls of snow. It will soon be in order for accounts of floods to come pouring in, and first, as usual, we may expect to hear of an inundation of the Ohio valley, of Cincinnati trying to get on stilts, and of the star-eyed goddess of Louisville, Ky., holding up her trail to keep it from getting moist.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Last week Wednesday both Houses of Congress assembled in joint session and counted the electoral vote. They discovered that Cleveland had been elected President by 219 votes against 184 votes for Blaine and that Hendricks had been elected Vice-President by 219 votes against 181 votes for Logan. A joint committee was appointed to inform Messrs. Cleveland and Hendricks of their election. Won't they be surprised?

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Fung Chow, of New York, is the happy father of the first (so it is said, full blooded, simon-pure unadulterated Chinese baby born in America east of the Rocky Mountains). Mrs. Fung is said to be the only Chinese woman in New York. Fung Chow is a leading Chinese merchant, being partner in the Won Kee Vea company. The baby, a boy, will in due time become an American citizen, as Fung Chow has been naturalized.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

It is said that the World's Fair at New Orleans is in a bad way. If so, it is because it is relying on the South instead of the North for support. The Champion said at the opening of the Exhibition that if it proved a success, it would be through Northern patronage; that Kansas would spend more money in New Orleans than would Arkansas. The Champion also suggested that, in view of these facts, there was no necessity for making a lion of old Jeff Davis, or the band playing "Dixie" all the time. The suggestion has not been followed. Some of the State Commissioners, headed by our own Bacon, dug up old Jeff, and Stonewall Jackson's war horse is now to be added to the attractions. All this does not attract Southern patronage, and it disgusts many Northerners. Champion.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The House on Friday took a vote on the report of the Committee of the Whole that the question of re-submission be indefinitely postponed. The vote stood, ayes, 71; nays, 33; absent or not voting, 21. So, had all of the latter voted in favor of re-submission, anti-re-submission would have carried. All of the Atchison members voted, Mr. Benning and Mr. Cloyes for re-submission and Mr. White against it. In 1880 the people of Kansas adopted the prohibitory amendment; in 1881, a Legislature chose at the same election at which the amendment was adopted, passed the present liquor law; in 1883 a Legislature chosen at the same election at which George W. Glick was chosen Governor, refused to change or mollify the liquor law in any particular; in 1885 a Legislature chosen, after four years of discussion, refused to re-submit the amendment. It occurs to us that a man of average intelligence ought to know by this time what a majority of the people of Kansas want.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

It will be news to a good many people to learn that James F. Legate has now an office. The appointment was bestowed months ago, when it was supposed that St. John's friends had some claims upon the administration. Confirmation by the senate took place early, when "Jim Legate" meant no more to nine-tenths of the American people than "John Smith" does ordinarily. Having cashed his account for mileage per diem under a subpoena from the Springer committee, the thrifty Kansas statesman proceeded to transact his own private business. His official bond was perfected and accepted by the interior department February 14, and now he can leave for the Coeur d'Alene country as soon as he pleases. He is receiver of public moneys for a new district in Idaho, embracing that much advertised mining camp. The record shows that Legate was confirmed on the 14th of December, before the Globe-Democrat exposed his course in the St. John manner. The appointment was given him during the progress of the campaign, when, from his representations of his influence with the prohibition candidate, it was supposed he could render the party valuable services. The discovery that Legate has been thus provided for is a genuine surprise. Unless he has played a double game, however, and has got a promise of protection from Gorman through the subsequent negotiations between St. John and the Democratic committee, Mr. Legate will not receive any great amount of public moneys. K. C. Journal.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The bill to prevent the manufacture, sale, or keeping of dynamite and other explosive compounds, except for specific purposes, in the Legislature, is near enough the head of the calendar to be reached this week, and will probably be passed. The members of this Legislature feel that Kansas has no use for the "critters" who so cowardly use these explosives. There is some respect for the assassin who rides up and shoots a man in the back, for this act gives the murdered man's friends some opportunity to run him down and ornament a tree with him. They have a high regard for the cowboy who fills up with budge and, riding through the streets, shoots down several leading citizens, for they afford an excellent target, at which they can aim long unused fowling pieces. They have a feeling of admiration for the train wrecker, for he generally lingers around long enough to feel the enthusiasm of the moment as he swings from a bridge and makes relics of a piece of rope that otherwise would not be worth more than thirty cents. But for the dynamiter, the Kansas Legislator has precisely the same feeling as he had for the "gray back" during the war, and has only the same use for him--to crush him. Our western member thinks to call a dynamiter a coward is a deep and lasting injustice to the real coward. The latter may be a good citizen--the other would not thrive on Kansas soil.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

A New York Journal has published an apparently reliable statement of the amount of Mr. William Vanderbilt's private fortune, and the sum total of his earthly possessions foots up a trifle over $200,000,000. The different items are stated with such particularity as to induce belief in their correctness, and the New York Croesus is set down as the richest man in the world. A few English noblemen have property to an almost equal amount, and the Rothschilds are reputed to have enough to dispel all fears of going to the poor house; but the English gentlemen's fortunes are mostly in landed estates, and yield no such annual returns as Mr. Vanderbilt enjoys. A landed estate in the old country does well if it affords a yearly net profit to the owner of two percent on its valuation, whereas Mr. Vanderbilt claims that his investments bring him six percent per annum so that he is not only the richest man in the world but his property as a whole is the most remunerative.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The senate has passed the bill providing that laborers in and about coal mines and manufactories shall receive their wages at regular intervals in lawful money of the United States, and the same bill stands fifth on general orders, which insures its being reached in committee of the whole and a vote taken on its final passage this week. This measure appears a just one, and has, so far, met with opposition only from those members representing concerns employing many men.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Representative Reagan will on Monday send to President-elect Cleveland a petition, signed by 100 Democratic members of Congress, asking him not to commit himself on the silver question in his inaugural address.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Referring to the position in Congress to restrain foreigners, and especially English nobles, from acquiring great tracts of land in this country, it can be said the English parliament is making a precedent for the American Congress. Mr. Ross Winans, of Baltimore, the heir of the eccentric but wealthy genius who invented "the cigar shaped ship," is buying up great tracts of land in Scotland and England, and making them up into game preserves and parks. And for fear, probably, that he intends buying up "the tight little island" altogether, parliament is about to level an act at him preventing the purchase of large estates by foreigners.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The New York Tribune paints this pretty little sketch: "It was night at the Hotel Victoria--one night last week. The President elect had gone to the theatre and office seekers from the thirty-eight states, eight Territories, and the District of Columbia waited for his return with mouths that watered with sweet expectancy. And while they waited, ever and anon if not oftener, the earnest band of patriots wended their way to the long room just off the office and whispered to the man behind the bar that they wanted a little more of that hand-made Jeffersonian simplicity."

Board of Charities.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Dr. Phillip Krohn, of Atchison, recently appointed member of the Board of Charities, was, upon the organization of the new board, elected president, a merited tribute to one worth of distinction. Mr. Charles Faulkner was elected secretary, and Mr. A. T. Sharp, treasurer. We predict a splendid record for the new board. Capital.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Twenty-eight raving maniacs were burned to death in the insane department of the Blackley Alms House, Philadelphia, on the west side of the Schuylkill river, February 12, in a conflagration which needed nothing to make it the most horrible disaster of the kind in the history of the city. The fire originated in the wing of the old building of the insane department; which fronts towards the Schuylkill river, directly east of the alms house. This wing is 145 feet front and 60 feet deep, connected on the south with the main building of the old structures of the insane department, which runs south 400 feet to a similar wing to the one in which the disaster occurred. In the north building where the fire broke out, there were sixty separate cells for the violent patients, twenty on each floor. In addition to this there was a large room on each of the three floors in which cots for twelve men were placed, all of which were occupied when the fire broke out on the second floor. Opposite the central cell of the row and on the north side of the corridor, which runs from east to west was the dry room, which was about ten feet square and was directly alongside the middle stairway leading to the floors above and below. Here the flames originated, but from what cause is not known. At this time there were insane patients in each of the twenty cells on these three floors, ten in the large room on the first floor, and twelve in each of the large rooms on the second and third floors. From all accounts to be obtained, it appears pretty certain that the first alarm was given by an insane patient on the first floor of the main building. This man, Jos. Nadine, occupied a room adjoining the stairway and drying room, with about twenty other quiet patients. About ten minutes to eight o'clock he saw smoke issuing from above the door which opened into the wing in which the cells were situated. He ran to the big iron grated door fronting on the main corridor of the building and cried out "fire." This fearful sound reached the ears of Joseph Shroeder, the attendant of the ground floor, who was in his room directly opposite the one from which Nadine had given the alarm. Mrs. Umpstead, who has general charge at night, said it was about 8 o'clock when the alarm reached her. She was in her office, about twenty feet from the dry room, and at once hurried to the scene. She says an attempt was made to put out the fire with buckets of water, and at first it was supposed the flames were only burning some of the ground floor near the stairway; but in almost an instant, it was found that the real point from which the danger came was from the second floor at the top above the dry room. She then hastened to get all the patients from the main building, extending back from the east wing.

Admission of Kansas as State.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

On the 21st of January, 1861, Jeff Davis left the Senate of the United States; and when that treacherous back was turned, Wm. H. Seward called up the bill for the admission of Kansas under the Wyandotte Constitution, and it was passed; 36 yeas to 10 nays. Young Kansas came in as old Jeff went out. In the House the bill was brought up by Galusha A. Grow, on the 28th of January, 1861, and passed; 119 yeas to 42 nays. On the 29th President Buchanan signed the bill, and so last week the State of Kansas saw the twenty-fourth anniversary of her admission into the Union.


[A Lengthy Letter from Ed. P. Greer.]

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

DEAR COURIER: Since my last the activity hereabouts has increased a hundred fold in the way of lobbyists. The insurance men are now on hand protesting against certain measures proposed for their regulation. Since the return of the maximum rates bill by the Railroad Committee with its reference to the committee of the whole, the railroad lobby has been very active. This bill together with all other railroad legislation which may be on the calendar at that date has been made the special order for Tuesday. What the result will be cannot be determined now.

The first regular knock-down fight of the session took place Wednesday evening last over the sugar bounty bill, introduced by Mr. Bond, of Rice County. It provided that the State should pay a bounty of one and one-half cents per pound on all sugar manufactured from sorghum cane in Kansas. The bill received the solid support of a large number of the leading members, including Speaker Johnson, Gov. Anthony, Mr. Gillett, and Mr. Burton. The opposition was lead by Mr. Smith, of McPherson, who made a most powerful and effective speech in opposition to the measure upon the ground that it was a scheme to make valuable the three sugar factories which have been started in the State, and that every other industry was as much entitled to assistance as the sugar making. After a contest lasting until after midnight, and which has left many sores that will scarcely heal during the balance of the session, the bill was defeated. Your correspondent regards the defeat of this bill as a matter much to be regretted. The facts are that wheat production is no longer profitable in Kansas, owing to the largely increased production of India and Russia, and its competition in the World's market. It seems necessary for Kansas to look for some other staple. Sorghum cane is produced by our soil most luxuriantly, and the crop is always certain. If the manufacture of sugar from this cane can be fostered and encouraged by the State in such a manner as to stimulate the perfection of the process until the industry can compete with foreign sugars, Kansas will then become the center of the greatest sugar producing country in the world. With the imperfect process now known to the manufacture of Sorghum Sugar, it costs seven cents per pound. The foreign sugar is sold at five cents per pound. Without some kind of help this industry in Kansas must go down, and with it goes the prospect of the development of a sure and profitable staple of agriculture to take the place of wheat. A half million pounds of the sugar was produced in the State last year, but at a loss of nearly two cents per pound. The sugar is very fine and as high in sweetening power as any sugar known. Cowley gave two votes for the bill and one against. The bill was defeated on the "monopoly" plea--that it would build up great sugar monopolies at the expense of the State. In their wild rage at "monopolies," the members seemed to forget that Kansas soil must produce the cane before the factories can make sugar of it, hence the whole basis of the industry rested upon the ability and inclination of the farmers to grow the cane.

On Thursday evening the propositions for a re-submission of the Prohibitory Amendment came up for discussion. Very long, able, and eloquent speeches were made in favor of re-submission by Messrs. Carroll, Hatfield, Overmyer and Kelly, occupying several hours. When the last speaker finished, there was an ominous stillness, and Speaker Johnson rose on the part of the prohibitionists and stated that the House had been very pleasantly entertained by the gentlemen upon the opposite side, and proposed that the question be voted upon then. This tack was a very great surprise to the opposition and those not aware of the movement. The vote resulted in seventy-two against re-submission and thirty-two for, with twenty-one absent. Fourteen of the absentees were prohibitionists, so it places the prohibition strength at eighty-six and the antis at forty. During the discussion the galleries were crowded with spectators.

On Friday the new prohibitory law, a copy of which I mailed the COURIER some days ago, came up and several sections were passed upon. A large number of amendments were offered and promptly voted down. The bill was passed with but little amendment. It is the most sweeping, forcible, and effective statute ever enacted in Kansas, and carries consternation into the ranks of the whiskey-sellers. Its passage shows that the people of Kansas propose to strangle this traffic without any further foolishness. Conviction under this law will mean both a heavy fine and imprisonment, aside from confiscation of all the liquors and fixtures used by the seller, as in the U. S. Statutes relating to counterfeiting. The bill passed the House on Tuesday, and it is already far along in the Senate and will be placed on final passage there soon.

Saturday afternoon was devoted to the consideration of "fiscal bills." Under this order your member succeeded in getting his bill enabling cities of the second class to extend their corporate limits called up after a sharp skirmish on the fact of its being a general and not a local bill. However, the House stood by him and voted to consider it then. After some discussion and slight amendment, it was passed. It now goes to the Senate. It will prove a matter of very great importance to Winfield and her future development, and its passage at this time is a matter of much congratulation.

Some kind friend mailed me a clipping from a paper charging me with all sorts of mercenary motives for voting for the ten dollar postage stamp appropriation. I apprehend that the brains of the person who wrote it could be very easily smothered with a postage stamp. During the early days of the session, a resolution was introduced by Mr. McNall, directing the Secretary of State to furnish each member with ten dollars' worth of postage stamps. It was carried with only half a dozen dissenting. I voted for it because my expense for postage at the time was twenty-five cents per day, my salary three dollars, and my daily personal expenses four dollars. I was working sixteen hours a day and paying one dollar a day out of my own pocket for the privilege. Letters were pouring in asking for information and copies of public documents, and I knew that any constituent of mine whose head was properly balanced would be entirely willing that the State should pay the postage on these public matters. I also remembered that Cowley County pays her clerk and other officers from six to eight dollars per day for no more exacting work than I was doing, and yet never refused or questioned the propriety of paying also their postage bills. So I think I reasoned well when I determined that the people of Cowley were fair enough and sensible enough to endorse any action as right and proper. The Secretary of State bought the stamps, but could not pay for them until an appropriation bill was passed. The post-office department demanded its money, so I was requested to take the matter in charge and have the bill put through the House, which I did. It passed the Senate the next day, the Governor approved it, and the debt was paid. My selection to take charge of the bill was purely accidental, and was prompted by no "ulterior," "mercenary," or unworthy motive. I hope the explanation is sufficient, and that the hair-brained individual who desires for personal reasons to criticize my actions will wait until he can find just cause for it and not play the part of a demagogue in small things. Such action is neither pretty nor gentlemanly.

Messrs. J. S. Chase and W. H. Grow spent two days of last week on the floor of the House. They returned home Friday night. E. P. G.


A Comprehensive Resume on the Subject by James F. Martin.

Facts of Incalculable Importance to Citizens of Cowley.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

In my last I promised to give you, this week, the profits of forest culture. I recommend the following to your careful consideration. The correctness, in the main, of the conclusions may be tested by the observation and a little figuring of the reader. My only purpose is to induce my brother farmers and others to plant trees. If you will not plant them for the climatic effects that they will produce, nor for their beauty, nor yet for your personal comfort or the comfort of your stock, I trust that you will be influenced to plant trees by the certainty of the money to be derived therefrom.

In my next I will have something to say in regard to the varieties to plant for profit.

The following is condensed from estimates made by Robert Douglass & Sons, of Waukegan, Illinois, who make a specialty of forest tree seedlings. They have planted for railroads extensive plantations and their experience and honesty being beyond question, they are fully qualified to give correct estimates.

10,000 yearling plants (catalpa): $60.00

Freight and transportation, say $3 per thousand: $30.00

Two years cultivation, 3 plowings, each at $2 each: $12.00

TOTAL: $102.00

On the farm of the Ohio State University such trees attained a diameter of 4¾ inches and a height of seventeen feet in five years from planting. In seven to eight years they would be large enough to make fence posts; but let us add fifty percent to this estimate and call it twelve years and let us suppose that the stand of trees has been reduced to 2,500 per acre. We would then have 2,500 posts worth at least twenty cents each, or $500, while many of the tops would make second class posts, others being useful for poles, etc., and all valuable for fuel, would more than pay the cost of clearing. Against this income we have to deduct the original cost of the plantation with interest on the same for twelve years. Calculating this interest at 6 percent and compounded, the original sum will have doubled, and yet, after this handsome allowance and liberal calculation, there will be a balance left of $296, or about $9.25 per acre per annum for the use of the land. During the first season of cultivating the trees, if the ground is good, a crop of corn may be grown between the trees, and after cultivating the third year the ground might be sown to clover and use the same for hog pasture, which would pay the rent on the land. On the basis of cash profits, excluding all other advantages of the grove, what farming operations pay better?

To show the comparative growth of the different kinds of trees, we extract the following from the forestry report of the Kansas State Horticultural Society for 1883, page 65.

Hutchinson, February 7, 1883.

In response to your request, I visited the forest tree experimental grounds of the A., T. & S. F. Railway Company near this city. I found the soil to be a light sandy loam, located on the bottom land. I made the following measurement of trees found growing thereon, which were planted out in the spring of 1873, which makes them at this date ten years old.

Name Average Height Average Circumference.

Black Walnut 14 ft. 11 in.

Catalpa 18 ft. 20 in.

Ash 12 ft. 10 in.

Ash-leaved Maple 45 ft. 15 in.

Horny Locust 25 ft. 18 in.

White Maple 15 ft. 12 in.

White Elm 15 ft. 10 in.

Cottonwood 40 ft. 27 in.

Kentucky coffee tree 8 ft. 6 in.

Ailanthus 12 ft. 8 in.

We leave the reader to make his own conclusions.

The following is taken from the same valuable work, pages 65 and 66, written by L. B. Schlichter, Sterling, Kansas.

"Estimated value of the product of one acre for fuel.

At 10 years, 20 cords of wood at $4.00 per cord. Total $ 80.00

At 15 years, 35 cords of wood at $4.00 per cord. Total $ 40.00

At 20 years, 35 cords of wood at $4.00 per cord. Total $ 320.00

At 30 years, 150 cords of wood at $4. Per cord. Total $1050.00

Railroad Ties.

At 10 years None.

At 15 years, 1,000 at 60 cents each. Total $ 600.00

At 20 years, 2,000 at 60 cents each. Total $1200.00

At 30 years, 3,000 at 60 cents each. Total $1800.00

The above estimates are on the basis of 2,725 trees to the acre, and cutting out only such as have grown to a proper size only such as have grown to a proper size for posts and ties. In cutting out for cord wood, I have allowed for 100 trees to remain on an acre, which at 30 years of age would add materially to the product."

It is to be presumed that the timber in each table is to be entirely removed at the end of 30 years and only for the purposes named therein. The aggregate sales of the one acre for fuel is $1,140, being upward of $36 per annum, and from the one acre for posts $2,100, or $70 per annum, and from the one acre for ties $3,600, or $120 per annum. The first cost of trees, planting, cultivation, rent of land, interest, etc., is left for the reader to solve in his own way.

From the same work, page 68, is taken the following estimate of Prof. E. Gale, of the Agricultural College Farm, Manhattan, Kansas. Prof. Gale is a very competent and conscientious gentleman who would not under any circumstances intentionally mislead.

"The estimates are based upon facts developed by experience and from observation in this (Riley) County.

"The time calculated for timber to occupy the land (1 acre) is thirty years. At the end of the terms of 10, 15, and 20 years, such thinnings are to be made as will be of the greatest benefit to the remaining trees; the timber thus cut to be used for such purpose as it is best adapted. At the end of thirty years, the ground is to be entirely cleared. There will be secured at the end of

10 years, cord wood and posts: $156.10

15 years, cord wood and posts: $448.00

20 years, cord wood and ties: $355.00

30 years, cord wood, ties & lumber: $580.00

TOTAL: $1,539.10

"Being upwards of $51 per annum."

Ex-Commissioner Gale, of Cowley County, has growing on his farm in Rock township about five acres of Cottonwoods, the cuttings for which were planted in the spring of 1878. The distance is about 4 to 7 feet; the cuttings were put 8 to 10 inches deep. He cultivated them two years, since which no attention has been given them. The trees are now five to eight inches in diameter and forty feet high. Mr. Gale thinks that forty cords of wood could now be cut from each acre, which, if valued at $3 per cord on the ground, would make a total of $120 per acre or $600 for the five acres. This gives more than $17 to the acre per annum. Much of this timber if used for the various purposes of the farm, where it could be kept above the ground, would be of much more value than if used for cord wood. Mr. Gale regards this timber belt as nearly or quite equal to a straw shed as protection to stock in cold, windy weather. The value of the grove for purposes of wind break, a protection to the birds, and in beautifying his home are more than sufficient for the annual rent on hand, so that with little care and expense he realizes a much greater cash return on this land than if he had cultivated the same in annual crops. If Mr. Gale was interrogated as to what part of his farm he regards as of the greatest value, no doubt he would reply that it is that part where his buildings, his orchards, and his groves were located and that if the orchards and groves were removed, the farm would be greatly depreciated in value.

On the first of May, 1880, the writer planted 3,700 one year old catalpas. The ground on which they are planted is divided by a draw or ravine, the soil of which is quite good for the purpose, but not better than most of the bottom land in this county. On either side of this draw the land is quite poor, partaking somewhat of a gumbo soil. The trees were brought from Ohio the November previous to planting and planted very late in the spring and the season following was the dry season, so that the considerations were unfavorable to success. They stand four feet apart each way. The first and second seasons they were plowed three times each and hoed twice, and two plowings were given them the third season; since which no attention has been given them. The trees standing on the poorer soil now average eight inches in circumference and seven feet high; and those in the good soil thirteen inches in circumference and twelve feet high.


3,700 plants at $6 per 100: $22.20

Preparing grounds and planting: $ 6.00

Cultivating seven times: $10.00

Two hoeings: $ 3.00

Rent of land five years: $25.00

Interest not exceeding: $20.00


There are now standing on the ground 3,600 trees and no one would place their value at less than five cents each, which would aggregate $180. Certain it is that the owner would not have the ground cleared of the trees for double the amount. Three years hence and fence posts can be cut in order to properly thin the trees when the yearly income may continue perpetually.

The following remarks are taken from an address by Hon. Emil Rothe: "Many millions of dollars of American capital are invested in various enterprises which require a much longer time to yield profit and income, and never pay nearly as well as systematic forest culture in the proper locality. Great fortunes are risked in wild speculations, in railroads which pay no dividends, in mining stock which enrich only the agents, or brokers selling them, in lands and lots, which never attain the expected increase of value. But there is certainly no risk in forest culture. It produces an article of general and steadily increasing demand, and it can be calculated with almost mathematical certainty what profit may be derived from it and within what time. The fact that it is highly remunerative in all Europe, where land is much higher in price than here, should justify the expectation that it will be profitable here.

"Our soil and climate produce a much larger variety of valuable timber than any European country. Several species of American trees are now cultivated there very extensively because of the superior qualities of the same, and with a view to large profit therefrom. Our American hickory, black walnut, hard maple, and wild cherry, for instance, have none of their equals in Europe. They excite the envy of European carriage makers, furniture-men and manufacturers of tools. They are now largely exported from America, but the forest men of Germany and France are earnestly engaged in raising them for the home market.

"Now, it is well known that on this continent forest trees grow much quicker and comparatively taller than in the Eastern hemisphere. Here the most useful trees attain their full development in two-thirds of the time required in Europe, an advantage which can hardly be overestimated.

"Locust, although being a very hard and solid wood, will make fence posts and pavement blocks in eight years from the seed, and large trees in twelve years. Its beautiful, golden, yellow color mixed with jet black makes it well adapted for elegant furniture. Catalpa, which makes the best railroad ties, grows even quicker. Hickory, now largely exported to Europe and coming into great demand there, will prove exceedingly profitable. Sown in rows three feet apart, the nuts six inches in the row, the young trees will grow up straight and slender. In five years thinning out may commence, and hoop-poles may be sold; the next thinning out will give material for spokes and buggy fills; and the best trees left standing at proper distance will make a fine forest in less than twenty years.

"Black walnut is a slow grower, but is getting so costly that it is worthwhile to think of planting it for speculation. Men below the age of thirty-five years will reap a rich harvest from the cultivation of this valuable timber before they have passed the best time of their life. A forty acre lot of black walnut forest, now planted, will in twenty years make its owner independently wealthy, without requiring outlay or labor. I am told that a gentleman who, twenty years ago, planted twelve acres of land in Southern Indian with pecan nuts made a fortune by it and created the source of a large yearly revenue."

If on every quarter section now occupied in this state, there were growing orchards, hedges, and forest belts to the extent of ten acres, the timber belts to the extent of ten acres, the timber belts so arranged as to be most effectual in breaking the force of the winds, who would not say that the benefits to the individual owners and the state at large would be incalculable. The advantages are plainly manifest in thus having wind breaks: shade, fruit, birds, and then these same trees growing year by year more valuable for all the purposes of the farm and the mechanic arts. If omnipotence would decree that every forest tree and every tree bearing fruit and every beautiful flower planted by the hand of man should die, and every effort hereafter made to grow these things should prove unavailing, we would suddenly awake to their just importance and wail over the desolation. Civilization will not, cannot, exist in a desert. The wants of man for timber in the mechanic arts and the growing of the same for climatic purposes will not be approached until at least one tenth of the entire area of the country is covered with trees. So the planter need have no fear of overdoing the matter of planting trees. J. F. MARTIN.


Political, Official and Social Duties as Gathered by

Our Regular Washington Correspondent.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Only thirteen working days remain of this Congress, and none of the large appropriation bills have been passed. Hence it is high time for Congress to bestir itself if its simple routine work is to be accomplished. Nothing in the line of general legislation is now possible except that here and there an unimportant bill of this character may slip through by shrewd management or good luck.

The most important factor in the relief of the overcrowded vaults of the Treasury: the river and harbor bill, has made very little progress thus far, and its future is not of the brightest. A determined opposition to the Eads-Galveston job is developed, and there are the customary humorous references to trout streams with hard Indian names. The bill is denounced as worse than that of the last Congress, voted by President Arthur, so that its fate is doubtful, even if it squeezes through Congress.

The course of debate has brought out two or three interesting features. One has been mentioned: the hostility to the Eads-Galveston scheme. Another is the attempt to exclude civil engineers from all work under the bill. A third item of interest is the notification by Mr. Breckenridge that he intends, at the next session of Congress, to try to have created a separate and permanent bureau of public works to have charge of the subject of river and harbor improvements.

The peculiarities of the bill make members irritable. Several squabbles have marked the debate, one or two being rather serious, and more being funny. The very useful "if" has thus far intervened to prevent actual bloodletting; and it is to be hoped that members will adhere to the practice of looking and speaking daggers, but using none.

Apropos of these squabbles, Speaker pro tem, Blackman, has played the schoolmaster to perfection during the debates upon the bill, and has rather overdone his part, but the House quite enjoyed his harshness. "Diseases desperate grown by desperate appliance are relieved or not at all," and the disease of crankism is getting to be insupportable in the House and needs a rough master.

The prospect for legislation at this session seems to grow darker with the dawn of each day. By a close vote the Senate has now agreed to adhere to its rule to strike legislative features off of appropriation bills. This action will add much to the embarrassments of the session, as the House has inserted in these bills about all the legislation which the party leaders are anxious to have passed. But the fundamental objection to this practice of legislating in appropriation bills is a wise and reasonable one. Under this usage, the important new legislation of a session is withheld from the Senate till the last two or three weeks, and then lumped upon that body in a mass when all the time remaining is required to discuss the proper subjects of appropriations.

Senator Palmer made his initial speech in the Senate last week, and it is also noted as being the first set speech in Congress in favor of the cause of woman suffrage. His speech secured at least one convert to the cause, in this wise: Palmer, Pike of New Hampshire, Manderson of Nebraska, and Bowen of Colorado sit in the four seats which form the outer row on the Republican side of the Senate. This row is elevated above the others a trifle. Palmer, Manderson, and Bowen have named it Pike's Peak, in honor of the New Hampshire Senator. Like the men who sat on the "mountain" in the first French Assembly, the denizens of Pike's Peak are leagued together, and vote alike on all questions--until the day of Palmer's effort there was one exception. Pike would not vote for extension of suffrage to women. He would vote for anything else, but he could not vote for that. But after Palmer got through, Pike was foremost in the group of Senators gathered about him, and was the first to congratulate him, with the remark: "Well, Palmer, hereafter we'll vote solidly on every proposition." To which Palmer replied: "That's right. I thought I would catch you. I was fishing for pike today."

According to Senator Edmunds, Mr. Cleveland "appears to be President." It was Aristotle, or some other eminent worthy of antiquity, who laid down the law that "what appears to all to be, is." Mr. Cleveland's title, therefore, seems to be good. But by his remarks, Mr. Edmunds has reminded the people that no legal way is now prescribed for setting a dispute in the court, and the attention of the country is called sharply to the defects in our electoral machinery.

The "dynamite resolutions" have happily died a quick death in the House foreign affairs committee. LENOX.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Recap: R. L. Walker, Register, Land Office at Wichita, printed notice of claim by William P. Franklin, of Tisdale, Kansas, for land. Notary Public: E. S. Bedilion. Witnesses: J. C. Powers, H. Herrod, Phillip Cook, and R. B. Mulford, all of Tisdale, Kansas.


[I GIVE UP! SO MANY TYPOS WERE MADE WITH PRIOR ISSUES WITH RESPECT TO THE PROPER SPELLING FOR KANSAS LEGISLATORS THAT I DO NOT KNOW IF ANY THAT HAVE BEEN GIVEN ARE CORRECT! At times I have found Overmyer and then Overmyre will appear. The first issues showed Loofbourrow and then changed to Loofborrow. The Courier typesetter did not seem to care! MAW



Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

A lengthy debate in Committee of the whole on H. B. Kelley's bill to fix maximum rates of freight on wheat, and on Buchan's amendment giving the Railroad Commissioners power to increase those rates.

Another debate was had over the bill to appropriate twelve sections of Salt Springs land to the endowment of the Emporia Normal school.

A resolution was adopted requesting our Representatives of Congress to secure an appropriation for a road from Caldwell across the Indian Territory to the government forts.

In committee of the whole the Agricultural College Appropriation bill was recommended for passage; also State University appropriation bill, and Insane Asylum appropriation bill.


Mr. Rhodes: Asking for a maximum rate law on freights.

Corning, Nemaha County: Same as the last.


Mr. Bonebrake: Relating to schoolhouse site in Clinton, Douglas County.

Mr. Hardesty: Providing punishment for injuries to irrigating canals.

Mr. Veatch: Fixing time of holding Courts in Washington County.

Committee on Assessment and Taxation: Amending many sections of the assessment laws.

The House then passed the following bills: Nos. 128, 93, 54, 21, 15, 244, and S. B. 10, 30, 28, mostly local bills of little general importance.

No. 367 reported by the Temperance Committee was made the special order for Friday at 2 p.m.

A general debate followed on bills to give mortgagors of real estate one year's redemption after sale. A vote was reached on the motion to indefinitely postpone, which prevailed.

The bill to appropriate $2,000 to pay the expenses of the exhibit at New Orleans of the Woman's department of Kansas products, passed.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

A volume of petitions were presented in favor of a State Entomologist.

Numerous petitions in favor of teaching physiology and hygiene in public schools were presented.

The usual reports of standing committees were made.

The Committee on Public Health reported back the bill to prevent sale of tobacco to minors, recommending its passage.

The House concurrent resolution in favor of pensioning soldiers being under consideration. Senator Lowe renewed his motion to include all soldiers except such as had been in rebellion. This elicited considerable discussion, and Senator Lowe's amendment was adopted. This resolution was then adopted, yeas 27, nays 10. Subsequently it was re-considered and re-referred to the Committee on Military Affairs.

The Agricultural College appropriation bill, the University appropriation bill, and the Topeka Insane Asylum appropriation bill passed.

Senator Kellogg's bill to further endow the Emporia Normal school was defeated on third reading; as was also the bill to further endow the State University.

The bill to transfer certain moneys and lands of the railroad fund to the permanent school funds passed.

The bill appropriating $2,000 to the Kansas Woman's department of the World's far was defeated.


Mr. Johnson, of Brown: For an appropriation to develop the mineral resources of Northern Kansas.

Mr. Wellep: For regulation of Mutual Life Insurance Companies.

Mr. Loofbourrow: Resolution of Teachers meeting in Riley County relative to uniform text books.

Mr. Rhodes: Asking for maximum freight rates.


Mr. Reeves: Relating to marriages.

A bill was introduced to prevent gambling.

Mr. Osborn: Supplemental to act establishing the Insurance department.

Judiciary: Reported on bill for stenographers for District Courts, recommending that their fees shall be $8, instead of $6, per day, as in the bill.

Senate concurrent resolution asking the general Government to improve the Military road from Caldwell, Kansas, to Fort Sill, was concurred in.

Substitute for H. B.'s 122 and 124, relating to changes in county lines, was, on motion of Mr. A. W. Smith, made a special order for next Wednesday evening.

S. C. R. 27, asking for an increase to $12 per month of pensions of widows was concurred in.

S. C. R. 26, directing the Attorney General to inquire into the term and duration of railroad corporations of the State, was considered. Mr. A. W. Smith moved to strike out the proviso from the resolution which would restrict the inquiry to less than all the railroads of the State. This prevailed. And the resolution was adopted as amended.

H. C. R. 20, asking Congress to pass the Mexican Pension bill, was adopted.

The bill providing for a geological survey was discussed at length in committee of the whole, as was also the Texas cattle bill.

The bounty bill on Sorghum sugar was killed in the last evening session.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Several reports were made by standing committees.

Senator Kellogg moved the reconsideration of the vote by which the 12 sections of land endowment of the Normal school were defeated. Laid over.

The Osawatomie Insane Asylum appropriation bill passed.

In Committee of the whole the Labor Bureau bill was discussed and laid over.

Bills regulating conveyance of real estate; passage recommended.

Regulating procedure before justice, laid over.

To establish a code of civil procedures, recommended for passage.

Exempting certain property from execution, indefinitely postponed.

In relation to counties and county officers, passage recommended.

To establish salaries of state officers, laid over.

Fixing fees for conveying persons to State institutions, recommended for passage.


Several petitions for State Entomologist and two for municipal suffrage for women.

Memorial from regents of the Normal school was read.


Bill to create State board of pardons laid over; relating to fire insurance companies, passed; striking from justices fee fill the limitation to $10 costs in cases of felony; passed.

The two resubmission resolutions were indefinitely postponed, 71 to 31 with 21 absent who will be permitted to record their votes when they return.

H. B. 367 (being the bill from the Temperance Committee published in this paper today) being the special order was discussed at length, and considered by sections. Many amendments are proposed by the opponents of the bill, which were voted down, and one or two amendments by friends of the bill passed.

Speaker appointed as committee of Conference on S. C. R. relating to tenure of railroad Charters, Messrs. Drought, Beattie, Ogden, Greer, and Edmunds.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Members who were absent at the roll call on the previous day upon indefinite postponement of the resubmission regulations, were permitted to have their votes recorded. Mr. Burton and Mr. Stine and Mr. Thompson, of Harper, voted no. The rest voted aye.


Mr. Vance: Asking passage of a resolution with reference to the Indian policy of the Government.

Mr. Overmyer: Asking for the vacation of the town site of Indianola.

Mr. Spiers: For a State Entomologist.

Mr. Butterfield: On same subject.


Mr. Stine: To prevent cock-fighting.

Mr. Anthony: For establishment of public libraries.

Mr. Stine's bill about cock-fighting was under a declaration of emergency, read a second time, and referred. The author explained that it is intended to prevent Missourians from coming into Kansas for their cocking mains.

Mr. Overmyer: To vacate the town site of Indianola.

By Committee of Ways and Means: For a kitchen building, two cottage buildings, and a boiler house at the State Reform School.

Mr. Hatfield: To legalize certain levies of taxes in Sedgwick County.


Claims and Accounts. Two reports on Guerilla and Price Raid Claims.

The bill to create a State Board of pardons passed.

In Committee of the whole several bills were recommended for passage, among which was the bill to create the 19th Judicial District, and the bill making Shawnee County a separate judicial district.

Mr. Greer's bill to enable cities of the second class to extend their corporate limits was ordered to third reading subject to amendments.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. Greer was called to preside in the committee of the whole, the order being the consideration of local bills and such as are not objected to.

H. B. 222, 43, 83, 191, 216, 286, 358, 531, 414, 78, 231, and S. B. 118 all local bills, were recommended for passage.

A considerable heated discussion protesting against convicts in the Penitentiary earning anything for the State.


A foolish petition was presented protesting against convicts in the Penitentiary earning anything for the State.


Mr. Turner introduced a bill to authorize Chautauqua County to make a special levy for a bridge fund. This was pressed through to position on the calendar for third reading.

Mr. Bond: Providing for organization and control of Mutual Life Insurance Companies. Advanced to second reading and referred.

Mr. Graham: To legalize certain highways in Republic County.

Mr. Glasgow: To whitewash some rebels. This was advanced to second reading and referred.

Mr. Coggesdall introduced a bill to authorize Dickinson County to build a jail.

Mr. Wellep introduced a joint resolution to submit a proposition to expunge from the Constitution the clause taking away the right of suffrage from those who have borne arms against the United States.

Mr. Overmyer secured the advancement of his bill to vacate Indianola to a position on the calendar for third reading.


Mr. Clogston moved to expunge from the journal the memorial of the Board of Regents of the State Normal School, making complaint against the committee appointed to investigate their action, which motion prevailed after a lengthy discussion. H. B. 367, from the Temperance Committee, was discussed at large, many amendments proposed and voted down and the bill was ordered engrossed for third reading. H. B. 180, 117, 60, and 77 passed. 60 is the bill making the 19th Judicial District of Sumner, Harper, Barber, and Comanche counties. 77 is the bill to create a Superior Court for Shawnee County. The other bills are local.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Several standing committees made reports.

Senator Allen offered a resolution to print 150 copies of the Temperance bill, which, being amended by motion of Senator Jennings to 250, was adopted.


Five new bills, to-wit: To legalize re-survey of LaCygne, Linn County; to organize a high school in Blue Mound township, Linn County; to amend sections 222 and 463 chapter 80, general statutes of 1868; to legalize the tax levy by county commissioners of Phillips County in 1879, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, and 1884; declaring Memorial Day, May 30, a public holiday.


The following bills passed the third reading.

Senate bill No. 260; Labette bridge tax.

House bill No. 279, an act making appropriations for the woman's department at the World's Fair at New Orleans, with amendments.

Senate bill No. 60, regulating conveyancing of real estate.

Senate bill 129 to vacate LaCygne cemetery.

Senate bill No. 58, at amend code of civil procedure.

House bill No. 63, amending laws authorizing a bounty on wolf, coyote, wild cat, fox and rabbit scalps.

Senate bill No. 150, to amend act relating to counties and county officers.

Senate bill No. 127, in relation to fees of sheriffs and other persons for conveying persons to the reformatory and charitable institutions of the State.


The following bills were passed through the committee, and the report adopted by the Senate.

Senate Bill No. 61, making appropriations for the State Normal School.

Senate bill No. 62, making appropriation for drainage, heating, and ventilation of the State Insane Asylum at Osawatomie.

Senate bill No. 95, making appropriations for State Insane Asylum at Topeka.

Senate bill No. 123, to establish a Soldiers' Orphans' Home.

Senate bill No. 54, creating a bureau of labor and industrial statistics.


Mr. Vance: To authorize Shawnee County to build a jail.

Mr. Osborn: To amend the law relating to engrossing and enrolling legislative bills.

Mr. Simpson: Providing for county statistics.

Mr. Overmyer: To increase the pay of the county commissioners of Shawnee County.


Mr. Loofbourrow offered a petition relating to school books and teachers' examinations.

Mr. Swartz, a petition for a State Entomologist.

Mr. F. J. Kelley, one from Beloit for municipal suffrage for women.

On motion of Mr. Carroll, the appropriation for the Leavenworth Soldiers' Home was made a special order for Friday at 7:30 p.m.

Mr. Pratt's House bill No. 16 having been made the special order for 10:30, the House resolved itself into committee of the whole for its consideration. The bill was approved and recommended for passage.


H. B. 249. To vacate a part of certain street in Council Grove, was passed.

Mr. Greer's H. B. 226. To enable cities of the second class to extend their corporate limits. Passed.

H. B. 260. To vacate a state road. Passed.

H. B. 367. Report by the committee on Temperance was again read, having been re-engrossed, and upon roll call was passed. The following is the vote.

Those gentleman voting aye were:

Anthony, Barns, Beates, Blaker, Blain, Bond, Bonebrake, Brewster, Burdick, Butterfield, Coldwell, Clogston, Cook, (J. B.) Collins, Coulter, Cox, Cummings, Currier, Davenport, Dewey, Dickson, Edwards, Ellis, Finch, Gillespie, Glasgow, Gray, Greer, Hatfield, Hogue, Hollenshead, Hostetter, Hukle, Hunter, Johnson (Pottawatomie), Justus, Kelso, King, Kreger, Lawrence, Loofbourrow, Lower, McCrib, McCammon, McTaggert, Matlock, Maurer, Miller, Moore, Morgan, (Clay)( Morgan, (Osborne), Mosier, Osborne, Patton, Pratt, Randall, Rash, Raymond, Reeves, Rhodes, Roach, Roberts, Slavens, Spiers, Simpson, Smith (McPherson), Smith (Neosho), Stewart, Sweezey, Talbot, Thompson (Pratt), Vance, Veatch, Vickers, Wallace, Wentworth, Wiggins, Wilhelm, Woodlief, Mr. Speaker--80.

Those voting no were:

Ashby, Beattie, Benning, Billingsly, Bryan, Burton, Butin, Campbell, Carroll, Carter, Cloyes, Coggesdall, Cooper, Corwin, Deckard, Drought, Hargrave, Hopkins, Kelley (Doniphan), Kelley (Mitchell), McNall, McNeal, Martin, Ogden, Overmyre, Scammon, Seitz, Swartz, Thompson (Harper), Wellep, White--33.

The railroad bills being the special order, their consideration in committee of the whole occupied the balance of the day. Maximum rate legislation was opposed by Carroll, Gillett, Blaine, Stewart, and Slavens, and Simpson supported, in speeches of considerable length.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.



Winfield, Kansas, February 17, 1885.

Plans, Specifications and Bids for the erection of a County Poor House (limited in cost to three thousand dollars) will be received at the County Clerk's office until the 2nd day of March next. The Board reserving the right to reject all bids.

By order of the Board of County Commissioners.

J. S. HUNT, County Clerk.


FRANK H. GREER, Local Editor.

[Skipped Market Report.]


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Let every man who has the interests of our City and County at heart be present at the meeting of the Winfield Enterprise Association at the Court House tonight. Matters will be sprung of great importance to every citizen.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

No You don't, Mr. Wellington - Wellin-g-tonian: "Some years ago it was the custom of merchants in the smaller towns to advertise to sell goods at Wichita prices--that city being the terminus of the railroad. Now the merchants of the smaller towns around Wellington, when they want to convince their neighbors that they give bargains, advertise to sell goods at Wellington prices. Even Belle Plaine is not above doing so and we also expect to soon hear of the Winfield folks doing the same." Winfield has no criterion, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from the North pole to the South. She is a worthy autocrat. Her merchants defy competition in prices, stocks or business buildings, her citizens wait in vain for even a challenge for her acknowledged reputation as the Queen City of Southern Kansas, the young ladies walk away with every prize in comparison with surrounding beauty, while her men proudly hold the field undisputed as the wealthiest, handsomest, and most enterprising.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The pastor of the Presbyterian Church, Rev. C. P. Graham, having closed the series of meetings in the Walnut Valley, will resume his regular appointment at New Salem next Sabbath morning (Feb. 22nd) at 11 o'clock. The services that day in the Walnut Valley Church will be held at 4 o'clock in the afternoon instead of 7 in the evening, the usual hour; and the new members will be formally received and baptism will be administered to those hitherto unbaptized. The sacrament of the Lord's supper will be administered on Sabbath, March 1st; preparatory service on proceeding Saturday afternoon at 3 o'clock.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

It is a consoling thought in these hard times to realize that while business firms are collapsing in towns all around us, Winfield has not had a failure, and her general financial condition is as solid as the rock of ages. Wichita, that the Eagle claims to be booming astonishingly, has been having heavy failures and running over with paupers. Winfield has kept fewer paupers this winter than any city in Southern Kansas.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The wicked minstrel shows are turning their toes up to the daisies all along the line. The New Orleans Premium Minstrels, billed for Winfield Wednesday evening of last week, did not reach us, having passed in its checks at Wichita. The man who would attend a minstrel show these tough times ought to be transported to the land where the lion roareth and the whangdoodle mourneth.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

J. S. Hubbard, of Udall, has purchased of McMullen and Silliman a fine young Imported Percheron stallion, Massiot, (Recorded 1409). This splendid race of horses are the most salable, useful, hardy, powerful, and general purpose horses known to man. Breeders in that portion of the county are to be congratulated upon having so valuable an animal in their midst.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The opening of the new Kellogg mill building last Friday evening, with a grand festival, was a most enjoyable affair and netted the Vernon Library Association a nice sum. Everybody from far and near were present, and music, all the delicacies of the culinary art, and general jollity formed a captivating bill of fare.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Saturday last was St. Valentine's day: a day celebrated by many invalid-minded in sending pictorial insults to those they envy or dislike, and by other foolish ones in investing in paper lace and sentimental verses to send to favored persons.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

If in order, we rise to remark that the backbone of winter is in a fractured condition. We may, perhaps, be a little "previous" in using the expression; but we want to get ahead of some lonesome editor who will probably have it copyrighted before the winter is over.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Southern Kansas will be well represented at New Orleans during the next thirty days. Wellington, Wichita, Winfield, Newton, Caldwell, and several other cities have sent quite large delegations within the last few days.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Jarvis, Conklin & Co., at the old stand south of A. T. Spotswood's, loan the cheapest money in the state of Kansas. Their rates cannot be met. Do not fail to call and see them if you want a loan on farm property.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

J. J. Carson left Saturday morning to visit the eastern cities to purchase his goods. He will open an entire new stock in the new building of Jennings & Crippen about March 1st.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Oxford Register entered upon its second year last week. It is receiving fair patronage, is a readable paper, and bids fair to redeem Oxford from its reputation as a newspaper grave yard.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

We understand that a new coal yard will soon be started on north Main, controlled by a large mining company, and that the intention is to make war on prices. We can all stand it.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Caldwell whiskeyites are having a little trouble. Four of them are in jail in Wellington to the tune of sixteen hundred dollars.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Social Club has its bi-weekly hop Friday evening. Italian music will be one of he charms.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

About three hundred and fifty names are already enrolled on the registration books.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The sneaking fire bug was again loose in Winfield Monday night, getting in his work this time on Capt. Gary's building, on the corner of 8th Avenue and Manning Street, occupied by Case Bro's carpenter shop and Uncle Robert Hudson's bed spring factory. The blaze was discovered soon after it started, and in a remarkably short time the alarm was given and our fire companies were on the ground, but not before a good portion of the building was enveloped in flames. In five minutes after the fire companies opened up on the blaze, it was entirely extinguished. Being next to the Chicago lumber yard, a good start might have made a very serious conflagration. As it was, one hundred dollars will cover the damage. The efficiency of our water-works and fire companies was again forcibly demonstrated. Winfield has great reason to congratulate herself on the activity and system of her hose companies. The boys have shown their ability to down any blaze that pokes up its head within reach of a hydrant, and their alacrity in getting to fires astonishes everybody. Those who discovered this fire say the indications were that hay and pine boards had been put against the side of the building and ignited. These fire bugs are getting entirely too promiscuous and prompt and rigid steps should be taken by our authorities to cage them.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The house of John Case, on South Main Street, went down in flames Tuesday evening, fired by malicious hands. The family had been away for several days. The house was several blocks from a hydrant, and the fire had so enveloped the building before the alarm was given that it was mostly in ashes before the fire companies could make the run the whole length of Main Street. The house was worth about five hundred dollars, and as the household furniture was all destroyed, the loss will aggregate eight hundred dollars, fully covered with insurance. Mr. Case seems to be the victim of peculiar fate. Three years ago he had a splendid residence destroyed by incendiarism, just as he was completing it. He was also one of the victims of Monday night's fire. Three successful attempts at destroying his property in as many years seems a tough experience. We learn that he had just insured his household furniture for $400 with Jno. D. Pryor, the day of the fire, making eight hundred dollars insurance on the premises.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Arthur Bangs, A. E. Baird, Bert Crapster, James McLain, F. M. Freeland, and others, whose names we did not get, were subpoenaed from here to testify in the murder case of Frank Bonham at Independence. Bonham is charged with the most revolting murder that ever stained the annals of Kansas. As we noted last week, the mother, sister, and brother of Bonham were found in bed at their home near Radical City, Montgomery County, one morning recently covered with blood, having been brained and stabbed to death with a hatchet and butcher knife, probably while asleep. Frank Bonham claimed to have been in Winfield on the night of the murder, but the sheriff of Montgomery County, on investigation, found that he was not here for two days afterwards, when he sat up one night in the office of the Brettun and registered the next day at the Commercial. He also bought some articles in the New York Store and talked with Mr. Baird. These circumstances were what led to the subpoenaing of the parties from here. The trial was continued to the 26th, when our folks will have to make another trip. James McLain says that nothing but Bonham's previous good character keeps him from "pulling hemp." Bonham is a youth of twenty-two. Developments seem likely to fasten this crime upon him.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Now that gentle spring begins to tickle the atmosphere, those who take pride in seeing their homes and the Queen City become more and more beautiful, should be making arrangements to set out a number of ornamental and forest trees. Our city is already handsomely dotted with groves, and many of our streets are lined with beautiful trees, but there is room for more in many parts, and we should keep the ball of tree culture rolling and make Winfield what her situation signifies: the prettiest city in all Kansas. Let no spot be left barren where a beautiful tree can be made to spread its boughs.

Our readers will find the comprehensive review of this subject by Jas. F. Martin elsewhere in the COURIER to contain points of inestimable benefit to every property owner in Cowley. Read it carefully and take heed.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. J. T. Carter tells us of a case of prolificness that beats all previous records on Cowley's wonderful domain. He says that a cow belonging to Mr. Joseph Wood, on the Arkansas river, in Vernon, is five years old and has five calves--two pair of twins within the last eleven months, all plump and healthy. A cow that can do a years' work like this is a mighty profitable institution and should be given a deserved place on the royal road of fame. If we had a herd of such, we would be almost tempted to relinquish our newspaper grasp on rosy fortune: in fact, we would put Jay Gould to shame and bring a tear to the left eye of our friend, Mr. Vanderbilt. Cowley downs the world for productiveness.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Directors of the Fair association held their monthly meeting last Friday at the office of A. H. Doane & Co., when the revision of the premium list was considered. Committees were appointed to arrange the several departments and report at the next meeting, March 13th. The Board decided on the dates arranged by the Southwestern Fair Circuit--Sept. 21st to 25th. Everything is being arranged in a way that will give Cowley another grand success in her Fair for 1885. Many discriminations so officious at the last fair are being carefully remedied.

Go Thou and Register.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The registration law to a casual observer appears to be a nuisance, but it must be obeyed as long as it remains on the "statoots," and those who want to vote in April must have City Clerk Buckman invest them with the municipal authority. You must register every calendar year. A registration now holds good during 1885. Now register.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Our citizens will not lack for places of entertainment tonight. The revival meetings at the Baptist and Methodist churches, the meeting of the Winfield Enterprise Association at the Court House, the Jolly Pathfinders at the Opera House, the masquerade skate at the Rink, and the hop at McDougall Hall will make things lively indeed.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Belle Plaine News proposes a new county, to be composed of six townships out of Sumner, three out of Sedgwick, one out of Butler, and two out of Cowley, to be called Nenescah, with Belle Plaine as the county seat. Scheme to make Belle Plaine a metropolis; but she won't work--too airy to think of.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

"Some ten days ago, Mrs. Oliver McGuire, residing near the railroad," says the Arkansas City Republican, "gave birth to a two-and-a-half pound boy babe. At last accounts the babe was alive but it is thought it will not live much longer."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Harris & Clark are now answering their flood of correspondence relative to the Banner County, on a calligraph. This firm is doing a rushing real estate business, though spring has barely touched us. They have two teams constantly on the go.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Jolly Pathfinders, a troupe that has been receiving flattering praises from the press at large, appears at the Opera House tonight in "Scraps," one of the most mirth provoking comedies ever put on the boards.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Baird's Minstrels, who won so many encomiums when here last year, appear at the Opera House again Saturday night. These performances are always first-class.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Five high grade short horn bulls and seven high grade short horn heifers for sale by H. T. Shivvers. Inquire at the office of Shivvers & Linn, Winfield, Ks.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The German Lutherans will have services Sunday next in the McDougal hall, when the Rev. H. Ehlers will preach.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Frank Fuller Leland was born in Chapin, Franklin County, Iowa. Catch on?

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Wait for the opening of the new Clothing Store of J. J. Carson & Co.


Her Chronicle of The Comings, Goings and Doings of Persons at Home and Abroad.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. James Finch is very low, and expected to pass away at any hour.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Eli Bookwalter came over from Sumner last week to visit his brother Al.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Ordway got off Tuesday for a month at the Crescent City.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mrs. Martha Iliff, whose life was despaired of, is, we are glad to say, gradually recovering.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Dr. D. V. Cole and daughter, Miss Nellie, are doing the World's Fair, starting last Friday.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mrs. Samuel B. Hauk, who has been lying very sick for some weeks past, is gradually failing.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

H. L. Merrifield, one of Cooper & Taylor's gentlemanly salesmen, is very low with lung fever.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. A. F. Morey has purchased the drug stock of McCormick & Son, and will remove it to Ashland.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Dr. W. S. Mendenhall represented Winfield at the State Medical Association at Topeka last week.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. Jas. H. Bullene is looking after his lumber interests at Ashland, this week, accompanied by his brother, J. G.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

T. K. Tingle, business manager of the Harper Sentinel, was in the city Monday and dropped into the COURIER den.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. and Mrs. O. S. Manser will take a trip "down east," stopping on their return for the presidential inauguration.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. D. Maloney, of Chicago, is visiting her brother, Mr. P. P. Powell. She is a lady of means and may locate with us.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Sidney Carnine, for several years past a valuable member of the Courier band, left Monday for a permanent residence in Oregon.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

M. J. O'Meara and M. H. Ewart start Saturday for Boston and other Eastern cities, and will witness the inauguration of Cleveland.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. P. W. Zook, who has been confined for several months past with consumption, is improving slightly, though unable for business.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Joseph Reid, one of Cedar township's pioneers, made the metropolis his semi-occasional visit Tuesday and dropped in on the COURIER.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. A. Gilkey, of Spring Creek township, one of Cowley's stock raisers, was in the capital Monday. He says his cattle have wintered finely.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. W. H. Powell left Thursday for his home in Chicago, via the World's Fair and Florida, after a months visit with his brother, Mr. P. P. Powell.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Rev. D. W. Sanders, of Columbia City, Indiana, preached two very excellent sermons on last Monday and Tuesday evenings in the Baptist church of this place.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

J. N. Barnthouse left for Columbus, Ohio, for his family Tuesday. He will stop in Chicago on his return and purchase additional machinery for his Winfield Bottling Works.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Chas. Gay prompted for the Mother Hubbard ball at the Terminus Tuesday night. He pronounces it a very unique and enjoyable affair. The boys appeared in Father Hubbard costumes.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Married, on Feb. 15th, at the residence of the bridegroom's father, near Akron, Cowley County, Kansas, by Rev. C. P. Graham, Mr. James H. McCullim and Mrs. Laurie A. Billings, both of Cowley County.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

J. L. Barnes, General Superintendent of the Southern Kansas, and J. D. Hildebrand, General Road Master, with their ladies, spent Monday night at the Brettun, on their way over the western division of the road.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mrs. A. J. Burgauer returned Saturday last from her Topeka visit. Mr. Carl Slessinger, a relative, accompanied her from Newton for a few weeks visit here. Mr. Burgauer is in the east on a purchasing tour for the Bee Hive.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Henry Green was brought in from the Territory last week and plead guilty before Justice Snow to disturbing the quiet of John H. Conrad by flourishing a revolver and otherwise making himself conspicuous. He got $5.00 and costs.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Capt. S. C. Smith, Capt. J. S. Hunt, Capt. H. G. Johnson, Fred C. Hunt, and A. P. Johnson are in attendance upon the Grand Lodge of the Masonic order, at Emporia. Mrs. Capt. Hunt and Mrs. Fred C. Hunt accompanied their husbands as far as Peabody, for a visit with relatives.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The recent arrest and conviction of Milton Johnson, of Polo, this county, aged sixteen, fined thirty-two dollars for fighting at school, will be a warning to many who are in for "lickin' the stuffin'" out of school mates. School boys are just as liable, in the eyes of the law, for squabbles as anybody.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The drug house of Q. A. Glass has received a decoration at the hands of A. B. Roberts that gives it a very citified appearance. The walls are artistically decorated with inlaid paper of beautiful design, fairly reflecting the handsome "phizzes" of Mr. Glass and his popular assistants.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

S. H. Myton is this week removing his immense hardware and implement stock to his handsome new building on north Main. When he gets "fixed up," his establishment will stand superior to any of its kind in Kansas. J. C. Long will occupy the room vacated by Mr. Myton, while S. Kleeman will occupy the room Mr. Long leaves.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Judge Gans has been issuing certificates of unalloyed bliss with a lavish hand during the past week. Here are his victims: D. R. Beatty and Mary E. Evans; John W. Rose and Celina M. Jackson; Robert E. Craft and Nancy P. Lane; J. M. Wood and Emma Church; John W. King and Edna Crow; S. J. Soldani and Josephine Fronkier; Wm. Harris and Malinda Hardy; Joseph Coe and Lena Koeber; J. H. McCollim and Laura A. Billings.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

James Clatworthy, Will Kuhns, Frank Crampton, James Hall, Laban Moore, John Hudson, Elmer Hartman, Will Clark, Will Back, James Connor, and John Herndon, from our fire companies, took in the grand ball of the Wellington Fire Department last Friday evening. They were royally entertained by the Wellington boys and the ball was most enjoyable. Our companies anticipate an annual parade, ball and banquet soon, which the Wellington boys will attend.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Rev. J. O. Campbell, Arkansas City's U. P. minister, dropped in on the COURIER Monday. He is one of the brightest young ministers in the State: one of those who can occasionally lay aside the "robes of priestly office" and mingle among the people much as other men, not forgetting his calling, but taking an active hand in all that go to make true and progressive citizenship. Arkansas City is fortunate in having so valuable and influential a minister as Mr. Campbell.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Col. J. C. McMullen has been instrumental in introducing a number of fine grade animals into Cowley, his latest purchase being chronicled thus in the K. C. Indicator. "John Frye, Jr., of Lamine, Cooper County, Missouri, was in the city yesterday with a car of grade Norman and American-bred mares, just sold by his father, John A. Frye, to J. C. McMullen, of Winfield, Kansas. These mares are in foal to the imported Norman stallion, Beaumont, 1090, and were such a lot as will be an acquisition to their buyer and to Cowley County."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The roll call at the Baptist church on last Sabbath was a grand success. We are glad to say that this church is coming up to its work grandly. Their large audience room was completely packed with attentive listeners at both the morning and evening service on last Sabbath. A large number have been recently added to the church, and the prospects are that a very much larger number will be added in the near future. The pastor will preach another sermon to the young people on next Sabbath evening. The seats in this church are all free, and the public is invited to worship with them.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Traveler places itself in the grip of "The Mystic Five," an organization at Arkansas City whose origin is wrapped in mystery, its proceedings in impenetrable darkness, and its members in horrible oaths and secret secrecy; by revealing its objects, which are--first, the manufacture of compressed gas, or dynamite--with their mouths. The second, murder--of the King's English. The third, arson--of tobacco rolled into round, elongated shapes. The fourth, "dull thuds"--to be produced in the hearts of the fair sex. The fifth, kidnaping--relates to the same objects in the same class.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Arkansas City has an improved order of "Red Men," founded upon the customs and traditions of the North American Indians, and the Republican says it is the oldest secret benevolent society of purely American origin. It was founded in the year 1812 by the American army, and the members of the Iroquois tribe of Indians who, in spite of British influence, still remained friendly to the colonists.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

From this date and until after our dissolution, we will positively sell goods only for cash. All accounts now on our books must be settled up either by payment or note. To accomplish our purpose, we must reduce our stock and now will sell our goods at cash. Come and convince yourselves that such is the fact. Winfield, Kan., Jan. 21, 1885, Bryan & Lynn.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

County Attorney Asp and his assistant, W. P. Hackney, with Constable Siverd and Sheriff McIntire, officials that Cowley certainly feels proud of, have been making things exceedingly sultry for violators of law during the past ten days. The sanctums of Justices Buckman and Snow have been crowded, and these worthy officials have ground out more justice in that time than was ever administered in ten days before in Winfield. Eight violators of the liquor law and about thirty gamblers have been before them: a clean sweep of every crook in the city. Most of them have already plead guilty, and what cases are undisposed pend with a certainty of conviction. The result will be about a thousand dollars in the State treasury--most of which could have gone into the coffers of the city if our marshal had done his duty. However, we are glad that we have county officials who would take this duty out of derelict hands and bring the lawless to the rack. Winfield, along with her beauty and enterprise, is a comparatively moral town; but under this lax enforcement of our municipal laws, one or two "blind tigers," and a number of gambling holes have been nightly grinding away, roping in the susceptible. The records of Justices Buckman and Snow show that those who have been displaying a weakness for the gaming table are by no means those who could afford it. Were we to publish the list, which we refrain from doing because we believe the fact of their names existing on the criminal registers of the county and the heavy fines imposed sufficient punishment to many of them, the names of a number of boys and young men well connected and of otherwise good character would be revealed--youths who have been inveigled into the game, and having once tasted of the fascinations, were irresistibly drawn into these dens night after night. Many of the victims, too, are hard-working persons whose money should have gone to the support of their families or themselves, but has been finding its way into the pockets of these gentlemen (?) who make gambling a profession. The victims have not only injured themselves and families, but the merchant who has been generous enough to credit them with goods has suffered also. We know several of these victims who mean to be honest--as honest indeed as persons who frequent gambling tables can be--but being despoiled of their substance, they have not wherewithal to pay. But this thorough routing out of these dens is what is needed. Now it would be difficult indeed for a man inclined to hazard his money on a game of chance to find accommodation, and the whiskeyites have been given another forcible warning that Winfield and Cowley County have no room for "blind Tigers" or any other kind of whiskey holes. Our county officials now are tigers in themselves--not blind tigers, but tigers that have the grit and ability to make Rome howl all along the line; and they are doing it.

In this connection is prominent the necessity of electing in April a city government that will keep every hell-hole of vice weeded out and make Winfield a city in harmony with the high moral character of her citizens. We want a government that will stifle every brothel in its incipiency and keep a pure moral atmosphere. We not only want men of nerve, but men of broad and comprehensive views--men who fill foster the enterprises we already have and who have the necessary push and ability to properly encourage others.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The semi-monthly meeting of the City Council occurred Monday evening. J. L. Dennis was given leave to put in a set of scales on North Main street. Pauper claims of J. P. Baden, amounting to $10.90, were referred to County Commissioners for payment. Bills of Mr. Baden, goods furnished paupers, amounting to $51.65, were referred back to him for itemization; bill of $5 of G. L. Rinker was also remanded for same purpose. The following bills were ordered paid: Albro & Co., $2; Robinson House, printing by-laws and constitution of fire companies, $10; T. J. Partridge, work on streets, $4.50; Levi Hays, co., $2; A. T. Roberts, rubber stamp, $4; C. J. Brown, costs in Supreme Court in City vis. Waite, $11.65; Quincy A. Glass, coal, $3.75.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mrs. M. M. Bass, who left Tuesday week for Choteau, Johnson County, this State, after a year's visit with her daughter, Mrs. A. T. Spotswood, died suddenly of heart disease at that place on Sunday last. Though she had long suffered from this disease, when she left here she was feeling unusually well and anticipated a visit with her son in Choteau, before going to her home in Columbus, Missouri. Mr. and Mrs. Spotswood left Monday morning to accompany the remains to Columbus, where they were interred yesterday. Mrs. Bass was possessed of many excellent qualities and highly esteemed by all who knew her and her sudden death causes much regret.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

T. F. Axtel has bought the restaurant and bakery of Frank L. Crampton. Mr. Axtel achieved fame as a baker and restaurant man during his reign over the "English Kitchen," and we predict for him even greater success in this new location. People who want first-class, fresh bread delivered to their doors will always find the article at the Winfield Bakery and the farmer who wants an unexcelled meal for a quarter will patronize Mr. Axtell's restaurant. Excellent board will be furnished for three dollars per week. This restaurant will be run as an adjunct to the Central Hotel, of which Mr. Axtel is one of the proprietors.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

To the patrons of the Winfield Post Office. Reports have been put in circulation that I have withdrawn as a candidate for the Winfield Post Office. All such reports are utterly false, as I shall be a candidate until I am appointed or rejected. S. L. GILBERT.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

A recent ice gorge in the Arkansas river did great damage to the canal and bridge at Arkansas City. About one hundred and fifty feet of the bridge and the same length of the canal dam was swept away. The Traveler says: "This accident will compel the stoppage of the four mills on the canal for three or four weeks, and the loss of employment to their many employees just when it is, perhaps, the most needed. The worst feature in the case, is, that all the farmers west of us will be compelled to go round by the south bridge, lengthening the distance by from two to four miles. This will cut us off from a great deal of trade we have been getting, which will now go to Geuda. As long as the high water lasts, there is little hope of being able to do anything, and we fear this will last for a month or so yet."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Many Cowley County farmers are reckless about leaving their farming implements out in the weather, as their brethren elsewhere, and the following clipping hits the case so we give it publication for local benefit.

"We presume that we are safe in saying that within a radius of five miles from Tonganoxie, there is not less than $500,000 worth of farm machinery rotting or rusting in the furrow, in the fence corner, or under the eaves of some stable or shed; and the implement man will get our notes for thousands more next summer to replace the incorrigibly bad; and the blacksmiths and wood-workers will whistle a cheerful tune as they repair the rest; while the farmer will curse his luck and hard times. All for the want of a cheap shed of boards, or poles and hay."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Wichita Beacon: "Bob Perry, one of the gang who escaped from jail here during the severe weather a month ago, and was recaptured near Winfield by Sheriff McIntire, has been crippled ever since his flight with frozen toes. The injuries became so serious that amputation was necessary, and yesterday the toes of both his feet were taken off by Drs. Rentz and McCullough. Perry is doing well, considering the nature of the injury treated. In speaking of the escape and flight in the polar atmosphere, Perry gave it as his opinion that McSweeney, the murderer, froze to death and will be found in some hay stack in the spring."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Traveler feels very much hurt over the vague rumor that some Winfield man told a stranger that "Arkansas City was dead and did not have over two thousand inhabitants." Be easy, brother Standley. Winfield stands on her own merits as the Queen City of Southern Kansas, and we are all proud of Arkansas City's achievements and worth as the second city of the best county on the globe, and our citizens are above disparaging any town of grand old Cowley.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The maddest man up to date lives in Wichita. He was putting on his boots one morning last week and struck what he supposed was a snake coiled up on the sole. He jumped two yards and kicked the boot through a $5 mirror and a vase valued at $16, and when his wife's switch came floating innocently out of the leather, it would have demoralized a horse jockey to hear that man talk.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Arkansas City Democrat begs to have that city relieved of its distressing surplus of bald headed, stingy old bachelors, and to boost the chances to give them all a free puff.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Udall Sentinel thinks Udall will have a population of three thousand in five years.




The Queen City of Southern Kansas to Make Still Greater Strides

in Material Advancement--The D. M. & A. and K. C. & S. Are Coming.

Other New Enterprises.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

That Winfield and Cowley County are bound to march onward and upward during 1886, and even outdistance her former successes, was splendidly evidence in the rousing meeting of prominent businessmen at the Court House Thursday evening last. It showed that our citizens are on the alert and ready to embrace anything that will conduce to the prosperity of our city, and make her the metropolis that situation and natural advantages insure, if concerted action is brought to bear. The Court House was "chock full" and an interest shown in harmony with the energetic, rustling character of our businessmen.

Judge T. H. Soward called the meeting to order in a brief outline of its import--to stimulate immigration and public improvements, and to formulate plans for the general advancement of the Queen City and Cowley County.

D. L. Kretsinger, always prominent on such occasions, was made chairman, and George C. Rembaugh, the fat man of the Telegram, was chosen secretary. J. C. Long, A. T. Spotswood, H. B. Schuler, M. L. Robinson, and Col. Whiting were appointed a committee on plan of action, and after consideration they recommended that a permanent organization be formed to be known as the "Winfield Enterprise Association," and that a committee of seven be appointed to draft by-laws, rules, etc., and report to a meeting at the Court House on this (Thursday) evening. The gentlemen composing the temporary committee were continued, with the addition of J. B. Lynn and M. G. Troup.

Chas. C. Black, secretary of the Denver, Memphis & Atlantic Railway Company, then addressed the meeting on the prospects of that line. He explained that the road would have reached Winfield ere this if the financial panic, beginning with May last, hadn't made progress impossible. With the loosening of the money market, he said the road would be pushed right through. The company have decided to make it a broad gauge, connecting at Baxter Springs with the Fort Scott & Gulf railroad. The contract for twenty-five miles of track has been let to John Fitzgerald, of Lincoln, Nebraska, a contractor of reliability and capital of half a million, who will begin to throw dirt as soon as the frost is out of the ground. With the twenty-five miles begun on the east end, the company will re-solicit aid along the proposed line (the bonds formerly voted being all void, owing to the road's procrastination). The proposition having carried by so small a majority before in this county, Mr. Black thought it likely that aid would be asked by townships, Winfield being solicited for $40,000. M. L. Robinson also spoke flattering of the prospects for the D. M. & A., as well as the Kansas City and Southwester, together with other projects conducive to Winfield's prosperity. There seems no doubt that both these roads will be traversing the fair fields of Cowley before this year is ended. The officers of the K. C. & S. have everything arranged to commence operations as soon as the money market will permit. The meeting, by a unanimous vote, signified its willingness to vote forty thousand dollars to the D. M. & A., and, if needs be, vote the same amount again to the K. C. & W.

John C. Long, Col. Whiting, and others spoke enthusiastically of Winfield's prospects, and urged the necessity for concerted action. Mr. Long said that the Street Railway Company would build its line, and not a dollar's worth of aid would be asked. Our street railway will make us metropolitan indeed.

Spencer Bliss suggested the feasibility and possibility of offering sufficient inducements to the A., T. & S. F. and S. K. railroads to build a union depot and joint shops in this city, and stated that the prospect of navigating the Arkansas river, and other influences, pointed forcibly to the necessity of the Santa Fe moving through the Territory soon, to a southern market, in which case they must have shops about this location. Winfield being ninety-five miles from Cherryvale and about the same distance from Newton, offers a very advantageous situation for joint shops and a round house, and if our businessmen push the feasibility of the matter, there seems no doubt that this result can be obtained. When the D. M. & A. and K. C. & S. strike us, now anticipated before the summer rolls by, this scheme will be all the more probable. With four railroads radiating from Winfield, with their shops here, we will have a town that will lay all others in Kansas in the shade--hardly excepting the State Capital.

This was the most enthusiastic meeting our city has witnessed in many a day, and shows a determination on the part of everybody to make the Queen City "git up and dust." With the advent of spring, immigration will pour in from the panic-stricken east--immigration of a substantial character, men seeking profitable investment for capital, and with unison of effort, the extensive advertisement we are getting, etc., Winfield and Cowley County will get a large share. This organization is what is needed. New enterprises will be sprung and an era of prosperity dawn that will surprise "old-timers." With the prettiest city, the best county, and the best people on the globe, Winfield's beacon light will be followed by many an easterner in quest of a pleasant home and safe investment. Let us all put our shoulders to the wheel and keep our city in the first ranks of leading, prosperous cities--where her natural advantages entitle her. Every businessman in the city should give the meeting tonight his presence. What we need is a hard pull, a strong pull, and a pull altogether.


A Lightning Rod Fiend Exposed.

Facts of Interest to Those Who are Liable to Fall Into His Meshes.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. Simeon Starlin, a reliable farmer of Rock township, gives the COURIER information of a traveling lightning rod fraud that will prove of profit to many susceptible people in Cowley and surrounding counties and which will be a warning for said fraud to "git up and git" if he don't want to play checkers with his nose on the iron bars of the bastille. This lightning disenchanter drives a fine rig and claims to represent the North American Lightning Rod Company. He is a very talkative gentleman of medium size, and has all the appearance of being blind in the left eye. He went to the residence of an old farmer, living a little over a mile west of Rock P. O. last week, and after soliciting an order for some time, and failing to obtain it, he finally said, "I am going to make a proposal, which no man who values the life of his family can help but accept." Then he went on and stated that he was not allowed to sell a single foot of rod, as it was copper covered, for less than 67½ cents per foot, but claimed to have a right from the company to put up a sample rod every six miles, and he could give a man as many feet as he pleased. He proposed erecting a rod, and charging for only so many feet as should amount to $12. He furthermore agreed to furnish points, ornamented balls, and all fixtures necessary to complete the job, free. The agent asked the farmer, on his part, to give a note when the work should be completed, to the workman putting up the rod, and to recommend the job to his other customers if it gave satisfaction. The agent then read what he claimed to be a contract between the parties, the farmer, his wife, and two sons being present. The fellow signed his name as C. D. Crane, then asked the farmer to sign his. Being no scholar, and not surmising anything fraudulent or tricky, he did so. Judge of the old farmer's surprise and indignation on the following Monday when one of the company's workmen completed the Royal rod, as he called it, asking the farmer if that was his signature. The second man is a low, heavy set man, with a foreign accent, and heavy, black mustache. He did not stop where the first man did, nor where the farmer supposed the contract to end, but read some fine print which had been concealed by the first man, which read something like this: that the farmer was to pay 67½ cents per foot for all material used over 40 feet, and stating that every brace should count the same as three feet of rod, and furthermore stating that it was moreover agreed that all verbal contracts should be null and void and this writing only in full force. Now, this part of the contract the old farmer had never heard of before; still there was his own signature. As the company charges stood before any reductions, the amount was over $100; the second man said he had a right to reduce it to $58.05, which he would rather do than have any further words. The farmer tendered him the $12 first agreed upon, which he refused. He then ordered him to remove the rod from the house; this he also refused to do, but threatened that the company would sue on the full contract and throw a lien on the building, not only for costs of suit but for all material. Finally the old farmer gave a note on six month's time to get rid of the agent. The note, of course, will pass into other hands and the farmer will find himself in possession of a bit of very dear experience. The next man who gets wind of these frauds should notify the authorities and have them taken in.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Jennie Bowen theatrical company Sundayed at the Commercial. They left dates for March 2nd.


A Number of Enterprising Farmers Meet at the Courier Office and

Permanently Organize the Cowley County Farmers' Institute.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Cowley's Farmer's Institute is now a permanency. A good number of our wide-awake farmers met at the COURIER office Saturday last with Mr. J. S. Baker, of Tisdale, in the chair and Mr. F. A. A. Williams, of Winfield, Secretary.

Dr. C. Perry, chairman of the committee on organization, submitted a plan of organization, which was discussed and adopted as follows.

WHEREAS, Everyone engaged in the business of agriculture can be benefitted by having at command the combined experiences of practical men engaged in said business, and more particularly so where the peculiarities of climate and soil have to be learned before successful results can be obtained; and

WHEREAS, That if a proper spirit of emulation can be excited among us the result will be that the standing of the agricultural profession will be raised in the estimation of the whole community in this region and that values of agricultural property will be greatly enhanced.

Therefore, we, the undersigned farmers in Cowley County, do hereby organize ourselves into an association to be called The Farmers Institute of Cowley County, Kansas.

The objects of this association will be to hold regular meetings for the discussion of agricultural topics and the dissemination of facts, which shall tend to produce the results before stated.

Anyone interested in the cultivation of the soil or the raising of livestock can become a member of this association by the annual payment of the sum of fifty cents.

The officers of this Association shall be a President, Vice President, Secretary, and Treasure, who shall be elected annually and who shall perform the duties usually required of such officers.

There shall be a Board of Directors, which shall be composed of the aforesaid officers, ex-officio and one member in each township, who shall take in charge t he interests of the Association, each in his respective township, and to have for a part of his duty the organization of a local Farmers Club auxiliary to this Association. The before named Board of Directors to have the complete management of the affairs of this Association.

The officers of the Association shall be the officers of the Board who, with two directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.

There shall be an annual meeting of this society continuing two or more days for the election of officers and for the discussion of agricultural topics in accordance with a program arranged by said Board of Directors, and there shall also be such other meetings as the Board of Directors shall call.

Any other rules and regulations can be added to these articles of association by a majority vote of members present at the annual meeting.

After the adoption of the plan of organization, the following members were enrolled, and paid their admission fee.

G. L. Gale, M. H. Markum, R. J. Yeoman, J. S. Baker, J. F. Martin, F. W. McClellan, W. E. Meredith, F. H. Burton, Dr. C. Perry, R. T. Thirsk, A. H. Broadwell, D. C. Stevens, H. McKibben, S. P. Strong, and F. A. A. Williams.

The officers of the Institute were selected as follows.

Mr. S. P. Strong, of Rock township, President; Mr. F. W. McClellan, of Walnut, Vice President; Mr. F. A. A. Williams, of Winfield, Secretary; Mr. M. H. Markum, of Pleasant Valley, Treasurer.

The following board of township directors was elected, conditioned on their becoming members of the organization.

Bolton, Amos Walton; Beaver, F. H. Burton; Vernon, R. J. Yeoman; Ninnescah, L. Stout; Rock, E. J. Wilber; Fairview, T. S. Green; Walnut, R. T. Thirsk; Pleasant Valley, A. H. Broadwell; Silverdale, George Green; Tisdale, J. S. Baker; Winfield, Dr. Perry; Liberty, J. C. McCoy; Richland, D. C. Stevens; Omnia, W. R. Stolp; Silver Creek, John Stout; Harvey, R. L. Strother; Windsor, Samuel Fall; Dexter, W. E. Meredith; Cedar, J. H. Service; Otter, Mr. Mills; Sheridan, J. R. Smith; Maple, Mr. Fitzsimmons, Creswell, Ed. Green; Spring Creek, H. S. Libby.

On motion, M. H. Markum, F. W. McClellan, and Dr. C. Perry were appointed a committee on plan of work.

Jas. F. Martin was elected honorary vice president of the Institute by a unanimous rising vote.

The meeting adjourned to Saturday, Feb. 18th, at 1 o'clock p.m.

The committee on grass seed will correspond with leading firms east and west, and find where the best seed can be obtained cheapest, and be prepared to select at the next meeting of the Institute. Persons desiring to order through the Institute should be present at that meeting.


Grindings of the Civil Mill of Justice During the Past Week.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Ketchem, Rothchild & Co. vs. J. H. . Dismissed with prejudice at cost of plaintiff.

[Note: Not sure of the last name of J. H. . This item showed "Punchon." I have seen it spelled as Punshon and Punsheon. MAW]

Willis A. Provines vs. Rosa Provines. Divorce decreed plaintiff on grounds of adultery; and defendant barred of all interest in plaintiff's property; and plaintiff to pay costs.

Malvina Stocking vs. Horace Stocking. Divorce granted on grounds of extreme cruelty, and plaintiff awarded the real estate and household furniture as alimony, and custody of the children, she to pay costs of suit.

Mary F. Griffith vs. Wm. D. Griffith. Divorce decreed on ground of abandonment; plaintiff awarded custody of child and defendant adjudged to pay costs.

Alice Keys vs. Henry E. Keys. Dismissed at cost of plaintiff.

Alice L. Harmon vs. John L. Harmon. Divorce granted the plaintiff on grounds of cruelty; defendant barred of all interest in plaintiff's property and plaintiff restored to former name, she to pay costs of suit.

John Cronin vs. Winfield Stone, Brick and Tile Co. Appeal dismissed on motion of defendant and case dismissed.

Benjamin T. Bartlow vs. Floyd M. Hurst et al. Dismissed without prejudice.

Frances McGregor vs. John McGregor. Plaintiff decreed a divorce on grounds of abandonment; plaintiff awarded custody of children and adjudged to pay costs.

Gideon Leare vs. Luther Kenny et al. Trial by court and finding for defendant; judgment for $156.30 and that the deed mentioned in petition was entered as a mortgage; and if judgment with 12 percent interest be not paid in six months, land to be sold.

Nannie C. Fuller vs. County Commissioners et al. Continued on motion of plaintiff.

Jennie Reynolds vs. John W. Reynolds et al. On motion of plaintiff appeal dismissed for want of prosecution and case remanded; defendant to pay the costs in this court.

Scott McGlossen vs. E. H. Gilbert. Trial by court and finding for defendant.

Elizabeth Weakly vs. Jacob Weakly. Divorce given on grounds of abandonment. Plaintiff restored to her maiden name, awarded the custody of child, and adjudged to pay costs.

E. F. Foss & Co. vs. Phillip Sipe. Trial by jury; adjourned unfinished to this, Thursday.

Read & Robinson vs. Winfield Creamery. Trial by the court. This case occupied four or five days of last week. Hackney & Asp and McDonald & Webb were attorneys for the plaintiffs, and J. F. McMullen, M. G. Troup, and A. P. Johnson for the defendants--stockholders of the creamery. About twenty-four hundred dollars in claims were thrown out by the court and a judgment for four thousand dollars awarded the plaintiffs.

C. C. Black vs. Addison A. Jackson. Dismissed with prejudice.

James Jordon vs. Winfield, surrounding Townships and County Commissioners. Plaintiff given leave to amend petition on or before the 23rd inst.

Appeal of C. W. Gregory from County Commissioners. Trial by jury. Verdict for appellant for $100 damages for county road.

Winfield Bank vs. Wm. A. Hybarger et al. Continued on motion of plaintiff.

J. C. Fuller et al vs. L. B. Stone, as County Treasurer, et al. Continued on motion of plaintiff.

Byran Farrar vs. Sarah A. Drennon et al. Trial by court and finding for plaintiff for $195.15 with interest at 12 percent and judgment for the amount and costs. M. G. Troup as guardian ad litem allowed $10, to be taxed as costs.

Wm. M. Sleeth vs. Sarah A. Drennon. Judgment for $495 with interest at 12 percent and costs. M. G. Troup, guardian ad litem, given $10, as costs.

[Note: Paper had "Drennon." Believe it should be "Drennan."]

Assignment of Daniel Read. Jas. McDermott appointed to examine assignee's final report. Commissioners' report approved and he allowed $25 of the remaining amount and balance allowed the assignee for himself and attorneys, after paying accrued costs.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Sedan Times-Journal suggests a deathly remedy: The COURIER tells of a Cowley County man who has lost fifty sheep in two nights from dogs, and says he has rigged up a dummy with a lighted lantern in one hand and a gun in the other. He ought to make his dummy of a dead sheep with a good lot of strychnine inside, as dogs which once get a taste of sheep meat are never cured except by that kind of medicine, or else a dose of cold lead.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The new court house at Wellington is to be furnished in style. The court room is to be seated with opera chairs, while all the offices are to be furnished with handsome walnut furniture.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Arkansas City is to have a fifty acre city park, on the Walnut, and a company has been formed for its improvement.


Newsy Notes Gathered by The "Courier's" Corps of Neighborhood Correspondents.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mrs. Hardwick was the guest of Mrs. Bullington last Saturday.

Born. To Mr. and Mrs. Underwood, last Wednesday, a bouncing boy.

Mr. and Mrs. Robt. Marshland are happy over the arrival of a ten pound girl.

We had a pleasant visit from J. R. Smith, Jr., last week. Call again, Jack.

The youngest child of Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Smith has been ill for several weeks.

Uncle Joe Furman has been sick most of the winter, but at present writing is convalescing.

Miss Shaw, sister of Mrs. Peabody, has returned to her home in Illinois, after a few week's visit here with relatives.

We learn that John Allen, of Torrance, will move on the farm belonging to L. B. Bullington soon, having rented it for this year.

They have commenced work on the Methodist church building in Dexter, but owing to the very cold weather, it is progressing slowly.

Several couples of our young folks attended the social party at the residence of Mr. and Mrs. Hardwick, and report a very pleasant time.

Hon. J. D. Maurer has kindly remembered some of his friends in sending them copies of the Daily Capital. Many thanks and best wishes for our Representative.

School closed last Friday at the Plumb Creek schoolhouse, with quite an interesting entertainment given by the teacher and pupils. Miss Howland leaves here for her home with the best wishes of her scholars and friends.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Will Jenkins was on the sick list last week.

Mrs. Alexander visited relatives in Pleasant Valley this week.

Miss Kuhn closed her school at the Tannehill schoolhouse last Friday.

The youths' of this vicinity gave the Davis brothers a surprise party on Monday night.

John Williams says some pets are very playful and some are very painful. John's is the latter: a boil on his neck.

Mrs. Snyder closed her successful school at the Victor schoolhouse on Wednesday with an evening entertainment.

Charley Grimes, of Arkansas City, was the guest of his sister, Mrs. S. A. Beach, part of last week. I am afraid Charley is after our school miss.

Dud Delph purchased a wild cat in Winfield last Saturday. He shipped it to Kentucky, his former home. I wonder if he sent it to his best girl for a Valentine?

Owing to the inclemency of the weather and bad conditions of the new roads, the protracted effort now in progress at the M. E. Church is not largely attended, and as yet the interest is very tame.

Some smart Aleck expressed his esteem for several of our Beaver young ladies by sending them loud and frightful Valentines. Young man, heed the warning and flee the wrath to come, or have your life insured.

Misses Olive and Bessie Myer's treated their many friends to a party on last Friday night, which was largely attended and confessed by all present to be one of the most enjoyable evenings ever spent in social glee, for joy was unconfined and it was good for "Nasby" to be there.

Miss Fannie Newell, who has been sojourning among friends and relatives of this place for some months, is now under the parental roof near Rock P. O. Fannie leaves a host of friends in this neighborhood to regret her departure. We are sorry to lose Fannie from our circle, but what is our loss will be others' gain.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. Curfman is going to Colorado before long.

Henry Bowman is again happy because it is a boy.

Wilby Curfman is going to farming this spring.

Dick Morgan is living at Mr. Orr's for the time being.

Sam Christopher contemplates going to California in the spring.

Walt. Limbocker has just finished threshing his wheat crop.

John Wm. Curfman has at last finished his stock well--plenty of water.

Dr. Smith has returned from college. We presume he will soon begin his practice.

V. Baird has completed his stone fence, which encloses sufficient pasture for his cattle.

H. S. Wallace is holding "The Fort" at Fairview, "Teaching the young ideas how to shoot."

On last Tuesday eve a party of young folks gathered at J. H. Curfman's in spite of the severe cold weather. Many presents were presented in remembrance of Mary's twentieth birthday, for which she was very grateful.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

F. M. Benson and wife visited in Beaver last week.

There is a series of meetings going on at the M. E. church two miles west of Constant.

The blue birds that were around a few days ago were off their base when they thought spring had come.

Mr. J. Muret will return to Clark County in a few days. He is holding down a claim five miles from Ashland.

F. Benson says he has a good horse for sale. Anyone that wants to purchase will do well by calling on him.

It seems as though "Young Nasby" had switched off somewhere along the road. Come, Y. N., let us hear from you again.

The bell at the Irwin Chapel has been out of tune. It will be tuned up soon, and then both saint and sinner will be told when to go to church.

The Oklahoma boomers are in camp at Arkansas City now, and Mr. John Byers, of Pleasant Valley, is disposing of his corn to them to feed their horses until the fourth of March, when they will make another raid on the promised land.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

No sickness in South Bend now.

George Graves made a flying visit to this place last week.

Will Birdzell has lost several head of cattle this winter. Will is feeding about 350 head.

All those desirous of being made doubly miserable should call upon Esquire A. H. Broadwell.

George Stephenson returned from Harper a few days ago, but has gone back with his son, Jim, who so unceremoniously left Mr. Morton's tender care.

[Very much to the COURIER's regret one sheet of "G. V's" communication has been misplaced, probably accidentally destroyed. We promise to watch his next with an eagle eye.--Ed.]


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Robt. Ratliff paid Winfield a visit on the 17th.

The assessor will be on his annual round after March first.

Miss Clara Burnam, of Mulvane, was visiting the Miss Martin's during last week.

Will Cos Smith explain how it came that he left a certain house by passing through a window?

The "Jennie Bowen" theatrical troup are here this week. A good house greeted them on their first appearance.

The Methodist people gave a ten cent entertainment at the Baptist church on the night of the 16th, consisting of declamations, songs, and music, by the Glee Club. Opening address by Schultz.

Ferman Wentz met with a very severe accident on the morning of the 16th, by being kicked by a vicious horse at the livery stable of Napier & Shibloom. Hopes are now entertained for his recovery.

The Commercial House was the scene of unusual excitement on Sunday morning about 4 a.m. An intruder by the name of P. Cat having gained an entrance by some method to your correspondent unknown, Kelly promptly ordered him out at the muzzle of a shot gun. His skunkship, knowing his power, refused to move. There was a discharge of musketry by Kelly; also a simultaneous discharge by the intruder, and "Yee Gods!" Well, draw gently, oh veil of charity, and let thy mantle cover the rest.

On Monday while Nat Pitman and Will Higgins were scuffling in the hardware store of D. D. Kellogg, Nat fell on a pitch-fork and one tine entered his head over the ear, and passing along the outer surface of the skull, came out near the center of the head. It required the united strength of two men to withdraw the fork. Dr. Knickerbocker was called and dressed the wound, and Nat is up and around as usual; but it was a very narrow escape and we trust that a long time will elapse ere the boys engage in another friendly contest where there is danger of falling on pitch forks.

The festival on the night of the 13th at the Akers hall, under the auspices of the A. O. U. W., was a very enjoyable affair throughout. Considerable merriment was occasioned by the manner of securing partners. The ladies were carefully weighed under the supervision of Geo. L. Frazier, their names and weight written on a ticket, the tickets all thrown into a box and then drawn out and sold at one-half cents per pound. Some of our young gents took the procedure to heart very much, and left the hall because they could not secure the lady of their choice; but be it said to the honor of our ladies, they all stood nobly to the agreement--no backing out on their part. Miss Kate Martin received a very handsomely ornamented cake on a voting contest, as the handsomest young lady in our city, and if we were allowed to decide, would say so too. The marshal received a chicken for being the largest eater after a spirited contest with R. R. Ratliff. The management and the society are well pleased with the financial success of the festival. About $50 was cleared for their benefit.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Mr. Newell is suffering with a badly sprained ankle.

Mr. Watsonberger's cousin is still with him and is quite ill.

Miss Sarah Gates, of Cherokee, is visiting friends in this vicinity.

Mr. Gullet and family, friends of the Hutchinson's, recently arrived in Salem.

On the evening of the 24th there will be a supper at the Hall for the benefit of the G. A. R. Post.

Miss Viola Crow gave a party and supper to a few friends lately and everything passed off quietly, we are informed.

There will be a Teachers' Institute held at the Salem Hall on the 20th. Hope the friends of education will turn out strong.

Mrs. Wilson has gone to join her husband; he will meet her at the Exposition. We must not be selfish and want to keep her all the time. May you be happy, friend Ella.

Mr. James Demaree will accompany Mr. Louis Davis back to Colorado. We all wish the boys a long and happy life, trusting they will be again permitted to see their Salem home and friends.

Mr. Elias Miller, of Cambridge, is the guest of Mr. and Mrs. S. A. Chapell and also of the Watsonbergers. We are all sorry to hear that Mr. Miller and his good little wife are going to leave Sunny Kansas.

Mr. John Pate now invites the Salemites to give him a call, not to get booted but to get their boots and shoes mended. Rubber boots and shoes neatly fixed. You can find his place of business on Main Street, New Salem.

The Salemites are jubilant over the result of the election, as their side of town came off victorious, electing all their men but one. They are good and true men and will do their duty nobly is the humble opinion of your correspondent.

The friends of Mr. and Mrs. Nelson surprised them in their new home one night recently by going to see them with smiling faces and full baskets, and a good time was had by all. Mr. Nelson says he wishes they would come in often like that.

The M. E. church had quarterly meeting on Saturday and Sunday and a good time was had. The minister, Rev. Wesley, has been sick, but is again able for his labors. His children are slowly recovering. Dr. Downs has won a white feather for his cap by bringing the little boy back from the gate of death.

A series of meetings are now in progress in the Salem Hall, conducted by Rev. Ingraham. Although the weather, or roads, have been unfavorable, yet a goodly number have been in attendance and the cause of the master is quietly and steadily advancing. One young man was immersed on Sunday, the 8th.

Dr. Irwin now keeps baking powder to raise (not his patients) your cakes and biscuit higher than a kite, and with each package you can draw something pretty and useful. Some pretty silverware are among the articles to be drawn. He has a number of patients on his list, some of whom are recovering rapidly. Mr. Starr is now skipping around. Mr. McMillen when suffering recently, became worse, and Dr. Emerson, of Winfield, was sent for. Mr. McMillen is now convalescent. OLIVIA.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

With grief we learned that our neighbor, friend, and brother, Oscar Martin had paid his last debt. Short but severe was his illness, all that loving friends and medical skill could do would not stay the grim destroyer. He has crossed the dark river to the city of gold. The last sad rites were attended by a large and sympathetic concourse of neighbors; the Hall was filled to its utmost capacity and an excellent discourse by Rev. Irving was listened to with profound interest. The United Workmen of Salem and Burden buried him with the solemn service of their order in the Salem cemetery. The stricken parents are almost wild with grief, yet they hope soon to meet their loved one. Death comes to all, and may this sudden coming warn us all to be ready. Peace to the ashes of happy Oscar, and may his loved ones bow in submission beneath the chastening sod. Adieu, friend and brother.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

At a meeting of the New Salem Lodge of A. O. U. W., No. 118, Feb. 14, 1885, the following resolutions were adopted.

WHEREAS, The Great Master Workman of the universe has in his infinite wisdom called from our Lodge to the Grand Lodge above, our brother workman, Oscar Martin, and

WHEREAS, Our brother was an honored member of our Lodge; therefore be it

Resolved, That we deeply regret the death of our brother and regard the event as a calamity to our Lodge.

Resolved, That while we humbly bow in submission to the will of him who is too wise to err, and too good to be unkind, that we mourn with the aged father and mother and the loved ones of our deceased brother. That we sympathize with them in their great loss. Yet we realize what is our loss is our brother's eternal gain.

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be spread on the minutes of the Lodge and a copy be furnished the parents of the deceased brother, also a copy to each of the county papers and the Kansas Workman, with a request to publish them.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

FOR SALE. Horses, Brood Mares, and Percheron Stallions; also Jersey Grade Cows. Have several fine farms for sale, among them one of the best stock ranches in the state, good improvements, one thousand acres under fence, plenty of shade, water, etc. Terms to suit purchasers. J. C. McMULLEN.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

PUBLIC SALE. I will sell at public auction to the highest bidder, at my farm one-half mile west of Tannehill, on Thursday, Feb. 26, 1885, commencing at 10 o'clock a.m., the following described property: 4 good work horses, 2 calves, 3 head of milch cows, 4 head of yearling steers, 1 yearling heifer, about 25 hogs, 1 self binder, 1 farm wagon, 1 buggy, 1 mowing machine and rake, 1 drill, 1 stalk-cuter, 1 fanning mill, 1 cultivator, and other farming implements. Terms: Sums over $10, eight months time on bankable security, with interest at ten percent per annum. JOSEPH SMALLEY.



Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Upper Timber Creek correspondent of the Burden Eagle: "Several farmers have lost cattle in this vicinity within the past five days, popularly supposed to be caused by eating smut in stock fields, while others who have herded in stock fields all winter have been exempt from loss. C. P. Cogswell lost a fine heifer last week from dry murrain. Whether caused by smut or not is doubtful. His cattle had, however, been herded in a stock field a few hours each day for three or four days."

"Mr. Bob Strother and Mr. Frank Batch had a difficulty about depredations of stock and a sheep-killing dog the other day. They came to blows, using knives and clubs pretty freely, and had it not been for the intervention of neighbors who were passing, would no doubt have ended very seriously."

"George Ridpath has sold his farm on Timber Creek to E. W. Woolsey, for $5,500. Mr. Woolsey formerly owned the place and his repurchase of it at advanced figures indicates his opinion of Timber Creek farms, and his old homestead particularly."

"W. R. Gilliard, who sold his store and went to Missouri for his health, has returned and repurchased his old Baltimore store--so says report. This is the almost infallible result in all cases of emigration from Kansas. The exceptions are in the cases of those who cannot raise the means to get back."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

The Cambridge News gets off this bit of philosophy. "Did you ever stop to think what a tireless letter-writer a local paper is? Week after week, year after year, it visits your home, telling of the marriages, births, deaths, accidents, comings and goings of people of your acquaintance, the successes or failures, improvements, crops, meetings, revivals, and in fact events of all kinds. It is a reliable source for obtaining correct information; and its visits are regular and sure. Why, if you should undertake to write a letter once a week to an absent friend and tell one half or even one fourth the news that your local paper gives, you would give up in despair. The supposed pleasure soon becomes arduous, the letters grow shorter, further apart, and finally cease. Why the difference? One is supposed pleasure while the other is business from the start."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Correct, Mr. Wellington Standard.

"In a few years the farmers of Kansas will be the most wealthy and prosperous husbandmen in the world. They have learned that they must not depend solely upon their corn or wheat, but invest a part of their money in cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry; and at the same time, plant 'mixed crops.' Since this lesson has been learned, they are making money, and if the policy be continued, the products of our soil, and our dairies, orchards, vineyards, and pastures will supply the markets of the world at no distant day."


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Joseph S. Hill, Administrator, estate of J. H. Boggs. Hackney & Asp, Attorneys for Administrator. Estate to be settled in Probate Court April 6, 1885.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

James A. Goforth, Administrator, estate of Nellie Sellers. Hackney & Asp, Attorneys for Administrator. Estate to be settled April 6, 1885.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Suit in Justice Court before G. H. Buckman, a Justice of the Peace in Winfield. Plaintiff, Daniel D. Miller. Defendant, C. W. Massle. To be heard February 2, 1885. O. M. Seward and Dalton & Madden, Attorneys for Plaintiff.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.




I will give one of these plows to any man that can run a walking plow or sulky plow lighter, doing the same work, and get a decision of farmer judges.


This plow is made of malleable iron, wrought iron and steel, with high, light wheel made of second-growth and seasoned black hickory wood--being made of the best material that can be secured. Parts are nicely proportioned; plow is light (weighs only 400 pounds), yet is the strongest and most durable plow that has been sold in this county. A plow put up of rough material, large, heavy castings, will in the course of two or three seasons shake itself to pieces by its own weight. I can show a number of these sulkies made and sold five years ago that are now in fair shape and do good plowing, and I defy any man to show me any other sulky made that has lasted like the Hapgood. The idea that a man must have a saw mill for a plow is blowing over. Having no landside the plow takes to hard ground like a hot knife to butter. The wheel that takes the place of the landside does away with all friction, and when plows level virtually puts the plow on three wheels, no part touching the ground except edge of share. The wheel has a flange that cuts into the ground slightly and enables this plow to hold its grip in finishing up a land.

The frog to which lay and mould board is bolted is solid, mould stationary, lay slipshare and lay fitting, as holes in frog are always the same--no clap-traps and braces under the bottom of the plow.

Mr. Beavers, Arkansas City, says: "Your roller plow runs lighter than any sulky plow I ever saw run."

Mr. Shanon, New Salem, says: "With your permission, I want to exchange my Hapgood landside for your roller plow."

Mr. Cohaghan, 2 miles east of Winfield, says: "I have broken land 2 or 3 years with a Hapgood sulky plow with my two horses. It is the best breaking plow made."

Mr. Shields, New Salem, says: "When you told me that a Hapgood sulky would run lighter than a walking plow, I did not believe one word of it; but it's a fact, and my neighbors are convinced of that fact now."

Mr. Linn, two miles west of Winfield, says: "My Hapgood Sulky and Lister attachment is the best and finest working piece of machinery I ever owned."

Mr. Bacon, near Tisdale, says: "My Sulky Lister works splendidly. Buy no sulky plow that you can't attach a lister, for the reason that a sulky lister does better work than any other."

Mr. Harbaugh, Pleasant Valley township, says: "I am compelled to buy a sulky lister this spring (spring of 1884); have a bran new sulky plow, but it is not made for a lister and I believe this is the way to plant corn, and want a sulky lister."

He has bought one of me, making his words good. You can put a lister attachment to any Hapgood Sulky Plow.

Did you ever talk with an agent of the Deere plow that did not talk against the Hapgood Sulky Plow? Why? Because if justice were done the farmer and this plow there would be another sold. Call and see the New Improved Plow.

My stock consists of Lee's Improved Hapgood Sulky Plow, Hapgood's Landside Sulky Plow, Hapgood's Sulky Lister, Hapgood's Walking Lister, Hapgood's Plow, Calinder's Harrows and Hay Rakes, Standard Riding Cultivator, Standard Corn Planter, Standard Mower, Champion Corn Planter, Star Corn Planter, Champion Check Rower, Barnes' Wire Check Rower, Champion Drill, Blunt's Press Drill, St. Louis Drill with hoe (same as Gunderlach Drill), Turnbull Wagon, Labelle Wagon, Newton Spring Wagon, McCabe Spring Wagon, Cortland Cutaway Spring Wagon, Excelsior Mower, Thompson Mower and Thompson Hay Rake, Empire Mower and Empire Binder, Plano Binder, Massillon Thresher, C. G. Cooper & Co.'s Thresher, Grinnel Steel Wire, single and double, and a large stock of Repairs. Also a



W. A. LEE,



Some of Those on View at the State Department.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

Though visitors seldom enter it, the library of the State Department contains some of the most valuable historic relics in the possession of the Government. Here is kept the original draft of the Declaration of Independence, and there has been added within the past few years the identical desk upon which Jefferson wrote it. Jefferson's desk is a small mahogany box-like writing-desk, about eighteen inches wide, two feet long, and three inches thick. One might easily take it on his lap to use it, but it was probably laid upon the table while the Declaration was penned upon it. It has a series of small compartments, on one side for pens and writing material, and when opened its top is covered with green baize. Pasted upon one of its inner leaves is a note in Jefferson's own handwriting, dated in Monticello, in which he says the desk was made by a Philadelphia carpenter, and that it was the one on which he wrote the Declaration. This note closes with the following sentence: "Politics as well as religion has its superstitions; these, gaining strength with time, may one day give imaginary value to this relic for its associations with the birth of the great charter of our independence."

In the same case containing this desk, on the shelf above it, lie the staff of Benjamin Franklin and the swords of Washington and Jackson. Benjamin Franklin's cane is a thick, gold-headed stick, of knotted crab tree. It is painted black, highly polished, and on its end it has a brass ferule. Its head is designed, as says Jefferson's will, in the form of a cap of liberty, and its gold is very yellow and shows but little alloy. This cane supported Franklin during all state occasions, and he died he willed it to Washington, say, "If it were a scepter, General Washington has merited it, and would become it." Washington willed it to his nephew, Charles Washington, and the grandson of Charles Washington gave it to the United States.

George Washington's sword, shown here, is the one which he wore when a Colonel, and the one that hung at his side throughout the Revolution. It is not a flashy article, and there is no glitter or gold about it, but its edge looks very sharp, and its blade, slightly tarnished, not over an inch wide, was evidently made to do good service. Its sheath and belt lie beside it. This belt is of yellow buckskin, the plain silver clasp of which is marked with the letters "G. W.," and the sheath is of a dark leather stamped with different figures. George Washington mentions this sword in his will, in which he gives one to each of his nephews, with the request that "they be not unsheathed, except for defense, and the defense of their country and its rights."

Andrew Jackson's sword is a very expensive article. It will weigh twice that of Washington's, and it has a heavy gold handle, and its sheath is of gold and steel. Its wide blade, slightly curving, shines, like a mirror, and at the middle it shows evidences of having been broken in two, and welded together again. Its sheath is somewhat scratched, and it has evidently been pretty well used.

Another curiosity in this room is an immense shell or torpedo from six to eight inches in diameter, and over a foot long, which Elihu Washburne, our Minister at Paris, picked up during the bombardment of Paris and sent to the State Department as a relic. It is a murderous-looking shell, and its description says that it was thrown into the city during the siege. Just below this, in a box about two feet wide, and three feet long, is a plaster cast of one of the first treaties on record. It is a copy of the treaty between the Athenians and Chaldeans, made 446 years before Christ, when Socrates was 22 years old, and Pericles was in his prime. The original of this was engraved on a slab of Pentalic marble, found in the south wall of the Acropolis at Athens. Cleveland Leader.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

There are 3,580 postoffices in the State of Pennsylvania.

The new American Episcopal church in Paris cost $500,000.

The Chinese have known the use of artesian wells from time immemorial.

There are only eight lawyers in Philadelphia that have been in practice over 50 years.

Bismarck wants to have established more direct passenger communication between Berlin and London.

There are 340 hunting packs in England, comprising 10,000 hounds. Their annual cost is $1,750,000.

Englishmen eat brown bread with their oysters, while Americans only eat lemon juice and pepper on them.

The Brewer gold mine in North Carolina has yielded more than $1,000,000, and the Dora Mine $1,100,000 and upward.

By paying his daughter $400 a year to run his kitchen, Lord Coleridge saved enough money to make the trip to America.

John Swinton says the saddest sound heard in New York is the hammering of the tough beef-steak set on boarding house tables.

A Chinese doctor at Victoria, B. C., is reported to have made some remarkable cures in cases where white physicians have failed.

Hundreds of people are said to be actually starving in the North of England, with many thousand more hungry and destitute.

The hot water cure has become a craze. A New York druggist claims he has 1,000 disciples now swallowing tumblerfuls before breakfast.

Miss M. E. Brackton, the most prolific of English story writers, in private life is Mrs. Maxwell, and owns up to have reached the mature age of fifty-six.

The total number of hogs slaughtered annually in the United States is estimated at 30,000,000, the average dressed weight being 175 pounds each.

Pearl-rimmed eye-glasses of violet color are now used extensively by fashionables of both sexes in New York. The originator was a Vassar school girl.

Bacon at 16 cents a pound, says the Fort Worth Gazette, is a greater barrier to the advancement and growth of Texas than either short crops or lack of water.

Eating a small piece of soap at stated intervals is recommended by a Berlin physician as a better remedy for dyspepsia and sour stomach than soda, magnesia, or lime water.

The best cabinet Rhine wine of the vintage of 1868 is reserved especially for the imperial table at Berlin. It is worth $7.50 a bottle. It is made from grapes picked one by one out of the Rhineish vineyards on account of their perfection.

Many towns on the Pacific coast forbid Indians to come within their limits after nightfall--not because the noble red man is dangerous but because he is a thief and a sneak, and his wife, who accompanies him, more upon his order and for his profit.

General Berdan, of sharp-shooting fame, to whose daughter Mr. F. Marion Crawford has just been married, was sometime ago offered a field marshalship by the Sultan, but he declined it, saying he could never wear any other than the American uniform.

Dom Pedro, when recently starting on a pleasure trip on a small team yacht down the Bahia el Todos Santes, from Rio de Janeiro, fell overboard, and was hauled out of the briny by a naval engineer officer and an army officer. Both were made Barons.

Recent vital statistics show that under the age of fifteen there are more boys than girls; but after the fifteenth year, there are more women than men, and between the ages of ninety and one hundred the proportion is three to two in favor of women.

A literary man asked a friend who was personally familiar with the home life of the Lyttons whether he thought Lord Lytton ever did really bite his wife. The reply was: "That I cannot say; but I know that if I had lived only a week with her, I should have done so."

Washington is the paradise of smokers. A drummer days: "There are more cigars and tobacco used there than any other place in this country of its size." This is explained by the fact that a great many of the Government employees have nothing to do but sit around, smoke, and talk of politics.

A Bostonian writes: "I cured myself of an annoying habit of stammering by inhaling a deep breath between every few words, and by never allowing myself to speak unless the lungs were fully inflated. A little careful attention soon made the practice a habit, and now I never stammer unless much excited."

After much experimenting Dr. Richardson has found a satisfactory means of causing painless death, and has introduced it into the Home for Lost Dogs in London. The animals to be killed are placed in a chamber charged with a mixture of carbolic oxide and chloroform vapor, when they tranquilly fall asleep and wake no more.

President-elect Cleveland is a fine dancer and will, it is said, "trip the light fantastic toe" at his inaugural ball. He will be the first President since Lincoln who would or could go through the merry, mazy figures of the cotillion or reel. General Jackson and wife danced at a ball, given in their honor, to the tune of "'Possum up a Gum Tree." Augusta Chronicle.

Oscar Wilde suggests that for the future ladies should leave off stays entirely and adopt the Eastern garb, notably as regards the continuations and slippers. Like other geniuses, he is forgetful of details, and does not say how slippers are to be worn on a muddy day in November. For men he recommends the period of the Charleses as being the most becoming (not to say the most expensive) age from which to copy.

Representative J. Randolph Tucker, the intimate friend of Garfield, relates that the latter once asked him if he knew where the National motto, "E Pluribus Unum," came from. Tucker admitted that he did not. "Well, it comes from a description in Horace, of the preparation of a Roman salad," and he turned to it. There, surely enough was the list of ingredients, and the remark that the result was "e pluribus unum."

Lord Salisbury deserves his success for during his recent campaign in Scotland he appeared on a railway platform and addressed a crowd, clad from his waistband upward in full evening dress, and below in full Highland costume. True, this remarkable attire, such as Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed in, was the result of a fit of absent-mindedness, but that fact little mitigated the horrors of the situation. Nor did the mind of Cecil hear much comfort in the strident whisper of his valet behind him, "My Lord! You've forgotten these!"--brandishing a pair of trousers meanwhile. No, after the ordeal he deserves the solace of success.

It has been laid down as an axiom in diamond lore that the precious stone was capable of absorbing rays of light and afterward emitting them in the dark. While this was abundantly proved by theory, it has been difficult to put it to an actual test, for naturally the great diamonds of the world are not accessible for the purpose. Recently, however, a private person, the fortunate possessor of a stone of 92 karats, valued at $300,000, lent his diamond for scientific investigation. These have been very satisfactorily conducted, and the phosphorescent quality of the stone may be regarded as proved. The stone was exposed for an hour to the direct action of the sun's rays, and then removed to a dark room. For more than twenty minutes it emitted light strong enough to make a sheet of white paper held near it perfectly visible.

The most serious and cold snow storm of the season prevailed in all the northwestern states last Sunday.

A San Francisco man lost a carload of champagne on the election. He paid the bet, too.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 19, 1885.

UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH. Services every Sabbath at 11 a.m. and 7½ p.m. Sabbath School at 9 a.m. Prayer meeting every Wednesday evening. J. H. SNYDER, Pastor.

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. Preaching on Sabbath at 11 a.m. and 7½ p.m. Prayer meeting at 7½ Wednesday evening. Sunday School at 3 p.m. W. R. KIRKWOOD, Pastor.

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. Services every Sabbath at 11 a.m. and 7½ p.m. Prayer meeting every Wednesday evening at 7½ o'clock. Young People's Meeting at 7½ Thursday evening. H. KELLY, Pastor.

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. Preaching at 11 a.m., and 7½ p.m. Prayer meeting Wednesday evening at 7½ p.m. Young Peoples' meeting Thursday at 7 ½ p.m., Sunday School 9:30 a.m. Deacon B. F. Wood, Supt. J. H. REIDER, Pastor.

CHRISTIAN. Services every Sunday at 11 a.m. and 7:30 p.m. Sabbath School at 9:30 a.m. Prayer meeting every Thursday evening at 7:30 p.m. J. S. MYERS, Pastor.

AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL. Services every Sunday at 11 a.m. and 7:30 p.m. Sunday school at 3 p.m. Prayer meeting every Thursday evening. WM. DAVIS, Pastor.

ROMAN CATHOLIC. Services every Sunday at 11 a.m. FATHER J. F. KELLEY, Pastor.




Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885. Front Page.

If in penning this series of articles on forestry, any brother farmer becomes more interested and better informed on this subject, and will thus be induced to surround his home with the beauties and comforts of shade and protection, and supply not only his own wants for fuel, posts, etc., but in a few years by not an over amount of exertion, be able to supply his less intelligent and enterprising neighbors' wants, then this effort will not be in vain. A self-consciousness of duty, faithfully performed, in calling attention to this question that is a vital one to the state of Kansas and to everyone of her citizens, and thus induce persons everywhere to engage earnestly in the work is the only incentive of the writer.

To the reader I would say that it may be well for you to cut out these articles, and preserve them for future reference at any time. They may sometime be useful, if in no other way than to provoke criticism and discussion and comparison of experience. You may clip off the name of the author, and consign it to the flames, but, as you hold your own interest and that of your family dear, do not neglect to plant trees.

I am aware that there are persons who appreciate this matter, yet from lack of experience or financial inability to expend money in buying young trees fail to do from time to time what they very much desire to do. To such I would say, do not become disheartened in this more than any other enterprise; but strike out boldly, manfully, with such means as you have, and if you cannot procure the most valuable varieties for planting, secure the best you can get. Get peach pits, and if they have remained in a dry state, if planted thus, they may not germinate until the second season, but by opening them carefully and planting early in spring, they are quite sure to grow. If you cannot get such seed, you may be able to get some seedling trees or find good pits under trees that bore the season previous. Plant in rows about six feet apart, and trees or seed from one to four feet in the row. Then you may procure young cottonwood trees or cuttings of the same without the outlay of any money. Thus you may very soon produce your own fruit and also firewood, and what is paramount to these you and your stock will have the comforts of protection from the destructive wind storms; then, too, you will have the company and songs of insectivorous birds to not only cheer but to also aid you in the battle with insect foes.

Such planting will form the nucleus for more extensive plantings of better kinds and in a few years your farm will grow valuable, and not only a pleasant place to see but a pleasant place to live; a home that the children can learn to love, and from thence, if useful books and interesting and instructive papers for the children are regularly supplied, backed by the moral example and teachings of the parents; where "hog and hominy" is bountifully sandwiched with fruits and vegetables and where wholesome diversion is allowed at proper times instead of all work, the children will never stray; or, if they, in an evil hour, wander away, very soon, prodigal like, they will seek the shady bowers and pure influences of such a home.


In speaking of the varieties to plant for forestry purposes, no attempt will be made to give an extended list, or a scientific classification of the same, but I will name in a plain manner only such varieties as have proven successful in Southern Kansas; and such as are valuable for the various purposes of the farm and the mechanic arts; preference always being given to those exhibiting the greatest degree of health and power of resisting the attacks of insects.

Catalpa Speciosa is a forest tree of large size, as found in low lands of Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee, Missouri, and Arkansas. Though found native in the low, rich, alluvial lands of the above named states, its power of adaptation is remarkable. It is grown in Ohio and Pennsylvania, on the Hudson in New York, and as far north as Cape Cod; in the west; in Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska; and everywhere it is growing rapidly in favor. The writer knows of no tree having so many desirable qualities with so few objectionable ones; and that we can look to with such hopeful anticipations of rewarding the planter to the same degree in the immediate future. It is easily propagated; transplants with fine success; grows rapidly, free from insect enemies; a beautiful tree; free from thorns; will not sprout from the mutilated roots; the leaves or bark are not liable to be eaten by the stock; will sprout from the stump, thus the tree can be reproduced when desired; makes excellent fire-wood; the lumber is highly prized for furniture and wagon stuff, and the posts and railroad ties are next to imperishable, posts having been known to be in the ground for upwards of eighty years, and yet perfectly sound. I have no hesitation in placing it at the head of the list.

Black Walnut. No description need be given of this indispensable tree. The lumber is now well nigh exhausted, and the price has so greatly advanced that in many instances several hundred dollars have been paid for a single tree. It is easily and cheaply grown from the nuts; free from disease, and, usually, free from injurious insects; the trees are not often injured by stock; it is adapted to up-land and low-land, and no extensive plantation should be without a large proportion of walnut.

Green Ash. This, like the walnut, is a slow grower, but the value of the timber in the various mechanic arts is so important that it should not be omitted from any considerable effort at forestry.

Osage Orange. This is a medium slow grower, requiring twelve to fourteen years to make good fence posts, and twenty to twenty-five years for railroad ties; for grape stakes, eight to ten years. It has many of the good qualities of the catalpa, with the differences of the latter being a harder wood, susceptible of a very fine polish, so valuable for wagons, that it may be used for this purpose while green, it not being liable to shrink in seasoning. There is abundant evidence of the durability of the timber; some who have been familiar with the native forests of Texas and the various purposes for which the wood has been used for forty years, say they never had found a man who had ever seen the heart wood rotten. Prof. J. B. Turner, of Jacksonville, Illinois, writes that he has bean and grape polls in his garden that have been in use at least twenty years, and that he no more thinks of housing an Osage Orange whiffle or double-tree, if all of heart wood, than to think of housing his crowbars, to keep them from rotting. This quality of the timber is an important matter to persons having old hedge rows, the larger trees of which may be cut without material injury to the hedge, and used for various purposes on the farm. While the timber is durable, so are the thorns; this must be borne in mind, and while it would prove a great private and public benefit to have the orange largely grown, each planter must learn for himself whether he can bear the vexation and danger of the thorns. Leaving the thorns out of the question, it is one of the best trees for shelter-belts or wind-breaks.

Soft Maple. It is a rapid growing tree, makes a fine shade, but its wood is not especially valuable; is, like some others, liable to be attacked by borers.

Cottonwood. This is so well-known that a description would be superfluous. It is the most rapid growing of any of our forest trees. I took the measure of one tree in Vernon township that was of nine years growth, and measured sixty inches in circumference, and will make three-fourths of a cord of wood. This with the soft maple, is pre-eminently the poor man's tree. The cottonwood has, aside from its rapid growth, but little to recommend it. It should not be planted on thin upland as it will, most likely, be early destroyed by borers.

Morrello Cherry. This fruit tree is here referred to on account not of its fruit (as it is well-known) but its adaptation to growing and doing quite well in prairie sod. I know of no tree that will succeed to so great a degree under such bad treatment.

The elm (white and red) grows slowly, but at last makes a magnificent tree. Being well known, further reference at this time is useless.

The hackberry is a native and well-known, grows rapidly, and is rather a desirable tree.

The oaks should only be planted on our bottom lands as at best they grow slowly.

Pecan. This is a valuable tree, not only for its nuts but for mechanical purposes, and should be planted much more largely than it is.

Ash (native). The lumber of the ash is in great demand, and rapidly increasing. It grows quite rapidly and will be very profitable in the timber plantation. Objections are made to it on account of it being so prolific in seed, which, blowing to a considerable distance, is liable to soon spread over the farm greatly to the annoyance of the owner. However, a few such on each quarter section, for the present at least, might prove a great blessing.

Honey Locust. This is also a native; is easily grown from seed; grows rapidly, is quite free from disease and insects' attacks; grows to a large size, and the wood is quite durable. The thorns are its great drawback. Its several good qualities overcome to some extent, this objection.

Kentucky Coffee Tree. This is a well-known, and in many respects, a very desirable tree. It adapts itself to most soils and for all purposes for which the honey locust is prized is quite preferable. It is one of the few trees that have proved successful in western Kansas.

Box Elder is a native our section and is well known. It grows rapidly and makes a beautiful lawn and shade tree; well adapted to street planting. Its wood is not so especially esteemed as some others, in the mechanic arts; yet for fire-wood and purposes before named, it should not be excluded. It is easily propagated and transplants readily. A good syrup and sugar can be made from its sap, but it is not likely to be extensively planted for this purpose. It is well adapted to most soils and localities in this section. The chief difficulty in growing it is the borers, which frequently damage and sometimes destroy the trees. They should be headed low so that their own branches or those of other trees may shade or protect their trunks from the afternoon sun, and kept in vigorous growth and thus largely secure them from the borers' attacks.

Black Locust. This, a well known tree in the older states, where for many years in most localities it is subject to the attack of borers; so much so that but little effort is made to grow it, and in fact it is only perpetuated by sprouting from the root and stump, which, as well by seed is the natural method of reproduction. Its wood is prized for its durability. The tree grows rapidly, attaining quite a large sized tree in ten to twelve years. In rapidity of growth it excels most others approaching that of the comparatively worthless cottonwood. Where tried in the southern and western part of Kansas, it seems to be perfectly at home and more than meeting the expectation of the planter, and thus far it has been exempt from the attacks of its old enemy, the borer, but whether this favor will be continued is a matter of doubt and anxiety. It should be planted in ground to be permanently used for this purpose as it will be difficult to get clear of it on account of its tendency to sprout from the roots. It would be well to include this valuable tree in your planting.

Russian Mulberry. This is perhaps one of the most promising of a long list of exotic trees. There has been a great diversity of views expressed by those who have tried it in limited quantities. The main objection being urged that it is too dwarfish or spreading in its habit of growth. It is now claimed by its friends that it should be propagated only from seed, as only where grown from cuttings does it take the objectionable form. Certain it is that the Mennonites who came from Russia, and brought the seed with them, are meeting with eminent success in growing it in large quantities for hedging and timber and for silk worm culture in central and western Kansas. It is perfectly hardy, healthy, and free from insect enemies, transplants successfully, is free from thorns, grows more rapidly than our native black mulberry, attains a large size, and its timber is of the most durable kind. Nothing equals it for a wind break. In reply to a letter inquiring in regard to this tree, Hon. L. A. Simmons, of Wellington, writes me that in consequence of its spreading habit, he had not felt favorable to it until last season. He cut some of his trees to the ground and from the stump he allowed but one sprout to grow, which grew upright, quite to his satisfaction. The trees that were not thus cut back produced a fine crop of fruit, which was relished very well by his family, and the birds gave them their exclusive attention while it lasted, and thus saved his crop of cherries. The young trees, grown from seed, can be purchased from reliable nurserymen at reasonable rates; and I would advise planting them for wind breaks and for their profit, for purposes above named; and ultimately, by judicious thinning for timber. It makes a fine shade tree; and if you plant it for any or all of the above named purposes; and at anytime you desire to engage in silk growing, which, evidently is a coming industry for this state, you will have the food for the worms.

Evergreens, Red Cedar, Scotch Pine, Austrian Pine, White Pine, Norway Spruce, and Arbor Vitae or White Cedar. Their relative success is about in the order named and for the various purposes of the lawn and for timber are highly prized. It is claimed that the red cedar is the only native evergreen of which Kansas can boast; and right well has she made the selection. It grows even better here than in the eastern states. It will attain a height of ten feet in a less number of years. The value of its timber is well known, it is quite ornamental, will bear any amount of shearing, is a fine shelter for birds, and as a wind break nothing but a tightly built stone fence will equal it. The other evergreens named have a high merit peculiar to each, but in this section at this time are planted only for ornamental purposes.

Next week I hope to give additional facts that will further show, unmistakably the profits of timber culture, and also give methods of propagating and growing young trees.



Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

February 21st, the monument to Geo. Washington was dedicated in the Capital of the Nation which bears his name. The addresses of Hon. Robert C. Winthrop and Hon. John W. Daniels would occupy two pages of this paper, which is more room than we can spare. We give the opening and closing portions of Mr. Winthrop's address.

President Arthur, Senators and Representatives of the United States:

By a joint resolution of Congress, you have called upon me to address you in this Hall today, on the completion of yonder colossal monument to the Father of his Country. Nothing less imperative than your call could have brought me before you for such an effort. Nearly seven and thirty years have passed away since it was my privilege to perform a similar service at the laying of the cornerstone of that monument. In the prime of manhood, and in the pride of official station, it was not difficult for me to speak to assembled thousands, in the open air, without notes, under the scorching rays of a midsummer sun. But what was easy for me then is impossible for me now. I am here today, as I need not tell you, in far other condition for the service you have assigned me--changed, changed in almost everything, except an inextinguishable love for my country and its union, and an undying reverence for the memory of Washington. On these alone I rest for inspiration, assured that, with your indulgence, and the blessings of God which I devoutly invoke, they will be sufficient to sustain me in serving as a medium for keeping up the continuity between the hearts and hands which laid the foundation of this gigantic structure, and those younger hearts and hands which have at last brought forth the capstone with southings. It is for this you have summoned me. It is for this alone I have obeyed your call.

Meantime, I cannot wholly forget that the venerable ex-president, John Quincy Adams--at whose death bed, in my official chamber beneath this roof, I was a privileged watcher thirty-seven years ago this very day--had been originally designated to pronounce the cornerstone oration, as one who had received his first commission, in the long and brilliant career at home and abroad which awaited him, from the hands of Washington himself. In that enviable distinction I certainly have no share; but I may be pardoned for remembering that, in calling upon me to supply the place of Mr. Adams, it was borne in mind that I had but lately taken the oath as Speaker at his hands and from his lips, and that thus, as was suggested at the time, the electric chain, though lengthened by a single link, was still unbroken. Let me hope that the magnetism of that chain may not even yet be entirely exhausted, and that I may still catch something of its vivifying and quickening power, while I attempt to bring to the memory of Washington the remnants of a voice which is failing of a vigor which, I am conscious, is ebbing away.

The Closing.

Our matchless Obelisk stands proudly before us today, and we hail it with the exaltations of a united and glorious Nation. It may, or may not, be proof against the cavils of critics, but nothing of human construction is against the casualties of time. The storms of Winter must blow and beat upon it. The action of the elements must soil and discolor it. The lightnings of Heaven may scar and blacken it. An earthquake may shake its foundations. Some mighty tornado, or resistless cyclone, may rend its massive blocks asunder and hurl huge fragments to the ground. But the character which it commemorates and illustrates is secure. It will remain unchanged and unchangeable in all its consummate purity and splendor, and will more and more command the homage of succeeding ages in all regions of the earth. God be praised, that character is ours forever!

We also give the opening and closing remarks of Mr. Daniels.

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen of the Commission:

Solitary and alone in its grandeur stands forth the character of Washington in history: solitary and alone like some peak that has no fellow in the mountain range of greatness.

"Washington," says Guizot, "did the two greatest things which in politics it is permitted to man to attempt. He maintained by peace the independence of his country which he had conquered by war. He founded a free government in the names of the principles of order, and by re-establishing their sway." Washington did indeed do these things. But he did more. Out of disconnected fragments he moulded a whole and made it a country. He achieved his country's independence by the sword. He maintained that independence by peace as by war. He finally established both his country and its freedom in an enduring frame of Constitutional Government, fashioned to make Liberty and Union one and inseparable. These four things together constitute the unexampled achievements of Washington.

The Closing.

Encompassed by the inviolate seas stands today the American Republic which he founded--a free Great Britain--uplifted above the powers and principles of the earth, even as his monument is uplifted over roof and dome and spire of the multitudinous city.

Long live the Republic of Washington! Respected by mankind, beloved of all its sons, long may it be the asylum of the poor and oppressed of all lands and religions--long may it be the citadel of that Liberty which writes beneath the Eagle's folded wings: "We will sell to no man, we will deny to no man, Right and Justice."

Long live the United States of America! Filled with the free, magnanimous spirit, crowned by the wisdom, blessed by the moderation, hovered over by the guardian angel of Washington's example; may they be ever worthy in all things to be defended by the blood of the brave who knew the rights of man--may they be each a column, and all together, under the Constitution, a perpetual Temple of Peace, unshadowed by a Caesar's palace; at whose altar may freely commune all who seek the union of liberty and brotherhood.

Long live our country! Oh, long through the undying ages may it stand, far removed in fact as in space from the old world's feuds and follies--solitary and alone in its grandeur and its glory, itself the immortal monument of him whom Providence commissioned to teach man the power of Truth, and to prove to the Nations that their redeemer liveth.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The statistics of crime in this country for the year just closed are in some respects quite startling. For instance, the murders foot up 3,377; against 1,494 in 1883--an increase of more than 5 per day. The number of executions during the year was 111, only five more than during the year preceding; but it is proper to add that public sentiment did something toward the correction of this discrepancy between the number of killings and the number of hangings by applying lynch law to 219 murderers, against 98 thus disposed of in 1883. In the matter of suicides the showing is equally remarkable, the cases for 1884 numbering 1,897, against 910 during 1883. These statistics are not complete of course, but they are nearly enough so to demonstrate that the past year was, for reasons of some kind, peculiarly given to the taking of human life by violent means.

Other Items on Front Page.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

WHAT THE SEXTON SAID. Mr. Lewis Edwards, Sexton of Mt. Vernon Place Church, Washington, D. C., certifies that for several months past he had been suffering with a severe cough which distressed him day and night. He was very much debilitated, with constant pains in his chest. After trying various remedies he used the Red Star Cough Cure, which gave him entire relief.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Important matters of state requiring his presence at the capital during the session of the Legislature, Gov. Martin was compelled to decline the invitation of Col. Bacon, commissioner for Kansas at the New Orleans Fair, to be present and deliver an address on Kansas day, February 18. Gov. Martin asked Col. Bacon to select some Kansas man now present at New Orleans to act as orator on that day. The 18th was selected on account of the Mardi Gras festivities occurring on that date.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Kansas respectfully informs the Congress of the United States that Texas cannot have a twelve mile cattle trail across this State and Kansas is right. Kansas is always right.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

FREE DISTRIBUTION. "What causes the great rush at J. N. Harter's Drug Store?" The free distribution of sample bottles of Dr. Bosanko's Cough and Lung Syrup, the most popular remedy for Coughs, Colds, Consumption, and Bronchitis, now on the market. Regular size 50 cents and $1.20.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

To get even with their doctors, two families in Atlanta recently ornamented the graves of their dead children with bottles containing what remained of the medicines prescribed by the attending physicians. The bottles bore the druggist's labels, the prescriptions, and the names of the physicians.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. Howells, it is said, does all his literary work on a type writer.

Frederick Ward's physician denies that Ward is insane.

Sarah Bernhardt is said to receive $800 a month for her contributions to newspapers.

General Ravel, the famous panto mimist, claims the doubtful honor of the invention of roller skates.

A bronze statue of General Blair, to be placed in Forest Park, St. Louis, has been finished in Cincinnati. It is ten ft. high.

It was reported that Mrs. Stowe has requested her publishers to restore to her novel "Nina Gordon," the original title, "Dred."

Sir Arthur Sullivan does most of his writing--musical composition, rather--between midnight and sunrise. He selects that time because it is so quiet.

The Washington Star complains that the picture of the late catastrophe in that office, published in the New York Graphic, hurt the establishment more than did the fire.

Wm. Neal, sentenced to be hanged Feb. 28, for participation in the Ashland, Kentucky, murder two years ago, wrote a letter in his own blood declaring his innocence of that crime.

Mrs. Agnes Booth was married recently at Boston for the fourth time. Her new husband is John H. Schoffel. She is to live in New York, and will not retire from the stage.

James Powell, a colored man, died at Lynn, N. Y., Thursday last at the age of 106 years. He recollected seeing Washington and several years ago accompanied an arctic expedition.

Princess Louise's illustrations and sketches of Canadian life and scenery are used exclusively in illustrating the new guide book to Canada, compiled and just issued by the Dominion Government.

Texas is paying $90,000 a year in pensions to 600 alleged survivors of Sam Houston's command in the war of 1835-7. New applications are coming in all the time; fourteen were received in one day recently and the legislature is trying to repeal the law on the ground that one-half or two-thirds of the claims now being paid are fraudulent.

David Dudley Field, now 80 years old: "My receipt for self-preservation, is exercise. I walk every day from my house to my office, a distance of about three and one-half miles, and I feel as well today as I ever did in my life. I have taken care of myself, and as I have a good constitution I suppose that is the reason I feel so well."


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Kansas has 242 working lodges of Odd Fellows.

Ten hogs sold at Chapman, weighed 4,700 pounds.

Maria Halpin is the name of a township in Smith County.

Bob Burdette lectured at Concordia and Clay Center recently.

Seven thousand pounds of butter were made at Osborn in a month.

Wolves are a great trouble to the sheep ranchmen of Sheridan County.

A Millbrook farmer has lost 200 sheep from overfeeding on sorghum.

A Cedarville horse jumped into a well forty feet deep. It is there yet.

Glanders are making an appearance among some of the horses of Rooks County.

Judge John Martin, of Topeka, and Ex-Gov. Glick, of Atchison, both democrats, have "reconciled."

A project is now on foot among the members of the G. A. R. at Newton to erect a $4,000 building.

Stafford County has had a great wolf hunt, everything connected with it being hurt except the wolves.

The question for debate in the Sedan lyceum last week was: "Resolved, that lawyers are a curse to society."

The spring immigration has already commenced. Many thousands of people will settle in our State this year.

Belle Plaine boasts of a man, Mr. Mat Johns, who measures full 6 feet 7½ inches in height--a regular Kansas production.

Kansas Odd Fellows, through their lodges, contributed $1,811.48 for the benefit of the Ohio river flood sufferers last year.

It is semi-officially announced that the Southern Kansas railroad is to be extended from Attica to Medicine Lodge as spring opens.

Fifty-six members of the Topeka Democratic Flambeau Club have decided to go to Washington March 4th, and take along a band.

The Emporia Republican announces that D. L. Moody, the well known evangelist, is to be in that city on the 24th and 25th of March.

The judiciary committee of the State Senate is rather a highly colored affair. Four of its members are Blue, Green, White, and Redden.

Gov. Martin has recently received a letter from Germany that the Bender family are there living like nabobs. Wonder where else they'll turn up?

Webb Wilder will soon issue another copy of his annals. We advise everybody who wishes to keep posted about Kansas affairs to get Wilder's annals.

Miss Carrie Short, of McPherson, has been commissioned a notary public by Governor Martin. She is said to be the only female notary public in the State.

The wife of a Caldwell preacher takes turns with him in preaching. When the parishioners see the old gentleman digging worms in the back yard, they know it is his Sunday off.

Wichita has chartered two cars to take the members of the Grand Army of the Republic to Fort Scott to attend the annual encampment. Col. Stewart, of Wichita, is a candidate for Grand Commander.

At a recent oratorical contest at Lawrence, among representatives selected from the State institutions, the first prize was won by Solon Gilmore, the second by a colored youth, B. K. Bruce, a nephew of ex-Senator Bruce.

A man named Frank Randles was lately arrested at Iola, charged with incest in marrying his cousin. There is a law in Kansas making the marrying of cousins a penitentiary offense, but like many other laws, it is practically a dead letter, and but few are ever arrested for the offense. If all who have done this were arrested, it would put a good many in the penitentiary. Randles was bound over to court, and in default of $1,000 bail, was committed to jail. He escaped recently, and is now at large, and we doubt very much if any great effort will be made to recapture him. Colony Free Press.

Wichita Eagle: "Rough or smooth, hot or cold, rain or shine, the canvass covered wagons move west. Several passed through this city this week. In this season of industrial and commercial depression all eyes are turned toward prosperous Kansas, the banner state of the Union. A gentleman just in from Denver says that not a drop of rain has fallen there during the last five months and that the stagnation in business eclipses anything in the previous history of that city. There is absolutely nothing doing and the people are leaving there as fast as they can. Hundreds of men are coming in from the mountains every day and leaving the country. Kansas is all the talk.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

February 18, 1885.

Executive Committee of the Southwestern Fair Circuit met subject to the call of the President at the Arlington parlors, Wellington, Kansas, President H. C. St. Clair in the chair. Delegates present: D. L. Kretsinger, Secretary of Cowley County; Hasty & Fultz, of Sumner County; Potter & Shelly, of Harper County; Foutz & Peckham, of Sedgwick County. President St. Clair stated the object of calling the meeting on this date was from the fact that a meeting on the date fixed for March 4, would be too late for the purpose intended. Call confirmed. The Committee then proceeded to the classification of the premium list for 1885, in the following order.



That the Awarding Committee reject any animal whose pedigree is not authenticated, and which cannot be traced back without a flaw on either side of sire or dam, to well-known English, French, or American thoroughbred stock. Soundness, symmetry and size, as well as the utility of the recorded animal for improving the stock of horses in this state should be considered. . . .


On motion, all Fairs in the District were requested to adopt the above classification, reserving to each Association the right to offer such premiums as they could best afford.

On motion, each Fair in the District was requested to complete the Classification of Agricultural, Horticultural, Fine Arts, Textile Fabrics, Miscellaneous Exhibits, and Speed Department, as would best suit their respective locations.

On motion, each Fair in the District be requested to appoint from among their directors a committee of three, on whom shall devolve the duty of the appointment of all awarding committees in their respective associations. Mr. Fultz, of Sumner, withdrew his motion of January 22, regarding 10 percent on all entries.

On motion, each Association in the District was requested to adopt for their Speed Dept. the National Trotting Association Rules; and all entries for the District shall close Sept. 1, 1885. For running, the Lexington, Ky. Rules.

On motion, each Sec. of Fair in the District be requested to furnish, as soon as completed, D. L. Kretsinger, Circuit Sec., a copy of Speed premiums, that the whole may be published together; each association to pay their pro rata part of said publication, and to be furnished an equal number of copies for distribution.

On motion, the Circuit Secretary was authorized to correspond for attractions, also for prices on pictorial printing.

On motion, the Secretary was instructed to arrange with Col. Loper, as Starting Judge for the District, and report terms to the various associations for confirmation.

On motion, the meeting adjourned subject to the call of the President.

D. L. KRETSINGER, Secretary.



Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Denver is to have an electric railroad. A company has been incorporated with a capital stock of $500,000.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Ex-Governor St. John owns an interest in a mine in New Mexico in which a rich vein of gold is said to have been discovered.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

President Arthur is said to contemplate a foreign trip after his retirement from office, and then will return to the practice of law as consulting attorney in his old firm.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The old Liberty bell seems to have proved the successful charm at New Orleans, as the Exposition has been paying expenses since its arrival, something it had not done before.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Governor Marmaduke, of Missouri, has been guilty of the worse act of nepotism that has occurred in the country. He has appointed his own brother warden of the penitentiary. Poor old Missouri.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Miss Mary Lincoln, the young daughter of the Secretary of War, was presented at the President's last reception. She is a young girl of fourteen, and named for her grandmother, Mrs. Abraham Lincoln.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Capt. J. D. Conner reminds us that we had about two feet of snow in this region in the winter of 1883-4. Sixty was the year of the drouth and it was hard lines hauling aid from Atchison through the deep snow. Champion. [Yes, they had "lines."]

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

There is no wisdom equal to silence. President Cleveland has industriously held his jaw ever since the election, and has thereby grown about fifty percent in public estimation. He is now called the "Sphinx of Albany."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

News has been received of the murder of E. F. Daugherty, a farmer living in Paris township, Linn County, by a young man, a neighbor, named Doyle. It is reported that Daugherty's death was the result of a quarrel over a cow.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The contest between Morton and Evarts for the caucus nomination for senator, in New York, is called money vs. sentiment, and yet sentiment won. Even in New York the worship of money bags is not entire. Let us be thankful that it is so.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. Cleveland still seems to be in the fog about his cabinet. So many great Democratic statesmen have constructed so many different cabinets for him that it is enough to bewilder a stronger mind than the incoming president is reputed to possess.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

An interesting controversy is going on in the columns of the New York World as to how long a person can hold out his arm. We have not, perhaps, given this important subject all the attention which it merits, but we should say that he can hold out his arm just as long as it is, and not an inch longer.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Citizen Rossa magnanimously announces his intention of not prosecuting Mrs. Dudley, but the officials very properly insist on putting the case through. We can understand Mr. Rossa's objection to swearing he was shot in the back and that he begged for money at the hands of a woman.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The house committee on appropriations will recommend the appropriations of $4,935,000 for sea coast fortifications. This is a larger sum than has ever been appropriated at any one time for expenditure in putting our sea coast in a defensive state. Last year only $700,000 were donated to this purpose.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Gen. Marmaduke's brother, the new warden of the Missouri penitentiary, wants the state to build a branch penitentiary as the Jefferson City institution is too small to accommodate its guests. If the people of Missouri were all where they ought to be, we imagine that about one-fourth of them would be in "pens."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The Champion thinks a good home a wonderful civilizer. "When the shanty grows into a stately residence, with trees, shrubbery, and a garden, the householder keeps inside his front gate and looks after his roses, cabbages, and babies, instead of rushing down town to meet World, Flesh, Devil, and the other boys."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

We had the pleasure of entertaining the Hon. John F. Ogilvie, of Columbus, Ohio, last Saturday. Mr. Ogilvie is the Chairman of the State Republican Committee of Ohio, who conducted the brilliant campaign of last year with such wonderful success. He is comparatively a young man, a gentleman by instinct and culture, with all the elements of a great organizer and leader.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

General Wolseley's spies, it is reported, have returned from Khartoum with statements at variance with those made by the informants of General Wilson. The spies hold to the theory that Khartoum has not been captured and that Gordon is still alive. Counting the spies no more reliable than the natives who gave the reports of the massacre an interesting question of doubt is raised.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A bill to establish a whipping post in every jail for the punishment of wife beaters is before the Pennsylvania Legislature. It ought to pass. The punishment exactly corresponds to the nature of the offense. Any man who strikes his wife ought to be given forty lashes by the sheriff. Any man whose wife tries to strike him should have deference enough for the other sex to crawl under the bed and stay there until the lady promises to let him alone. Emporia Republican.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The gratitude of the Democrats as well as the asininity of the little faction of St. John prohibitionists in compassing the elevation of the Democratic party to power was exhibited in congress the other day when the Democratic majority of the House squelched the resolution to make prohibition national. If it had not been for the help this crank faction of the great army of prohibitionists in this country gave the Democratic party last fall, it would still be out in the cold and prohibition would have a chance.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

An epidemic of alarming fatality has broken out among horses and cattle in Sharon township, Noble County, Ohio. Three-fourths of the horses in the vicinity have died, and the disease is extending. Cattle are also attacked. The loss to date is fully $20,000. The disease appears to effect the kidneys, killing the animals in about thirty-six hours. Their suffering is intense. It is thought the disease was first caused by ergot in blasted grain; that the first animals seized caught cold, and by some means the disorder assumed an infectious character.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

As the A., T. & S. F. railroad owns Topeka and has done and is doing much to build up that burg, it is to be expected that Topeka men and Topeka newspapers will draw all their inspiration on matters concerning railroad legislation for that railroad company. They are therefore opposed to maximum rates and opposed to anyone who advocates maximum rate legislation. Hon. Webb McNall, of Smith County, made a two hours' speech the other day in favor of the Simpson maximum rate bill and we judge that it was a ringing one and hit hard by the efforts the Topeka papers made to belittle it.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

In Congress the bill to prohibit the importation of "foreign cheap laborers" under contract, which had passed the House, has been amended somewhat in the Senate and has passed 50 to 9, so now it goes back to the House for concurrence in the Senate amendments and will no doubt become a law. It provides a fine not exceeding $500 and imprisonment not exceeding six months for each laborer brought or assisted to this country under contract, express or implied, to render services for such assistance, against each and every person assisting in any way including the master of the vessel bringing the laborer.

This is a move in the right direction. We believe in protecting American laborers from foreign competition in every reasonable way, both by protective tariffs and prohibition of importation of cheap competition. We are glad to see that both our Senators, as well as members of the House, were string supporters of this measure.

This is another blow at the old tradition, superstition, and foolishness that this country should be the asylum of the poor and oppressed of all nations, which tradition has made this country the dumping ground for pauperism, vice, and ignorance of all nations and the rendezvous for the thugs and scoundrels of all nations. Here they are free to plot their crimes, murders, robberies, arson, and dynamite conspiracies against not only foreign people and countries but against American citizens and property. It has filled our cities with ignorant and vicious brutes who are led by smart scoundrels, and these scoundrels become so powerful as to overawe opposition by fear of harm, and they control not only the government of cities but of states. There is no city in Europe so viciously, barbarously, and expressively governed as the city of New York, which is under the dominion of these thugs, supported by the hordes of vice and ignorance for which this country is the asylum. But this is not the worst of it. The perpetuity of our free institutions depends upon the virtue and intelligence of the American people. Below a certain average in these respects no country can be governed except by imperial power supported by bayonets. The higher that average is, the more free, noble, and pure will be our institutions, the greater will be the happiness and prosperity of our people, the less will be suffering and want and crime. The more we receive of this foreign vicious and ignorant element, the lower will be the average standard of intelligence in this country. With all our immense and benevolent institutions, our schools and churches, our high taxes to support these adjuncts, to prosecute and punish for crime, to reclaim the vicious and to support the paupers, the general average of virtue and intelligence in this country seems to be on the decline while it ought to be on the rapid advance.

We believe the true policy of our government would be a quarantine law preventing the landing on our shores of persons who cannot bring proofs with them that they are persons of good character, fair intelligence, and not accused of crime. Admit, if you please, persons infected with cholera, or yellow fever, or leprosy, but for God's sake keep out the moral lepers if possible.

Let us do the best we can with those we already have fastened upon us to educate, reclaim, reform, imprison, and hang them according to their various degrees of barbarism, but let us have no more of them and only immigrants who will not be much below the average standard of virtue and intelligence in this country.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The passenger train which left Chicago on the Wabash road February 13, arrived at St. Louis, Mo., with as weary and disgruntled a lot of passengers as have arrived at the Union depot for many a day. Their experiences constitute a strange recital of suffering and adventure, in view of the country they came through. The train was about two hours out of Chicago when it ran into a heavy snow drift in which the engine was powerless. The snow was soon piled as high as the cars both ahead of the train and behind it. For three days and nearly four nights the passengers were virtually prisoners. Everything that was eatable aboard the train was soon consumed, and relief parties of passengers and train men were sent out to the farm houses, which dot the prairie at long intervals, there to gather supplies. Prices for provisions went up to a remarkable figure, and the days were long and dreary. Nobody started and nobody froze, but everybody was fairly worn out by the imprisonment.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

In Congress Representative Miller, of the committee of reform in the civil service, has submitted a minority report signed by the Republican members of committee in favor of Representative Taylor's bill to prohibit the discharge of honorably discharged soldiers or sailors or dependent relatives from any office in the civil service of the United States except for cause. The report says in part: This class of government employees have a claim upon the gratitude of the nation that cannot be easily compensated. They saved the country from dismemberment and dishonor. We submit it is but a just and proper recognition of their claims that they should be retained in government service as long as they faithfully and efficiently perform their official duties. The bill is eminently just in all its provisions and should be passed with the following amendment: "It shall not apply to the class of officers embraced in the original tenure of office act passed March 2nd, 1867, and amended April 5th, 1869."


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A printed protest of large proportions against permitting Masonic societies to participate in the dedication of the Washington monument, last Saturday, was received by the congressional commission charged with the arrangements. The signers claim to have 13,000 signatures. The Protestants say the Masonic order has no more right to such distinction than the Hibernians or any other secret order. The stone sent by the pope for the monument was, they say, broken up and thrown into the Potomac. Why, they ask, are Catholics snubbed and Free Masons honored? Free Masonry, they say, is of foreign birth, is entirely un-American and un-Republican. Its public displays are pompous and barbaric, its titles extravagant and lordly, its constitution despotic, its oaths extra-judicial, which Webster said should be suppressed by law. They pray that only such ceremonies as are national in their scope and American in their character be permitted. The protest came too late for action by the committee.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Sheriff McCreary arrested five saloon keepers at Coffeyville, Kansas, February 20. James and William Fox, Howell, Luke, Shute, Charles Merriman--and also arrested two druggists. Excitement is intense and the whiskey men all lay the blame to the Enterprise, a prohibition paper established there last summer, and which has been very fearless and unrelenting in its war against the saloons. The county prosecuting attorney is a prohibitionist, and is determined to do his duty.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The store of Lemen & Rogers, grocers, LaCygne, Kansas, was entered February 20, by burglars, who opened their safe and stole $150. The meat market of F. W. Pullman was also entered and an unsuccessful attempt made to open his safe. The burglars took a small amount of change from the money drawer. No trace of the thieves.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

DEAR COURIER: For four days the House was deluged with a volume of discussion on the railroad question. It was discussed from every point by able men and by men who didn't know any more about controlling railroads than biblical soldiers do about Paul's wife. There were two bills before the body. The one by Mr. Gillett, of Kingman, known as the "Gillett bill," was on the commissioner system with but few changes and certainly no improvements over the present law. The other was the "Simpson bill," introduced by Mr. Simpson of McPherson County, establishing a maximum rate for the heavy products in carload lots and making it the duty of the Board of Railroad Commissioners to fix the rates on all other freights. The question was, which of the two bills would the House take up for consideration, and upon this the seventeen volumes of talk began to pour forth. After the first day the question was entirely lost sight of, and after three days when the possibility of a vote being reached seemed eminent, the records had to be searched to find out what the motion under discussion was before the Speaker could put it. The whole range of railroad building, operation, and management, the relation of transportation charges to the producer and consumer, were gone over again and again until the array of facts and "figures" were as bewildering as one of my friend McDermott's arguments to a jury in a sewing machine case. During the discussion Gov. Anthony advanced the startling proposition that "the transportation tax attaches to the consumer and not to the product," and came very near proving it. Had he enlarged his proposition by saying "when the consumption exceeds the production," his conclusions would have been correct. However, it will be very hard for even so logical and eloquent a debater as the distinguished ex-Governor to convince an intelligent Kansas farmer that high or low railroad rates do not affect the value of the products. Theory has no place where facts exist, and they confront the gentleman's proposition in this case on every side. The vote was finally reached and the friends of the maximum rate bill won by a majority of four. Then a fine piece of parliamentary work was executed by the defeated side. Mr. Clogston, of Greenwood, moved that a committee of five be appointed by the chair to prepare a substitute for the two bills, said substituted to "clothe" the Railroad Commissioners with power to fix rates on freights. This proposition was a kind of side-wheeler to the friends of the Simpson bill because many who voted with them did not believe in maximum rates but preferred the Simpson bill as containing more and better features than the Gillett measure. These persons were likely to favor the committee and a new law compromising the two extremes. An effort was made to amend the motion so as to instruct the committee to make it "the duty" of the Board of Railroad Commissioners to fix rates and placing the appointing power in the hands of the governor in place of the executive council. The motion to this effect was made by your member, but the railroad men wouldn't support it, and the maximum rates men were mad and like the fellow from Arkansaw, wanted a "whole hog or none," so the amendment was lost and the committee go out simply to "clothe the commissioners with power," and from the composition of the committee, your correspondent fears that the garment wherewith they will propose to clothe the Board will be too thin in the places where it should be very thick. It will take a careful eye to detect these threadbare spots but an earnest effort will be made to do it. A majority of the members believe in a fair and equitable but stringent legislation and if they work together, can accomplish it. Whether they will or not remains to be seen.

The contest over the re-establishment of Clark and Meade counties was one of the most exciting that has been seen hereabouts for many years. The fight was a sort of three cornered one, first between opposing factions in the counties named, next on the part of the cattle kings who desired to defeat all organizations and retain possession of the country as a pasture for their herds. In this they were assisted by delegations from Dodge City, who saw the speedy downfall of that longhorn rendezvous in thus shutting up the great trail from the south to their city. Finally a compromise was effected between the different factions in the two counties. The cattle men were defeated and the bill passed the House.

Senator Hackney was up last week and is responsible for the biggest sell of the session. In the early stages of the effort to create the Nineteenth Judicial district, which takes Sumner County from Judge Torrance's jurisdiction, Mr. Hackney opposed it and wrote several letters to friends here on the subject. This came to the care of the Wellington fellows and they immediately sat down on their tails and commenced to howl! After further consideration of the matter and in conformity to the wishes of many friends, Mr. Hackney withdrew his objections, and the bill passed the House and went to the Senate. Thursday evening a giant scheme was concocted and the following dispatch was sent.

TOPEKA, KAS., Feb. 18, 1885.

WM. A. McDONALD, Wellington, Ks.

Hackney with a Winfield mob is here with their coats off fighting Judicial bill. Senators Jennings, Buchan, and Blue are with them. I am powerless. Come and bring every man who will on first train. Don't delay. Important sure. Don't pay any attention to any dispatch sent from here in my name. Look out for a trick. Treachery everywhere. Signed, LINK.

Senator Linkenfelter is the member of that body from Sumner and the signature was very easily construed to mean him. In addition to this a dozen other dispatches were sent to the mayor, clerk, and other leading citizens, referring them to the above dispatch. As every man, woman, and child in Sumner has been staking their hopes of future happiness on the new judicial district bill, one can imagine what consternation these dispatches created. Immediately the hosts were collected, a picked crowd of the bravest and most valiant warriors selected, a collection taken up, and with blood in every eye they proceeded to march on the capital. On Friday morning just at break of day they filed by twos into the corridor of the Copeland, commander-in-chief McDonald and A. Q. M. General Reed leading the van and proceeded to stack arms and provide ammunition. Senator Linkenfelter was aroused from slumber sweet to counsel with the warriors on the terrible situation. When the "true inwardness" of the matter began to unfold itself, there was roaring and gnashing of teeth followed by scenes that would make a peaceable prohibitionist shudder to repeat, but suffice it to say that from that day until it falls into the hands of some county-seat census taker, the Copeland register will contain the names of a long list of Wellington's distinguished citizens as "guests of Bill Hackney and Dick Walker." If it will help the matter any, I might intimate that Senator Ed. Hewins wasn't an entire stranger to the scheme. The bill finally passed the Senate with but two opposing votes on the day they were here. The occurrence was the talk of the town for several days.

The session is drawing to a close and the calendar is still encumbered with two or three hundred bills, with as many more in the Senate. Most of them cannot, by any possibility, be got through before the fifty days for which the members can receive pay expires. It requires a great deal of patriotism to "work for nothing and board yourself," so the possibility of a "raid on the treasury" for postage stamps with which to pay board bills is imminent. I sound this warning note so that my legal friend who hurls Blackstone at the court with one hand and writes of the deep and damnable corruption of the servants of the people with the other, may throw himself into an undivided state into the breach and save the one millionth part of a mill which a thieving legislature might rob him of. Up, Brutus, and at him!!

Legislative Notes.

Hon. Carroll, Democratic member of the House of Representatives from Leavenworth, is one of the most prominent candidates for the position of United States Marshal for Kansas. During the many years of the trials and struggles of Democracy in Kansas, Mr. Carroll has been a recognized leader. A man of sterling integrity and possessing ability of the highest order, his appointment would reflect great credit on Mr. Cleveland's administration.

The special committee to whom was referred the construction of a new railroad bill with instructions to report today (Tuesday) have so far failed to agree and the time has been extended to tomorrow (Wednesday) morning at half past ten.

Hon. W. P. Hackney and wife came in Monday night and have quarters at the Copeland.

Mr. J. S. Baker, of Tisdale, is in the city looking after legislation affecting his locality.



Political, Official and Social Notes as Gathered by

Our Regular Washington Correspondent.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The state of business in Congress is more favorable to adjournment. That the end is near appears from the fact that the deficiency appropriation bill, the last of the series, is about ready to be reported to the House. The naval bill has been considered. It is comparatively free from controversial features, and the Randall provision for reorganizing the navy is the only feature which provokes discussion. The sub-committee on the fortifications bill, which swelled the bill to $5,000,000, have been instructed in committee to cut off the new features and report simply the usual bill. This action will tend to facilitate proceedings in the House. The sundry civil bill has some features that may precipitate a struggle, especially if silver legislation is attempted.

Apropos of Mr. Randall's plan for the construction of a new navy, it is regarded in Washington as being comprehensive and radical in character, and on that account has found many active friends and active enemies, the latter mostly among naval officers. The plan provides, first, for the collection of all possible information on the subject of naval construction; second, for the selection of plans; and lastly, for the building of the navy according to these plans without any further action by Congress. The language of the paragraph is that all necessary money to pay expenses of the board, its awards and purchases, and building of the vessels provided for is appropriated out of the money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated. Thus there is no limit to the sum to be expended in the construction of the new navy. The fact of the matter is that the country at large will be satisfied with almost anything which will give a start to the needed work of providing the United States with a navy.

Speaking of the navy reminds me that a change in the command of that festive craft, the "Despatch," took effect the other day, and has made a great deal of talk in naval circles. It is said that the displacement of Lieutenant Reeder, the ex-commanding officer, is entirely the result of personal influence brought to bear in favor of Lieutenant Emory, who commanded one of the ships in the Greeley relief expedition.

Naval officers who have the welfare of the service greatly at heart are very desirous that when the new administration comes in, both the "Despatch" and the "Tallapoosa" shall be gotten rid of. The talk in the newspaper of the use that has been made of these vessels has been a constant injury to the service. Neither ship is needed for the duty it has been employed on during the past few years. Mr. Cleveland could not do a better stroke of business than to send both of these vessels away from the Atlantic coast, and keep them away during his entire administration. But this would go hard with the beaux and belles of the Nation's Capital, who have been having such good times on the excursions of these crafts at Government expense.

Representative Ex-Senator Eaton, or Oldbilleaton as he is more affectionately known in Yankee land, is evidently not to be awed in his old age by such a kick-shaw as the sergeant-at-arms' mace. It is necessary to record the fact that not only did the veteran constitutional lawyer, who would not bend the knee to the Electoral Commission, so far forget his veneration for law, in the stormy scene in the House last Wednesday, as to treat Mr. Hill's spreadeagle emblem with open obloquy and contempt, but even went so far as to express his insubordination in that peculiarly offensive form known as the "long nose," a fashion of derision very popular among small boys after reaching a safe distance, but rarely indulged in by expounders of the constitution on the floor of Congress.

As an offset of this pleasant little diversion, the Hon. Tom Ochiltree, Belford's lurid counterpart, took it into that part of his organism from which project his gory locks to get much excited during the humdrum proceedings on the river and harbor bill. The Texan took occasion to characterize a certain Mr. Alexander as an infamous lobbyist, who had been driven out of Texas for the country's good, whereupon the valiant member retired to the lobby of the House "to see a man." He returned breathless in a few moments and announced to the August assemblage that he had been attacked by Alexander in the corridor and told in a threatening manner that he (Alexander) would "meet him" again. Col. Ochiltree now feels the power of the lobby, and thinks that, like the famous Col. Titus, he has "heard a lion roar" in that part of the Capitol. LENOX.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The remains of Mrs. James Russell Lowell were interred at Kensal Green cemetery in London, England, February 23. The funeral was strictly private. It started from the residence of Mr. Lowell at eleven o'clock this morning. Among those present were Secretary Halpin, of the American legation; G. W. Smalley and lady; Lady Littleton; M. Stephens, editor of the Whitehall Review; Hon. Waldgrove Leslie, and Henry James, the American novelist.

Minister Lowell wept freely during the obsequies. The Prince of Wales sent a message of condolence. Premier Gladstone personally condoled with Mr. Lowell on Saturday. The casket was almost buried in wreaths received from friends, from members of diplomatic corps, and from American residents of London.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The extensive dry goods establishment of O. Thomas & Co., at Emporia, Kansas, was totally destroyed by fire Feb. 18th. The nature of its origin is not exactly known, but it is supposed to have caught in some manner from the stove. On account of a frozen hydrant, the firemen were unable to turn more than one stream of water on it until the fire had got completely beyond control. The engines were then directed to saving neighboring buildings. It is almost a miracle that the whole block was not consumed. The loss will reach on stock $30,000, and on the building $5,000 or $6,000.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A bill introduced in the National House by Representative Perkins, February 23, concerning Oklahoma lands, authorizes the president to negotiate with the Creeks, Seminoles, and Cherokees, and learn on what terms those Indians will relinquish and convey to the United States all their interest in the Oklahoma lands, with a view to open up that territory for settlement under the homestead law. It is expected that the senate will be convened in special session almost immediately after the adjournment of the present congress, and that such time as is not consumed in the consideration of appointments will be devoted to the discussion of pending treaties.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

There have been reports for some time past of great distress in portions of the counties of Lewis, Braxton, Calhoun, and Gilmer, in Pennsylvania. The distress has been caused by the crops being ruined last summer by the drought and the unusual severity of the winter. Whole neighborhoods of people, not to speak of livestock, are actually famished for want of proper food. Large amounts of stock of all kinds have died. The legislature has taken measures to relieve the sufferers.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The men arrested for selling liquor under cover of a drug business, B. E. Butterfield and W. F. Bush, at Eureka, Ks., plead guilty to one count and were fined $100 each, which, with the costs, will make $325. C. R. Stuckey, one of the "blind tiger" men, plead guilty on one count and was fined $300 and costs. The fines of the four who have been tried within the last fortnight aggregate $900, and, with the costs, make a total of about $1,150.



Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

After reports of standing committees, Senator Buchan, from the committee of Ways and Means, reported back without recommendation the appropriation bill for the Kansas Orphan Asylum, the St. Vincent Asylum, the Home for Friendless Women, and the Good Samaritan Institution, and moved to place them at the head of the calendar. After remarks in opposition by Senators Blue and Redden, and by Senators in favor of the motion, the motion was lost.


The following bills were presented: To provide for payment of State Agent at Washington, S. J. Crawford; to amend laws of 1884, relating to unorganized counties; to repeal Section 92, General Statutes of 1868, relating to counties and county officers; to provide for a suitable building for the Kansas Asylum for Idiotic and Imbecile Youth at Winfield; to confirm title to public square in El Dorado; to empower Wakarusa township, Douglas County, to erect a Township Hall; to remunerate Sheridan, Trego and Ford counties for expenses of unorganized counties attached; making appropriations to pay for conveying prisoners to Penitentiary.


The following bills were passed on third reading.

Senate bill No. 60, an act supplemental to an act entitled "An act regulating conveyances of real estate," being chapter 22, compiled laws of 1879.

Senate bill No. 159, an act to amend an act entitled "An act relating to counties and county officers," being chapter 25 of General Statutes of 1868, and to repeal section 181 thereof.

Senate bill No. 61, an act making appropriations for the State Normal School.

Senate bill No. 62, an act making appropriation for cottages, raising the east and west wing of central part one story, for fencing, drainage, perfecting and completing the present system of heating and ventilation of the State Insane Asylum at Osawatomie.

Senate bill No. 95, an act making appropriations for the erection of additional buildings, the purchase of furniture for the same, and the purchase of additional grounds, at the State Insane Asylum at Topeka, for the fiscal years end--June 30, 1886, and June 30, 1887, and for lighting the Asylum buildings and completing air passage and fan for the same.

Senate bill No. 54, an act creating a bureau of labor and industrial statistics, and defining the powers and duties thereof.


On motion of Senator Jennings, the Senate went into Committee of the Whole on general orders, but pending consideration of the bill to regulate pharmacy, the Committee rose and the Senate adjourned.

The Senate went into Committee of the Whole, Senator Redden in the chair, on the special order, the Senate bill No. 140, Senators Kelly and Lloyd's bill, to secure


On which speeches were made by Buchan, Barker, Hick, Lowe, Shean, Blue, and other Northeastern Senators against maximum rates, and by Lloyd, Jennings, Crane, and H. B. Kelly in favor of the bill. The principal argument against the bill was that on distances less than 100 miles the rates in the bill were greater than now charged by railroads.

This argument was met by Kelly, who offered an amendment fixing rates on short distances as low as the present rates charged.

This, we think, was useless, for the Senators from localities in the Northeast portion of the State in favor of whom the railroads grossly discriminate, cannot be appeased by anything short of the defeat of the bill.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. Stewart, asking for a State entomologist. Mr. Justice, for legalizing roads in Graham County.


Mr. Randall. To perfect the title to the public square in El Dorado.

Mr. Turner: Providing for filing lists of county officers with the Secretary of State.

Mr. Cox. To empower Wakarusa township, of Douglas County, to build a township hall.


to Mr. Lewis' bill, relating to bounty on wolf and other scalps, were concurred in; also, Senate amendments to the House appropriation for the expenses of the Lady Commissioners from Kansas to the Woman's Department of the New Orleans Exposition.

Bills relating to insurance companies were made the special order for next Tuesday.


to investigate the contracts, etc., relating to the new building at Olathe for the Deaf and Dumb School, was announced on the part of the House; Messrs. Bryant, Browning, and Morgan, of Osborne.


Mr. McNall offered a resolution to instruct the committee raised to investigate the manufacture of butterine and oleomargarine, to make report. As this elicited discussion, it went over today.


The following bills were read a third time and passed.

Mr. Wellep's H. B. 349, to allow stock to run at large in that part of Cherokee County east of Spring river.

Mr. McBride's H. B. 384, to authorize Solomon township in Phillips County to build a bridge across the Solomon river south of the town of Marvin.

Mr. Morgan's H. B. 249, to authorize Clay County to build and purchase certain bridge.

Mr. Scammon's H. B. 482, to legalize acts of a Justice of the Peace, and Police Judge and City Clerk of Weir City, he never having had political disabilities, removed.

Mr. Justus' H. B. 435, to legalize highways in Graham County.

249, 328, 118, 116, for protection against Texas fever, 443, 222, 43, 191, 214, 286, 78, 358, 331, 414, 425, mainly local bills of little interest.

The Simpson maximum rate railroad bill was discussed at length by Messrs. Carroll, Osborn, and McNall, against the bill.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A long discussion occurred over the resolution calling on the Attorney General for information in relation to the status and rights of railroads chartered by the territorial Legislatures and the Committee of Conference report thereon.

The report was concurred in.

The Temperance bill No. 387, which has passed the House, was made a special order of Friday evening. The bill creating a board of pardons was placed at the head of the calendar.


Relating to the building of bridge; relating to township officers; to exempt certain property from taxation; to make up a deficiency in State permanent school fund.


The pharmacy bill was read a third time and passed.


Mr. Faulkner, from the special committee to whom was referred the bills relating to a State geological survey, reported two bills as directed. One would create a Board of survey, to consist of the Chancellor of the State University, the President of the Agricultural College, and the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, who shall have charge of work contemplated by the bill, which is a preliminary survey to determine upon proper points to make experimental borings in prospecting for minerals and artesian water; boring to be made under direction of the Board; a careful record of all borings to be made and preserved for public use.

The House then resolved itself into Committee of the whole upon the railroad bills, with Mr. Carroll in the Chair. The pending question will still virtually be a choice between the Simpson bill and the Gillett bill.

Mr. McNall made a two hour speech in favor of the Simpson bill and was answered by several gentlemen on the other side in lengthy speeches. Mr. Simpson defended his bill.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Last evening session was devoted to the consideration in Committee of the whole of several bills relating to cities of first and second class.

House bill 21 authorizing cities of the first class to provide public parks and gardens was recommended for passage.

The following bills were presented.

To change the boundaries of a certain Judicial District.

To authorize the Treasurer of Pawnee County to convert certain bonds.

To enable the County Commissioners of Ford County to fund the county indebtedness.

Authorizing the Court Judge or Magistrate to exclude minors during trial or hearing.

By pretty general consent the three several bills relating to Judicial districts was postponed till tomorrow.

Senate bill No. 247, an act to amend section 1 of chapter 97 of the laws of 1877, and fixing times of holding courts in the Twelfth Judicial District was passed.

The balance of the forenoon was occupied on local bills, and five House bills and ten Senate bills of that character were passed on third reading.


On third reading three Senate and fifteen local bills were passed.

Substitute for Senate bill No. 8, and to amend sections 51 and 74 of chapter 37, laws of 1881, and to repeal sections 5, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, and 74, relating to jurisdiction of Police Judge, being under consideration, Senator Blue moved to amend by striking out that part which requires an appellant on a misdemeanor to give bond for fine and costs. After a pretty general discussion by Senators Harwi, Ritter, Kellogg, Harkness, Kimball, Bawden, and others, the motion was lost: yeas 15, nays 21. The bill passed: ayes 27, noes 4.

Senate bill No. 244; an act relating to cities of the first class, and to authorize provision for payment and issuing evidences of indebtedness therefor, of unpaid amounts in cases of certain general and special improvements, was passed.

House bill No. 21, an act to authorize cities of first class to provide public parks and grounds for the inhabitants thereof, was passed.


The special order was taken up as follows.

Substitute for Senate joint resolution No. 5, proposing to amend article 3 of the construction, by striking out section 2 thereof, and amending section 13 thereof by inserting the within proposed amendment for section No. 2. This joint resolution provides for the Judiciary of the State. It makes the Supreme Court to consist of five Judges, the oldest by election to be Chief Justice, except in cases where two or more hold commission of the same date, in which case the preference is to be decided by lot. No man shall be eligible under thirty-five years of age. The term shall be six years. The two additional Justices are to be appointed by the then Judge until the election of successors, in 1887, which one shall be elected to serve until the second Monday in January, 1890, and the other till the second Monday in January, 1892. The salary is to be $4,000. The term of office of District Judge shall be four years, and no person shall be eligible under thirty years of age. A County Court is to take the place of the Probate Court, and the Judge must be a practicing attorney. The joint resolution has considerable detail; but this statement gives the gist of the whole matter.

Senator Jennings, the author, explained the provisions of the joint resolution.

After very careful consideration and business-like examinations of the different provisions of this important amendment of the Constitution, Senator Blue moved that when the committee rise it reports this measure back and recommend its passage, subject to amendment and debate, which motion prevailed.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. Scammon. Praying for a reduction of the salaries of the county officers of Cherokee County.

Mr. Swartz. Asking a division of the Sixteenth Judicial District.


Mr. Hopkins. Funding bill for Ellis County. This was advanced to a place on the calendar for third reading.

Mr. Vance, by request. Amending law relating to issue of bonds for internal improvements.

Mr. Hardesty. Funding bill on Ford County.

Senate Amendments to H. C. R., relative to pensions, were concurred in. The House adopted the report of the committee of conference upon the concurrent resolution in relation to tenure of railroad charters. This leaves the resolution about as it originated in the House.

Special order for 10:30, the railroad bill, was, on motion of Mr. McNall, postponed till 2 p.m.

A number of bills were, on motions made, advanced upon the calendar. This was continued until members got tired and put on the brakes. Several discrepancies were discovered and bothered over in the calendar for this day: matters left in that had been ordered off, and matters belonging there left out.


Substitute for the county lines bill, recreating the counties of Meade and Clark, it being the compromise bill on that subject, was read a third time. Mr. Jones pointed out needed amendments, and moved that the bill be referred back to the committee of the whole. Mr. Greer said that the difficulty can be readily adjusted by amendments to bills attaching that territory to certain counties for Judicial purposes. The point of order was made that Mr. Jones has no right to make a motion. Speaker Pro Tem. Burton decided the point of order well taken, and roll call proceeded upon passage of the bill, and it passed.

Mr. Glasgow's H. B. 450, to legalize a township bond election for a bridge in Republic County, was read a third time and passed.

Mr. Edward's H. B. 83, to detach Finney and other Western counties from Ford County, and to attach other Western counties to Finney County for judicial purposes. And to provide for terms of court in Finney County, was read a third time and passed.

Mr. Edward's H. B. 459, authorizing Pawnee County to sell United States bonds, passed.

Mr. Drought's H. B. 302, relating to change of venue in district courts. Passed.

Mr. Bryant's H. B. 367. Appropriating $2000 to Anna Ritchie for damages sustained by a fall from the west portion of the State House in 1883. Passed.

The railroad bills being under consideration in Committee of the whole, Messrs. Davenport, Collins, and Greer advocated the Simpson bill which was taken up for consideration 53 to 51.

Mr. Clogston moved to refer to a select Committee, stating that it was evident that this bill nor the other could secure a majority in the House.

Mr. Greer offered a substitute to the motion to refer, changing it merely in the point that where the motion instructs the committee to draft a bill giving the Commissioners power to fix rates, this substitute would make it their duty to fix rates. The substitute was lost and Mr. Clogston's plan prevailed.

The committee arose and its report was adopted.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Several new bills were presented including one authorizing Probate Judges to discharge of record all mortgages and liens on real estate sold by executors, administrators, and guardians, one to prevent polluting streams.

Senate went into Committee of the whole and recommended for passage; 22, to provide natural history facilities for the State University; 39, to erect additional buildings at the Deaf & Dumb Asylum at Olathe; 273, making deficiency appropriations for the fish Commission; 228, making appropriation for conveying prisoners; 289, to pay State claim agent.

The several bills relating to assessments and taxation were made the special order for Tuesday.

Bills passed on third reading to create the 19th, 20th, and 21st Judicial Districts and providing for Judges thereof.

Senate bills were stricken from the calendar or indefinitely postponed, among which were 48, authorizing corporations for all lawful purposes; 100, relating to counties and county officers; and 57, to regulate warehousing and inspection of grain.

Nos. 116, Reimbursing permanent school fund for losses; 128, to regulate the transportation of grain by railroads; and 178, regulating the State Library; were ordered to a third reading subject to amendment and debate.


Senate amendments to H. B. 149, the funding bill for Sheridan County, were concurred in. Also concurred in Senate amendments to H. B. 145, ceding jurisdiction over the Leavenworth Soldiers Home to the United States.

In Committee of the whole S. B. 123 was slightly amended and recommended for passage. It is the bill to secure payment in cash to employees in raises.

H. B. 146, relating to County Clerk of Ness, recommended for passage; also, 160, on garnishments; 189, to enable cities to contract for sewerage; 192, to simplify the selection of jurors; 213, to authorize injunction against nuisance.

Substitute bill reported by the Committee on Railroads, relating to fencing of railroads, was read, when Mr. Hatfield offered a substitute for all after the enacting clause. This gives double damages for stock killed, except where fences are properly maintained, and changes the bill in other features. It only compels fencing of railroads through improved lands. Consideration postponed.

After a long discussion the evening before the bill appropriating $50,000 to the National Soldiers Home at Leavenworth was recommended for passage in Committee of the whole.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The following bills were then introduced: To establish a court of appeals; Fixing terms of court in 11th Judicial District.

Senator Barker, Chairman of the special committee to investigate the State Penitentiary, made a report, which was ordered printed.

A large number of bills were read the second time and referred.

A number of protests were verbally made against ordering bills that had only been read once, to a third reading without any reference to a committee.

The following bills were passed on third reading.

Substitute for Senate bill No. 22, an act to provide additional facilities for the Department of National History in the State University.

Senate bill No. 39, an act to provide for the erection of additional buildings at Olathe, Kansas, for the institution for the education of the deaf and dumb during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1886.

Substitute for Senate bill No. 273, an act making an appropriation for deficiency for the expenses incurred by the Commissioner of Fisheries, for the years 1883 and 1884.

Senate bill No. 288, an act making appropriations for conveying prisoners to the Penitentiary, for the deficiencies from the fiscal years ending June 30, 1879, 1880, and 1881, and for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1886 and 1887.

Seventeen bills of a local character passed third reading.

Senate bill No. 297, an act to enable the County Commissioners of Ford County to fund the county indebtedness.

Substitute for House bill creating a bond of pardons.

Senate bill No. 176, an act to amend section 3 of chapter 122 of the Session laws of 1874, entitled "An act supplemental to and amendatory of chapter 92, General Statutes of 1808, and chapter 86, laws of 1809, and chapter 185 of laws of 1872," and to authorize the condemnation of lands for schoolhouse sites.

Senate bill No. 289, an act to provide for the payment of the agent of the State of Kansas for prosecuting claims against the United States.

Senate bill No. 178, an act regulating the State library, and repealing chapter 112 of the laws of 1870, and chapter 14 of the laws of 1871, and chapter 130 of the laws of 1873.

Senate bill No. 297, an act to remove the political disabilities of certain persons herein named not having received the Constitutional majority; was declared lost.

The balance of the day was spent in discussing the bill fixing maximum rates on wheat.


Mr. Gillespie: Praying for municipal suffrage for women.

Mr. Rhodes: From Vermilion, Marshal County, asking legislation to secure reasonable freight rates.

Mr. F. J. Kelly: From Cawker City, praying for municipal suffrage for women.


Mr. Miller. For the relief of William Edgar, a young man who was burned at the Osawatomie Asylum. This bill, with appropriation for C. L. De Randame, was advanced to position on the calendar for third reading.

Mr. Burton. An act locating the Capital of the State of Kansas at Abilene. As this is a local bill, Mr. Burton secured its second reading and reference. It was, upon motion of Mr. A. W. Smith, referred to the Committee on Political Rights of Women.


Mr. Stewart called attention to the bill which was declared passed during the forenoon session, to remove disabilities from a list of persons. It had not received a two-thirds majority. By consent it was left on the calendar for third reading.

Mr. Edwards. H. B. 361, providing for delivery of orders for satisfaction of mortgages to parties interested instead of their being filed in the office of Register of Deed, was read a third time and passed.

Mr. Bolinger's H. B. 334, to vacate parts of the public square of Uniontown, in Bourbon County. Passed.

Mr. Edwards. H. B. 335. Fixing the statutory rate of rice, corn, and of sorghum seed, at fifty-six pounds per bushel. It was amended so as to also include washed plastering hair, four pounds in the weights and measures sections of the statutes. English blue grass seed, twenty-two pounds, was added to that section. Also apples, fifty pounds, and the bill passed.

Mr. Hatfield's H. B. 10. To establish the Superior Court for Sedgwick County. Mr. Stewart offered an amendment which would make the expense of the Court payable by Sedgwick County instead of by the State. He explained that he believed the statements made that fifteen judges could do all the business of the State if the State was properly distributed. His amendment was lost and the bill was defeated.

Mr. Hatfield's H. B. 430, legalizing certain levies and taxes in Sedgwick County, passed.

Mr. Lower's H. B. 398, authorizing Morris County to build a $3,000 bridge across the Neosho river, passed.

S. B. 133, reported by Senate Committee on Mines and Mining, prohibiting the payment of miners with store orders, passed.

Johnston's H. B. 146, making the maximum salaries of the County Clerk and County Treasurer of Ness County $600, passed.

Mr. Buck's H. B. 160, giving same rights of garnishment in District Courts as is now given in Justice's Court passed.

Mr. Hatfield's H. B. 180, authorizing contracts by cities with sewerage corporations, passed.

Mr. Buck's H. B. 192, relating to selection of jurors, passed.

Mr. Vance's H. B. 213, giving authority to the Attorney General and County Attorneys to issue out injunctions to restrain nuisances, passed.

The Committee on Political Rights of Women reported, recommending that the bill to locate the Capital at Abilene be placed on the calendar for third reading, and the report was adopted.

Mr. Hatfield introduced a bill to rearrange the terms of Court in the Eighteenth Judicial District. It was advanced to position on the calendar for third reading.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

In the Senate this afternoon the whole time was spent on the two special orders, the bill authorizing school districts and boards of education in any county of the State to adopt a uniform series of text books. No. 142, introduced by Senator Young, and an act relating to the support of common schools and fixing the duties of county superintendents, No. 255, by Senator Crane, both of which were passed to third reading by the committee of the whole. Senators Lloyd and Kelly's freight bill--maximum rates on wheat--was discussed at great length and the substitute offered by John Kelly was adopted and recommended for passage. This bill authorizes the railroad commissioners on complaint of any person to notify the traffic managers of any road, and to fix the rates as they may deem necessary, and such rates shall be prima facia the rates established. The discussion was on a motion of Senator Lloyd to authorize the railroad commissioners to establish rates with or without complaint. This motion was lost.


The House passed an appropriation of $50,000 for the Leavenworth soldiers home, by a vote of 67 to 50. The raid claim bill was continued as a special order of business for tomorrow afternoon. A bill appropriating $6,000 toward the expenses of the state militia reunion was passed; also one awarding $500 to Mr. Edgar for damages for being burned while in the employ of the State.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A terrific explosion of natural gas occurred Feb. 21st in the two-story brick dwelling occupied by Halsey Bros., cigar-makers, at Wellsburg, W. Va., at half past Saturday morning. The building together with the adjoining property, was entirely demolished. Six persons are reported killed. Full particulars later.

A Post-Dispatch special from Steubenville, Ohio, says: "A terrific natural gas explosion occurred Feb. 21st, at Wellsburg, W. Va., last Saturday morning by the gas leading into the cellar of the two-story brick occupied by R. Halsey Bros., cigar makers. This building and adjoining one, occupied by Duke Weller, saloon keeper, were blown to atoms. The buildings took fire and it spread rapidly to the adjoining buildings. The shock of the explosion was so terrible that the glass was shattered and the plaster shaken from nearly every residence in town. The inhabitants ran in all directions terror-stricken. A great many buildings were found badly damaged quite a distance from the explosion. The list of killed, so far as received, is as follows: Conrad Halsey, wife, mother, and child, and an infant babe of the above. John Walters is missing. A search is being made. The bodies recovered are terribly mangled. The loss will probably reach a total of $20,000. By the supreme effort of the people, the fire was brought under control at 3 a.m.


FRANK H. GREER, Local Editor.

Sipped Market Report.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The editor of the Arkansas City Republican visited Winfield recently, accompanied by one of that city's belles. He chronicles the visit thusly: "We forgot to make mention last week of an important item of news which happened up at Winfield. A young lady while crossing the street in close proximity to the COURIER office during the last thaw, accidently stepped off the stones, thereby making such a big cavity in the mud that a prominent newspaper man who was following along behind, fell in and was almost swallowed up by the mud ere he was rescued." Come again, brother, but for heaven's sake leave your girl at home, where elephantine feet are no rarity, and avoid endangering the lives and property of our citizens and yourself.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The Udall Sentinel says that the fraudulent lightening disenchanter, whom the COURIER gave a round last week, has been figuring in that neighborhood. He put up a rod for D. M. Carlton, who has been nearly blind for twenty years. Carleton [?Carlton] signed what he supposed to be a note for $12, but found when the work was completed that he was in for $76.80. This fraud also stopped at another farmer's home in that neighborhood and offered to put up a rod for $6. The farmer told him to go ahead, but when the fellow insisted on having his note rather than cash, he was booted off the place.

[Paper had both Carleton and Carlton.]

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A charter has been taken out for the Farmer's Co-Operative Milling Exchange, of Arkansas City. It was organized last week, with H. Harbaugh, of Pleasant Valley, president, and D. P. Marshal, of Bolton, Secretary. Its purpose is the construction of a mill on the canal for exchange and general milling business. The amount of stock of the corporation is $75,000, divided into 2,000 shares.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The bi-weekly hop of the social club at the Opera House Friday evening last, was a charming event, and none could have looked in on that happy assembly of forty-five couples without being imbued with the superiority of Winfield society. No city of its size in the west can equal the Queen City in this respect.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The Terminus has a Fat Man's Club, organized for social enjoyment among the corpulent gentlemen of that city. The candidate for membership must tip the beam at two hundred pounds. Winfield could sport such a club admirably, and a Bald Pate Club would also be in order.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

To the members of the Oklahoma Colony: You are hereby notified that your presence is required at the colony meeting at Torrance schoolhouse, Feb. 28th, 1885, at 7 o'clock p.m. Business of importance to transact. Shelton Morris, Capt.; W. H. McPherson, Sec.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The February moon fulls on the 28th, at 11 o'clock in the evening, remarks the Arkansas City Traveler, and thus we shall come within an hour of having no full moon in the month; but there will be enough full Democrats early in March to make up for it.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

"Tis an ill wind, etc. The farmers claim that this snow storm is sure to be of great benefit to the wheat; for they say that if the weather had continued dry, and the wind high for a short time longer, that great loss would have resulted to the staple product.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The Alpha society will present a very entertaining program at the opera hall Friday evening. The proceeds will be used for the benefit of the high school library. All should feel interested in encouraging this laudable enterprise.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Wanted. A smart lady who can canvass Winfield and Cowley County and take orders for and manufacture goods for ladies and children. Full explanation can be had by addressing Mrs. M. M. Rogers, Winfield.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Owing to the entertainment at the Opera House on Friday evening, the Young People's Literary and Social Club has postponed its meeting for two weeks, when it meets with Miss Anna Doane.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The old Myton stand is doffing the old and taking on the new, preparatory to the reception of Senator Long's grocery stock. New paper, shelving, etc., are greatly changing the premises.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The masked carnival at the rink last Thursday evening was an admirable success, there being about seventy-five couples of maskers on the floor, and a large crowd of spectators.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Cowley's State school fund apportionment, $3,378.20, thirty-five cents per capita, has been received and is being distributed to the different districts of the county.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The young men of Winfield have formed a gymnasium of thirty-five members with rooms over Curns & Manser's real estate office.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Wanted. A girl to do general house work in the family of Capt. J. B. Nipp, corner of 10th Avenue and Andrews Street.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The assessors of this county meet in the County Clerk's office Monday next, to agree upon a basis of valuation.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The Eagle and the citizens of Wichita are making a terrible fuss over "one little lone baby."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A number of young folks attended a masked skating carnival at Wellington last night.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

All should witness the inauguration ceremonies at the opera hall Friday evening.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Flying machine at the opera hall Friday evening.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Wanted. 500 or 600 sheep. C. D. Murdock.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The dining room of one of Winfield's prominent hotels was the scene of a lively encounter between a drummer and a waitress Sunday evening last. An exhibition of feminine muscle and grit was given that completely blanches former records, taught his drummership a lasting lesson and satisfactorily entertained lookers on. This festive drummer took his seat at the table and the waitress, whom we will call Dora. Just for luck, stepped up to take his order. But the itinerant masher didn't seem in a hurry and made insolent proposals. Dora repeated the "bill of fare" several times and finally left the i. m. in disgust. Returning in a few minutes with three orders on the tray, for the same table, she was again accosted by the i. m. with language unbecoming. The gentle Dora could stand it no longer, and in the twinkling of an eye gave the man of wares a diff on the proboscis with her fist that sent him sprawling to the floor. Dishes flew in every direction and Dora followed her initiatory blow by playing on the fellow's head with the tray and giving him the benefit of her foot, until his drummership yelled for mercy, made a neat apology and a hasty exit. He took the early morning train for other fields, with feelings mortified and a black eye. The would -be masher who thinks Winfield girls can't take care of themselves will come out mighty badly mashed. The rapscallion who questions a girl's purity because she does duty in a dining room should have no sympathy when he gets "knocked hout" in one round.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. J. M. Barrick dropped in on the COURIER Saturday and told us of a case of abstinence that beats the notorious Dr. Tanner, by one day. Some time ago a Black Spanish hen fell into a fifty-five foot stock on his place. The old hen was heard to give a feeble squawk, but none cared to risk anything for such a small object and nothing more was thought about the fowl until the next day, when one of Mr. Barrick's boys heard a faint squawk from the bottom of the well, and it dawned upon him that her henship was still there, and alive. He thought if the hen could live down, he could, and so went down. The hen was found cuddled up on an offset under the wall, near the water, where the drippings from well buckets were avoided. She was brought up, put on the ground, and to the astonishment of witnesses walked off. Her craw was perfectly empty, but she now eats and is doing well. Mr. Barrick figured up and found that the hen endured oblivion and the pangs of hunger for just forty-one days: a record that seems almost incredible. Nothing could be found in the well on which she could subsist; it was a bona fide fast. Mr. Barrick has arranged a private apartment for this wonderful fowl and determines to nurse her in the lap of luxury until the natural summons from hen-heaven takes her away.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The COURIER delights in singing praises to Cowley's wonderful productiveness. We can't help it. But when her vast possibilities come pouring in on us as they have in the past few weeks, we feel like throwing down the quill in utter despair and calling on some kind friends to transport us to some quiet land where words can do justice to the subject in hand. Cowley is already the wonder of the nation. She is a slice from the very juiciest side of the earth. Her years are a succession of golden streams of grain, choice herds and flocks, etc., but she has now taken an exalted step up the ladder of fame--got on her tip as it were, and with her thumb on her nose, casts sly glances at her neighbors for a parallel. The latest? Well, it is the advent of triplets at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Aston, in Vernon township: three pretty, lively, and well-developed girls, all thriving finely. The smallest weighed four and a half pounds, the next largest five and a half, and the largest eight.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A strange marriage took place in Justice Snow's court last Friday. Over a year ago John H. Burton was guilty of illegal copulation in Illinois with Samantha Heardes. He soon departed for other fields. A son was born last fall to Samantha, and taking the boys in her arms, she set out in search of the father. She traced him to Cowley, and last week had a warrant issued for his arrest. Sheriff McIntire found him in the southern part of the county and brought him before Justice Snow. The plaintiff and defendant there met, and before the trial began, Burton acknowledged his guilt, begged forgiveness, and expressed a desire to settle the matter with a marriage ceremony. A messenger was dispatched for Judge Gans, who arrived on the scene clothed with the majesty of the law and in the twinkling of an eye the "hostile" parties were united. They departed seemingly as happy as two birds just released from a dismal confinement.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A peculiar liquor case came up in Justice Snow's court last Friday, whereby V. W. Aikin was found guilty of illegally selling the ardent, by a jury of twelve, and fined one hundred dollars and costs. The first charge was against Steve Poor, but in attempting to shield Poor, on the witness stand, Aikin got himself into a bad box, making unintentionally a clear case against himself. County Attorney Asp then dismissed the first case and brought one against Aikin. The evidence was to the effect that Ed Watts gave Aikin fifty cents with which to purchase a pint of whiskey from Poor. Aikin got the whiskey, but in the examination swore that Poor only loaned the liquor to him and received no money. But the liquor was transferred to Watts without the return of the money, thereby placing Aikin in the sellers boots. Aikin appealed his case.

[Article had "Poor" and "Poore".]


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Sunday last was the anniversary of the birth of the Father of His Country and on Monday the pupils of Miss Fannie Stretch's department in the third ward celebrated the day most appropriately. The writer had the pleasure of witnessing the performances and they were such as will be lasting upon the minds of the pupils. Incidents and peculiarities in the life of Washington, from birth to death, were related in turn, and recitations and essays which were highly creditable to the teacher and pupils were given. These anniversaries of the birth of America's great men are very instructive to pupils and should be more widely celebrated. Then they break the dull monotony of every-day school work. Miss Stretch is one of our most accomplished teachers, and we were pleased to note the interest and advancement exhibited in her school.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

We are now a firm believer in ground hog wisdom. We have made cruel thrusts at his hogship but we take everything back and proclaim him the champion weather adjuster of the world. The beautiful sunshine and balmy atmosphere of last Friday and Saturday about brought out the linen duster and took off the small boys' shoes, but the beautiful sun of Monday froze up all such thoughts. We are now prepared for anything. A snow storm in July would hardly astound us. Let come what will, we have stopped short never to go again, on weather prognosticating. Kansas is a country of surprises, variety, and spice. This item may be completely melted before it can inflict itself upon the innocent reader.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The COURIER presents this week as newsy an array of neighborhood correspondence as ever appeared in a weekly paper. We are proud of our bright corps of correspondents. The letters are prominent for their "meatiness" and absence of sentimentalism. Everyone contains matters of interest to the whole county, written up in a sparkling manner. This condensing of news from all over the county brings communities together in friendly intercourse, as it were, and makes a most interesting feature of the COURIER.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The Republican says that Frank Smith sold a cabbage head last week in Arkansas City that weighed 16 pounds, at five cents per pound, and it brought the neat sum of 83 cents for one head of cabbage. Oh, Kansas downs the world!

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

One of our tall, handsome young men is after Madame Rumor with a wicked switch, for marrying him recently to a real nice young lady, without his knowledge or--well, we promised to keep still.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

An Arkansas City man says he thinks he has found land in that city where a vein of coal can be found by boring with a post augur. But he refuses to divulge the spot.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

During hard times it is but the part of wisdom to buy goods where they are sold the cheapest, therefore take the clearance suit of Bryan & Lynn.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The Ladies' Aid Society of the Presbyterian church meets on the usual day and hour this week with Mrs. Henry Brown.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.


C. Lewis in the Toils for Cracking Smith & Zook's Safe,

Cracks a Hole in the County Bastille and Misses Escape Only by a Hair-Breadth.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Cowley's bastille came very near a complete delivery Tuesday night. Charley Lewis, who is in durance vile for cracking in Smith & Zook's safe, had consummated plans that were only discovered at a moment of seeming triumph. The State "pen" and the County Commissioners relieved the jail recently of its jam, leaving only four prisoners: Tom Hawkins, serving out a fine for selling liquor; Earnest Kimmel, for highway robbery; Jim McHaney, for counterfeiting; and C. Lewis. Jailer Finch usually locks the prisoners in their cells at fifteen minutes past nine, but on this evening he luckily went in to do so at nine. He missed Lewis, and on nearing a window heard a noise on the outside as of a man endeavoring to extricate himself from something. He rushed out and arrived on the scene just in time to see Lewis making across the Court House yard for 10th Avenue. Finch gave him a lively chase, interspersed with shots from a revolver, and soon brought Lewis to a halt. Investigation showed as neat a job as any "crook" ever performed for liberty. In the corner of a cell where constantly stood a tub of waste water, thus making the floor soggy and easily cut, a hole had been made through the four inch floor and four feet into the ground, below the foundation, then four feet under the foundation, and then over three feet straight up on the outside. A three-quarter inch augur, minus a handle, was the instrument with which he did the work. He says he found the augur after getting through the floor--between the floor and the grounds--but it has no appearance of having taken a Rip Van Winkle sleep, and the only supposition is that some pal worked it into Lewis' hands. The tunnel through which Lewis crawled out is about twelve feet long and at the floor and exit is only 10 x 13 inches in size. He is a well built man and the wonder is how he wiggled himself through; but a man can do wonders for liberty. The work occupied appropriate times for three days and was kept from the officers by the cute covering of the tub before mentioned. The tub would be removed when operations were going on and when the officials entered the operator would bob up and the tub be again put on duty. It was a clear case of coalition, though why Hawkins, whose time is nearly out, should league for such a job is inexplicable. There is no doubt that all were into the game; but Lewis did the work. Lewis says the intentions were not to escape Tuesday night, but in his eagerness to get that hole finished, so much dirt filled in behind him that it would have been impossible to get back into the jail by the time the cells were finally locked. His only alternative was to dig out, and he worked on the hard, frozen ground near the surface with a vengeance, and would have been successful had Jailor Finch entered to lock the cells at the usual hour. Lewis' every movement has shown him to be a crook of experience. This little disappointment weighs heavily upon him. All the prisoners now revel in balls and chain and are liable to enjoy such luxury until deprived of them by law.

This episode brings up again the insecurity of Cowley's bastille. Nothing but the constant watchfulness of Sheriff McIntire and his alert assistants has prevented numerous "deliveries." The expert who would stay behind its grates in the absence of official vigilance ought to be awarded a chromo of beautiful and artistic design. Then it hasn't half enough room. It has periodically occurred that prisoners had to be huddled together and herded like so many sheep. The County Commissioners, at the request of Jailor Finch, examined and condemned it last fall, but nothing further has been done. We think no sensible and observant taxpayer would "kick" should the Commissioners construct a ten thousand dollar jail immediately--one absolutely safe and fireproof. Let us have it, by all means.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Now smite us on the other cheek, brother Traveler. "What a wonderful change time brings about. It is in the memory of our citizens that Winfield was wont to make merry over our "ditch." How they took delight in throwing that word in our faces, "ditch." It was of no account, foolish enterprise, insane project, etc.: how often we have heard them. But we have made ours a success, a great big, booming, five storied success, and now, Winfield wants a canal--they call it "canal" now. Let a delegation go up there, cut out the extracts relating to the "ditch" from the Courier and the Telegram, and rehash it for them. They are authors of the argument and will not go back on the truth. A canal would do them no good, they cannot make a success of it, it is foolish to think of it. Oh, ye hypocrites!" We have been on the stool of repentance lo these many years, happily disappointed. We have arrived at a point where we put nothing beyond the possibilities of grand old Cowley. Her vocabulary knows no such word as fail! Her motto, like that of the State, is Ad Astra Per Aspera, and with this nailed to the mast-head of our ship of progress, we will join hands and sail on--dig "ditches," produce wonders from the soil, establish factories, and conquer the world! Oh, we can do it.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

C. E. Foss & Co. vs. Phillip Sipe. Trial by jury and verdict for defendant for $501.

David McKee vs. Hull Bixby, suit for possession of real estate. Plaintiff given leave to file amended petition making M. A. and W. W. Andrews defendants; clerk ordered to issue summons for new defendants; trial pending.

William M. Null vs. Neil Wilkie et al. Continued by consent.

S. J. Merrick vs. C. A. Bliss. On motion of plaintiff case dismissed without prejudice at plaintiff's cost.

Ella Burdick vs. D. R. Green et al. Judgment by default for $588.95 with interest at 6 percent and costs; foreclosure to be made without appraisement.

Joseph S. Putman vs. D. R. Green. Judgment by default for $518.95 and costs, with interest at 6 percent; foreclosure to be made without appraisement.

State vs. M. P. Rowe, illegally prescribing liquor. Judgement deferred to Friday, when defendant will be required to face the music.

Court adjourned from Monday last to Friday next.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

From "Siftings from the County seat" in the Udall Sentinel. "Mr. Millington's editorial on the railroad Commissioners is meeting with great commendation at home and abroad. It is indeed a strong article. The COURIER is one of the ablest if not the ablest weekly in the State of Kansas. Frank Greer, local editor, is a young man of talent and worth, and understands how to make a newsy local page. So, take it all in all, the COURIER can't be beaten.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

We call attention to W. A. Lee's new ad, showing up his fine sulky plow, in this week's paper. It seems to us that parties wanting a plow should give this plow a fair trial. If this county gives this plow a lively start, it will induce Hapgood Plow Co. to manufacture it for their whole trade, and, should they do so, Mr. Lee's royalty will bring into the county about $2,000 each year.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

From this date and until after our dissolution we will positively sell goods only for cash. All accounts now on our books must be settled up either by payment or note. To accomplish our purpose, we must reduce our stock and now will sell our goods at cash. Come and convince yourselves that such is the fact, Winfield, Kan., Jan. 21, 1885, Bryan & Lynn.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Gale & Wilber shipped two carloads of fine three and four year old steers from their Rock township farm to Kansas City last week. The lot averaged 1,370 pounds and brought close onto five dollars per cwt. Tom Carson, of Richland, also shipped a carload.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Four teams from Cheyenne, in charge of G. L. Woods, loaded with Government freight Friday, says the Traveler. The Indians cannot be induced to do any work this cold weather, and the agent is compelled to hire white men to freight.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The people of Rock township hold a Sunday School convention at Rock on the 28th inst. Judge T. B. Soward and others will deliver addresses and a very interesting program has been arranged.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A family large enough to be a Cowley production passed through the city Monday for Ashland. It was composed of father, mother, eighteen children, and six dogs.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The Traveler says that breakage in the Arkansas river dam will be repaired this week and the mills on the canal commence running night and day.


Her Chronicle of the Comings, Goings and Doings of Persons at Home and Abroad.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Col. J. C. McMullen is in Iowa, on business.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. B. F. Wood has returned from his eastern visit.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

H. W. Young, of the Independence Star, was in the city Monday.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mrs. T. K. Johnson came in from Springfield, Mo., last week for a short visit.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Spence Miner left for a permanent residence at Ashland, Monday. Mrs. Miner will join him about May first.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A. F. Morey and family left for their future home, Ashland, Tuesday. Mr. Morey has put in a drug stock there.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mrs. Lyster, after a few week's visit with her daughter, Mrs. J. C. Long, left last Thursday for her home in Moline.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

E. H. Nixon left Monday to try a week's wading of snow drifts at his old Iowa home.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. J. D. Redd died at his residence in Vernon township, Saturday last, aged seventy years.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mrs. Ella Webb, aged seventy years, died at her home in Walnut township, Sunday last.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. T. J. Johnston and family returned Friday from their winter's sojourn in Boulder, Colorado, much improved in health.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Misses Viola Lewis and Willie Fletcher, of Wellington, spent a few days of last week in this city visiting friends and relatives.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Eli Youngheim took a run eastward Monday for a few days' absence. A fair young lady has been whispered as the attraction.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Henry Noble and M. J. O'Meara will soon open a hardware establishment at Medicine Lodge. Henry will be resident manager.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Justice Buckman joined Jno. H. Hearn and Miss Hannah Dughard in bonds that can only be torn asunder by a divorce court, Monday.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

J. W. Douglass, for years one of Tisdale township's staunchest citizens, departed for a permanent residence in Pratt County, Tuesday.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. S. H. Rogers is looking over his town site interest at Ashland this week. That infant wonder is booming right along and will soon be a metropolis.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

John A. Eaton, cashier of the Farmers' Bank, got in from Bucyrus, Ohio, Sunday last, after an extended absence. He was accompanied by his brothers, Frank and H. P.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

M. H. Markum, of Pleasant Valley, is browsing among Topeka solons. He will also visit his sister, who is attending the Manhattan College, where Mr. Markum graduated.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A little six pound boy prattler arrived at the home of Mr. and Mrs. U. A. Waugh Monday evening. The baby has as much mustache as its pa, who will cast his first vote this spring.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Rev. D. W. Sanders, after a week's visit with Rev. J. H. Reider, left for his home, Columbia City, Ind., Tuesday. He will likely locate at Wellington, from whose Baptist church he has received a unanimous call.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Spencer Bliss left for Kansas City, Tuesday, to look after the matter of a meal and hominy attachment to the Winfield Roller Mills. Messrs. Bliss & Wood mean to have every feasible adjunct to their splendid mill.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The witnesses in the Bonham murder case, Messrs. A. E. Baird, Arthur Bangs, Bert Crapster, F. M. Freeland, and Jas. McLain, left this morning for Independence to appear at the youthful murderer's preliminary hearing.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Father Scholl, of Independence, arrived yesterday for a few days' visit with Father Kelly. The Catholics of Independence have recently completed one of the finest church edifices in Southern Kansas.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Fred Whiting and others discovered a red fox about three miles south of town Tuesday, gave chase with horses and dogs, and ran the animal in. This is the first red fox we have heard of in the county.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The festive purloiner made a cute haul Sunday night. Mr. John R. Pugh left three dressed hogs and a shoat hanging in the slaughter house near the west bridge Saturday night. On going around for them Monday morning, all were non est but the little shoat.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. C. D. Soule of Vernon is enjoying a visit from his brother-in-law, Mr. A. B. Becker, from Alleghany County, N. Y. Mr. Becker is making a kind of tour around the Union, having just been to Florida and New Orleans, and will yet travel extensively before reaching home.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

M. J. O'Meara and M. H. Ewart got off Monday for Boston, Washington, and other eastern burgs. They will witness the white elephant of inauguration on March 4th. The handsome and popular Geo. D. Headrick has charge of the boot and shoe house of O'Meara & Randolph during Mr. O'Meara's absence.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Udall Sentinel: "Report has it that Ed. P. Greer is growing fleshy and corpulent. Ed. is getting in some good work all the same, even if some of his envious competitors do slur him. We get out of patience with any class of men who will cut their own throats in order to undermine and defeat a rival."

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Dr. and Mrs. B. W. Griffin, who have been visiting with relatives at Tisdale for several months past, return to their home in Chicago today. The trip was made for Mrs. Griffin's health, which has greatly improved. The Doctor possesses superior literary talent, and will favor the COURIER with occasional jottings.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

James B. Moore, who was looking after his business interests here last week, met with a serious accident, near St. Louis, while returning to his home in Hartford, Ct. He was thrown from a sleeper in the darkness and frigid atmosphere, sustaining a fractured skull and broken arm. Mr. Albright says the injuries are not considered fatal.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The Newton Republican of last Saturday said: "Mr. and Mrs. M. J. O'Meara, of Winfield, will spend Sunday with Mr. and Mrs. J. T. Ray." What a cruel accusation! We don't blame any reporter, however, for mistaking Mat Ewart's delicate, effeminate face for that of a young "Mrs." if nothing else was visible. Some practical joker was around.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Messrs. J. S. Hunt, A. P. Johnson, F. C. Hunt, and H. G. Johnson represented Adelphia Lodge, No. 110 A. F. & A. M., of this city, at the Grand Lodge in Emporia last week. Capt. S. C. Smith was also present, as a visitor. Capt. Hunt was elected to one of the most important offices in the order, that of Custodian. The session was very harmonious and profitable. The next annual session of the Grand Lodge will be held at Topeka.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Will D. Rothrock departed Tuesday for Leon, Butler County, where he will lead to the altar Miss Cora E. Martin. Will has long been one of Cowley's staunchest young men and we are glad to learn that he has won the hand of a very meritorious young lady. The happy couple will return to this city tomorrow and after spending a few days with Will's parents, Dr. and Mrs. W. P. Rothrock, will leave for a future home in Portland, Oregon. May happiness and prosperity ever attend them, is the COURIER's earnest wish.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Cowley will be pretty well married off if Judge Gans continues to turn out weekly grists like the following: Francis Guinn and Flora Knox, James Green and Laura King, William Rothrock and Cora E. Martin, Charlie Sandstrum and Annie Sandstrum, Alex. Miller and Mary Hoover, Montgomery Babb and Lena Farnsworth, Alonzo Bryant and Elizabeth Dressell, John Barton and Samantha Heardes, John Hearn and Hannah Dughard, Daniel Doty and Lizzie Littleton, Wm. Scott and Cordia Armistead, George Cunningham and Jessie Elmore.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Father J. M. Devoes, from Minnesota, has been commissioned as assistant to Rev. Father Kelly. Though Farther Kelly's headquarters have been at Winfield, he has had charge of seventeen other churches, extending all over southern Kansas, and his labors have been extremely laborious, and fruitful. He has built new church buildings during the past year at Wellington, Danville, Harper, and given his churches gratifying prosperity. The work has grown beyond his ability to administer and the assistance of Father Devoes will be a great relief. Father Kelly is a minister of marked culture, energy, and affability, and the Catholics of this region have reason to congratulate themselves in having him in charge of their churches. Father Devoes is looking to the procuring of about eight thousand acres of land on which to settle a colony of Belgians of a hundred and fifty families, who are anxious to secure homes in the west.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Kingman feels elated over a prospect of securing the Denver, Memphis & Atlantic railway, says the Dexter Eye. She appointed a committee to ascertain the financial status of the company and the probability of the road being built. The committee's report showed the company financially solid and the construction of the road as assured fact. Kingman was satisfied with the report and has called an election to vote $125,000 in aid for the road.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.




By-Laws Adopted for a Permanent Organization.

The Queen City's Prospective College.

Machine Shops And Foundry.

Startling Figures From Judge Soward in Favor of More Railroads.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

When such rustling, wide-awake businessmen as those of Winfield pull together for the advancement of any cause, it is bound to win. What has been needed in the past was unity of action, and no greater evidence could be given that this has been accomplished than was shown in the second rousing meeting of the Winfield Enterprise Association, Thursday evening last. The attendance was even larger than at the first meeting and the interest and harmony exhibited means that the Queen City and Cowley County will develop more magically during the next year than ever before--not a wild boom, to be followed by a collapse; but a solid, substantial development that will stand "the wreck of matter and the crash of worlds."

M. G. Troup was called to the chair. J. C. Long and H. B. Schuler, chairman and secretary of the committee on organization, submitted a report which was discussed and adopted, as follows.

At a meeting of the citizens of Winfield and Cowley County, Kansas, held in the Court House, in Winfield, Feb. 12th, 1885, for the purpose of considering what action should be taken to encourage enterprises for the general good and benefit of Winfield and Cowley County, it was

Resolved, That the citizens of Winfield and Cowley County be associated together for the purpose above stated, and that such Association be called the Winfield Enterprise Association.

A committee of seven was appointed to draft such by-laws as in their judgment are necessary. The said Committee reported as follows.

First. The officers of the Association shall consist of President, Vice-President, Secretary, and Board of Directors.

Second. The Board of Directors shall consist of thirteen members.

Third. The President, Vice-President, and Secretary shall be members of the Board of Directors.

Fourth. The Board of Directors to appoint from their number the President, Vice-President, and Secretary.

Fifth. It shall be the duty of the President to preside at all meetings of the Board.

Sixth. The duties of the Vice-President shall be the same as the President, when, from any cause, the President shall be absent.

Seventh. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to keep a full record of all meetings, and by direction of the Board, to answer all correspondence and communications that may come up for consideration. He may also act as Treasurer, and as such shall account to the Board, with vouchers, for all disbursements, from time to time as they may direct.

Eighth. A majority of the Board shall constitute a quorum to do business.

Ninth. The meetings of the Board shall be called by the President or Vice-President, and in their absence, any three members of the Board may call a meeting, naming the time and place of such meeting.

Tenth. The annual meeting for the election of directors of this Association shall be held annually at seven p.m. on the first Thursday in March.

Eleventh. The officers and Board of directors to hold their positions for the term of one year, or until their successors are elected and enter upon the discharge of their duties.

Twelfth. Any vacancy occurring in the Board, the remaining members to fill same by appointment for the unexpired term of the retiring member or members. And the secretary to notify such person or persons of their appointment.

Thirteenth. All business matters or action of the Board shall be for the public good and not in any way or manner directly or indirectly for private or personal gain.

Fourteenth. No member of the Board shall use in any manner the Association to subserve or further his private affairs.

Fifteenth. These by-laws may be added to, amended, or altered by the Board of Directors at any meeting called by the Board for such purpose.

Sixteenth. Citizens of Winfield and Cowley County may become members of this Association by subscribing their names to these by-laws and paying a membership fee of two dollars.

Seventeenth. It shall be the duty of the Board at all times to take action and to make every effort to induce settlers of Cowley County, giving so far as they can such information as may be required by strangers and those seeking homes in the glorious great west. And to encourage enterprises that will add to the prosperity of Winfield, its surroundings, and its social advancements.

J. P. Baden, A. T. Spotswood, J. C. Long, Col. Whiting, J. A. McGuire, C. A. Bliss, M. L. Robinson, H. B. Schuler, and John A. Eaton were appointed a committee to solicit memberships to the Association.

Judge T. H. Soward presented some startling and convincing facts and figures in favor of the D. M. & A. and K. C. & S. railroads, which we give below. Their truth is self-evident and no man who gives them a careful perusal will ever again sit down on his little tail and howl against the city and county "burdening" themselves by aiding railroad corporations to build their lines. Here are the Judge's figures.

An estimate on the reasonable effects of the proposed lines of railroad when built upon values and taxation in Cowley County.

Bonds asked for the D. M. & A. R. R. 50 miles of road bed will be about $180,000.00

Interest on $180,000 at 6 percent: $10,800.00

Average value of Southern Kansas railroad through Cowley per mile is $6,217.75

Average Wichita and Southwestern per mile is $7,090.25

Average of both roads: $6,602.50

Take this as a basis for the D. M. & A., and it will give 50 miles of road bed $6,602.50

Total: $330,125.00

Bonds asked for the Southwestern R. R.: $130,000.00

Miles of road bed 44, value of Road in county: $290,510.00

Interest on $130,000 at 6 percent: $7,800.00

County tax independent of State tax on valuation of 50 miles of road bed D. M. & A.:

$830,123 at .0355: $11,719.44

County tax independent of State tax on valuation of 44 miles of road bed Kansas

Southern $290,510 at .0355: $9,313.10

Total bonds to be asked for both roads: $310,000.00

Total miles of road bed 94, total value of road bed, etc.: $620,635,00

Total annual interest on bonds: $18,600.00

Total annual tax paid into County treasury independent of State tax: $21,032.54

Excess of tax over annual interest on bonds: $2,432.54

I think it safe to assert that the building of these railroads would add 3 cents per bushel to all grain raised in the county. They will open up a new market and put us 40 miles closer to the ones we now have, but say it adds two cents per bushel:

Winter wheat, 1,000,000 bu. at 2 cents: $20,000

Corn, 4,500,000 bu. at 2 cents: $90,000

Rye, oats, barley, and spring wheat, 1,000,000 bu. at 2 cents: $20,000

All other products: $5,000

Cattle: $10,000

Hogs: $10,000

Horses and mules: $5,000

Sheep: $5,000

Coal: $20,000

Lumber: $20,000

Add Dry Goods, groceries, hardware: [No price given]

Grand Total: $205,000

Now you who can estimate the amount of additional capital and population that would follow these enterprises, the additional amount of increase in tillage of soil and proportionate increase of yield it is simply wonderful and yet it is all practicable and can and will be done if we but do our simple duty.

The total taxation of Cowley County for all purposes for the year 1884 is $186,000 in round numbers. The increase in price of our products and our decrease in articles consumed would pay our taxes and leave a large balance in the hands of our producers. Every dollar of this money would stay in the pocket that earned it.

A. H. Jennings made an interesting address and sprung the matter of a college in Winfield. He cited the great advantages derived by his former home, Delaware, Ohio, through such an institution and allowed the feasibility of a college here. In all Southern Kansas there is not an institution of higher learning; no better field can be found. This would be an adjunct that would not only give one town a standing in the State, but greatly increase our population, our business patronage, and our educational conveniences. Cowley County is now sending abroad an average of fifty students annually at a cost of several hundred dollars each. And a great many more would seek classical education if the facilities were at home and the expense reduced. This college would also draw from a large territory surrounding us. It was proposed to organize a stock company, every man putting in one hundred or two hundred dollars being entitled to a twenty-year scholarship. Mr. Jennings' scheme met with great favor, and now that the ball is rolling there is no doubt that fifty thousand dollars can be raised to boost the enterprise. Like every institution of the kind, it will have to grow from a small beginning. A. H. Jennings, Prof. Gridley, County Superintendent Limerick, Dr. Graham, Rev. Reider, and Dr. Kirkwood were appointed a committee to devise plans for the establishment of this college. The committee has been wisely selected and we have no doubt that they will put this important matter on foot and that it will reach an early fruition.

M. G. Troup also addressed the meeting at length, urging the establishment of this proposed institution of learning and showed its feasibility and importance to the Queen City. He spoke of the vast resources of Cowley County. Though she has advanced magically in her short existence, her domain is as yet but half developed. She has room and maintenance for sixty thousand people, which number she will soon have if her citizens show enterprise and grit. She not only wants more tillers of the soil, but more mechanics, manufacturers, and tradesmen. These must come if our advantages are properly shown up and the requisite encouragement shown.

J. E. Conklin introduced, with commendatory remarks, his old friend, J. M. Stayman, of Champaign City, Illinois, who is an experienced machinist and a man of ability and capital. Mr. Stayman stated that he was here on a prospecting tour and after being shown around the city and county by Mr. Conklin, had determined to locate with a foundry and machine shops in the stone building on north Main. James Ostrander, a machinist of equal experience will accompany him from the East soon and together they will establish this enterprise. Mr. Conklin gives these men the highest recommendation and Winfield will no doubt have reason to congratulate herself on their advent.

At the close of the meeting, a large number attached their signatures as members of the Association, and through the soliciting committee nearly every enterprising man has joined. A fund will be created that will enable the Association to send representatives in quest of any enterprise that may point in this direction. The members of the Association, in compliance with the by-laws, will meet the first Thursday in March for the election of officers and directors for the year, when many enterprises that are now developing will be presented.

[Note: They had "Stayman" and "Staymen" in article above.]


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Commenting upon the prospects of the Santa Fe pushing through the Territory, the Republican has this to say: "Ft. Worth and Gainesville, Texas, want to be connected with Arkansas City badly. They are aroused on the subject. This railroad extension from Arkansas City to connect with Ft. Worth is an important matter. As yet, our citizens are idle on the subject. To get our productions to Texas we have to send it via Emporia, thereby paying exorbitant freight rates. A letter from a businessman in Ft. Worth to Landes, Beall & Co., says a proposition from the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe to the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, to push their rod south through Arkansas City and form a junction, is in order. This extension is a different route from the Kansas City, Wichita & Indian Territory Air Line. The latter connects with Ft. Smith, Arkansas. Fort Worth is directly south of us, and a railroad connection with the heart of Texas would open up a large southern trade with the Lone Star State."


Meeting of Cowley's Teaching Association.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

On Friday evening in company with a number of teachers from Winfield and surrounding country, we started for New Salem for the purpose of attending the Association.

Arriving at New Salem, Mr. Lucas met the teachers at the train and sent them to houses where they were served to a bountiful repast; after which they went to the school building, which they found full to overflowing at an early hour.

An address of welcome was given to the teachers by Col. Jackson. Mr. Moore not being present, the response was delivered by Mr. B. T. Davis.

The New Salem school entertained the audience with recitations and songs for a short time, after which Dr. Downs delivered an oration.

The program of the evening was conducted by the teachers. Prof. Gridley read a paper on reading; Jessie Stretch gave a recitation, "Monia's Waters."

The day session was one of the most pleasant and instructive meetings we have had. A majority of the teachers seemed anxious to have a part in making the meeting a success by giving of what they had.

An observer in the discussion could not help seeing a defect in the architecture of many who are rearing intellectual structures: they are much concerned about the finishing of the building to the neglect of the foundation, but we would add, look well to the foundation, first.

Besides our program for the day, we enjoyed some hash prepared by Miss Fannie Stretch and Mr. W. C. Barnes.

The next meeting will be held in Winfield. We hope our citizens will meet with us and at least consider the teacher as a piece of humanity. We believe if the teachers will take the trouble to prepare the work, they will be able to make the meeting such a meeting that all will feel "it was good to be there." That the citizens of Winfield will be willing to help all they can.

The teachers not being able to return to Winfield until the night passenger, it was decided to hold a social in the evening. It consisted of promenading, recitations, music, and minute speeches.

To the people of New Salem, the teachers gave a vote of thanks for the hospitable entertainment they received, for the interest they manifested in the profession, and for the kind and cordial invitation to return to their village again.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

I wish to correct through the COURIER Mr. Nixon's report of the Horticultural meeting of Feb. 7th, in which he reports me to have said that an Ohio fruit-dealer was offering peach trees budded on maple. This is a mistake. Mr. Gaylord (the tree dealer) was selling peach trees that he said were budded on sycamore, instead of maple, and that the great advantage was that the sycamore was very tardy to send up its sap, and that the peach on sycamore would delay its blooming at least one month, and would be entirely out of the way of frost and sure to yield a crop. But the truth is, peaches are not raised in any such way at all, and those who have been so deceived by these men should see that they get what has been represented to them, and if they have been deceived, let them keep their stock. These same men were selling a tree currant, budded on maple, but I venture to say that not one of the currants these men bring here will have anything but its own root.

I wrote to the Star Nursery, of Dayton, Ohio, asking if the statement set forth by these men was true, but not one word of reply has been heard from them. I have F. R. Elliot's Fruit Growers' Hand Book, that gives minute directions in propagation, but not one word do I find about apple trees to make them proof against sun burn or the borers. And while he gives carefully selected lists of different varieties of fruit, he does not have one word to say about peach on sycamore or currant on maple.

Mr. Nixon did not understand me on the cherry question, as I stated the family of Morellos were the only cherries worth raising, and of these, Early Richmond, English Morello, and Common Morello, or Pie cherry. J. G. PIERSON.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

This is a poor plan. Go into a store and blindfold yourself and the first man you hear say, "I'll look around," put him down. Go with him to the next store and hear him say the same thing. Follow him to his house and he is a poor man. Take an illustration: A man comes to town for a few trees, say 1,000 catalpa plants; and says to the first nurseryman, "price is too much, I'll look round." The nurseryman says to himself, "look round!" He goes to another about the same way. Maybe this time the nurseryman drops a little; then he must "Look around" sure. So he goes to number three. This man knows him and puts his price up so our looker around goes home in disgust, having produced a lack of confidence in four persons, and puts out no trees. But say he had put out these trees instead of leaving his farm, four or five years hence, a barren and kind of a lonesome place. He could have had a fine grove of catalpa trees that would cut down and cord at least 500 cords of wood worth $3,000 anyway, say nothing of the beauty of the grove and the loveliness of his home, all because he would look around. Don't get hot and say I am a nurseryman, for I hardly known one plant from another. WILL ASH BURN.



Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. Hutchinson has bought the Marian Mathox farm.

Stock is in good condition considering the protracted cold winter.

Our farmers are ready to sow oats as soon as the ground thaws out.

Prof. John Davis and Miss Clark gave an entertainment at the Richland Schoolhouse recently. Johnny is the funny man, sure enough.

Mr. Vest Burrows has returned from his visit East, and intends building on his farm this spring. He is one of our energetic young men.

Mrs. Givler's bay window reminds one of the month of May; it is full of blooming plants such as pansies, geraniums, oxalis, and Chinese primroses.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Harris, of Arkansas City, was here last week seeking corn.

Shiver & Cox have put in a stock of drugs in connection with their groceries.

Geo. McIntire, our efficient Sheriff, paid us a visit on Monday on official business.

Charley Martin has gone to Wichita to purchase a set of instruments for our band.

A select party was given at the residence of Mr. Abbott on the evening of the 23rd.

The Railroad Company are sinking a well at the stockyards. A long needed want supplied.

Matt McCollister is doing a lively insurance business for the Home Insurance Company.

Walter Denning passed through on the 10th to attend the selling of Jake Walch's farming utensils.

Dr. Knickerbocker's children have both been very sick for the past week, but are recovering now.

Our public schools close on the 28th. A public exhibition will be given at the Hall on the eve of the 28th.

There is a lady in the city who wants to know why Geo. Gray don't pay that bet he lost. Geo., please explain.

Jim Norman is building a new residence in the west part of the city, having sold his former residence to Esq. Norman.

Our city dads have decided to build a cooler with council room above. Will commence work as soon as the weather moderates sufficiently.

Miss Clara Berman opens a writing school for evenings at the schoolhouse. Miss Berman is an accomplished writer and no doubt will meet with success.

H. A. Staton, a brother of J. A. Station, arrived from the old Blue Grass state last week, and is so well pleased with our city that he will remain with us in the future.

Well, we've a band: a full fledged brass band. That is, the instruments, not the players. The citizens raised about seventy-five dollars and the members will raise the balance. W. O. McKinlay was elected president; Schultz, Secretary.

One of our citizens was arrested some time ago for being found drunk on the streets, and now he threatens to burst our city up if his fine is not returned to him. Go in, my friend, but be careful you don't have another fine to pay for the same offense.

The Jennie Bowen combination played the entire week to our citizens and a full house greeted them each night. We can cheerfully recommend them to the fun loving public as a first class Company of ladies and gentlemen in all respects. They return here the 27th and 28th.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Items scarce.

E. Fibbs Sundayed in Udall.

Mother nature picked her geese Monday.

Belle McCullough was on the sick list last week.

John Hughes is a youth of leisure since he has a lame arm.

Mrs. B. W. Jenkins visited her daughter, Mrs. John Byers, in Pleasant Valley last week.

Maggie and Monroe Teter entertained three of Beaver's blushing young ladies last Sunday.

A few of the upper ten spent the evening very pleasantly at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Graves last Thursday night.

Permit me to inform "Country Jake" that I stopped off a few days at Hackney, but I am on the right track now with a through ticket.

The protracted effort at the M. E. church will close tomorrow night. Eight have united with the church; six converts, and two by letter.

Mr. H. Keever and family, who came to Kansas last fall in view to locating, have become dissatisfied with the country, and on Tuesday started for Illinois, their former home.

Charles Kraces, a rustling young man well known and highly esteemed in this neighborhood, stopped a few days of this week with friends of this place, while on his way from Illinois to his farm in Pratt County. We wish Charley success in his every undertaking. When we say this, we think we speak for the neighborhood.

During the cold weather of last week one of our most prominent farmers and obliging neighbors bordering on the east of Beaver township concluded to furnish his stock with water from a draw which passed through his pasture. He executed his resolution by shouldering his axe and marched to the pasture where he walked out on the ice, which was thin and, of course, he fell in. It is needless to say that he picked himself up out of the horrible pit and the miry clay and retraced his footsteps homeward without anyone telling him to; but pity his sad fate, for when he arrived at the house, to add to his misery a neighbor lady had called, and he determined not to expose his ill luck and misfortune. He remained outdoors until the lady took her departure, which was not soon; at least he thought so. Who would not think every minute was an hour if their clothes were frozen until they could stand alone. Readers, don't say anything about this for I don't know whether the stock got any water or not.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Professors A. H. Limerick and H. T. Davis were in town a few minutes Friday.

Mr. Skinner, sexton of the M. E. church, has been quite sick for a week past.

Charley Jones returned last week from Attica, Kansas, where he has spent the winter.

Mr. Robb, of Cloud County, Kansas, was in town visiting Mr. A. F. Smith and other friends last week.

A. F. Smith, having disposed of his property in town to Mr. Brooks, the water supply man, will move out to his farm in a few days.

A petition is being circulated, asking the Board of Education to set a day to vote bonds for the erection of an addition to our schoolhouse--$200 will be voted on. This is a step in the right direction, and there seems to be little doubt but what the bonds will be voted.

Rev. Knight, of the M. E. church, will preach his last sermon one week from next Sunday, on the 8th of March. That will complete his third year in Burden. The choir rather got a joke on Bro. Knight while he was taking up a collection last Sunday morning. For particulars, inquire of those present.

The next entertainment by the Lyceum will be given on Saturday night of this week. There will be readings, recitations, music, and a short drama, entitled "The Mock Doctor." Those who will take part in the latter are S. H. Toller, Polk Tull, Will Frazier, John Cater, Miss Susie Day, and Miss Lu Frazer.

The entertainment given by the high school at the rink last Saturday night was a decided success. A large and intelligent audience greeted the performers, and gave them hearty encouragement all the way through. The exercises were of a high order of merit throughout, and showed careful drill and practice. Where all did so well, it would be impossible to mention any unless all were named, and that would be a big job, considering the number that took part.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Hon. Harbaugh spent last Wednesday in the "Gate City" on business connected with the farmer's stock mill enterprise.

M. H. Markum contemplates a trip to Topeka and Manhattan, Kansas, in a few days. He will visit the solons of the State Legislature before returning.

Jack Whitson, the past week, disposed of another one of his Challenge Wind engines. Mr. Wm. Gates, of Beaver township, was the purchaser.

Steele & Co. have another carload of corn on our side track, which is being retailed out to the farmers at 30 cents per bushel. This firm is having a strong trade in the corn line.

Mr. Victor is preparing another year's supply of fuel from a half mile of his hedge fence. An equal length of fence supplied his uses last year. He has not burned a bushel of coal this winter. Hedges of several years' growth solve the problem of cheap fuel for this country.

The ex-pedagogue of district 75 has "Mark's" profound sympathy. Rum, ruin, and rebellion is an alliteration peculiarly applicable to that particular section. The youngsters know how to shoot anything but ideas. Instead of sending missionaries to foreign heathens, a wide field of work can be found for them at home.

Last Saturday forenoon, M. H. Markum finally concluded threshing his last year's crop of wheat, amounting to twenty-six hundred bushels. He realized the handsome difference of fifteen dollars on the hundred bushels by not threshing earlier the past season. This difference in market rates more than pays the expenses of harvesting, stacking, and threshing.

There is no question but that the growing wheat crop has been injured by the last freeze up. The loss sustained varies from twenty-five to fifty percent, which, in addition to the decreased acreage seeded last fall, will make the crop of 1885 comparatively insignificant. It is highly probable that an overproduction of this cereal and its consequent low prices will not curse the husbandman this coming season.

Last Wednesday evening, the 18th inst., the people of this community were highly entertained by a literary exhibition at the Victor schoolhouse, in district 115. The exercises were the consummation of Mrs. Delia R. Snyder's efforts as school ma'am in the district for a term of five months. The patrons of the school speak in commendable terms of her efficiency as a teacher, and seemed well pleased with the result of her labors. The following interesting program was presented.

Song by the school, organ accompaniment.

Recitation, "My old hat," Charlie Albert.

Recitation, "The baby," Charlie Harbaugh.

Recitation, "Bobby Shafts," Mary Ging

Song, "Are all your matches sold yet."

Recitation, "My kitty," Robbie Richardson.

Recitation, "His proposition," Charlie Watt.

Recitation, "Little Sillie," Sillie Victor.

Recitation, My little dog," Geo. Richardson.

Recitation, "Found," Vic. Victor.

"Grandmother's last balance," Carolina Richardson and Allie Albert.

Dialogue, "Little wise heads," Allie Albert, Carrie Teeter, and Vic. Victor.

Charade, "Manage," three scenes: Allie Harbaugh, Lois Victor, Stella Harbaugh, Ed. Garrett, and Henry Garrett.

Song by quartette.

Dialogue, "Double cure," Jennie Watt, Allie Harbaugh, Lois Victor, Carolina Richardson, Ed. Garrett, and Henry Garrett.

Dialogue, "Widow Bedotte," Henry Garrett, Stella Harbaugh, and Lois Victor.

Charade, "Madcap," three scenes: Lottie Albert, Lois Victor, Carolina Richardson, Jennie Watt, Ed. Garrett, Henry Garrett, and Ed. Watt.

The exercises closed with instrumental music by the organ with violin accompaniment. The young folks acquitted themselves on the stage as well as could have been expected of amateurs--having rehearsed but twice. If "Mark" was to make a criticism (which of course he won't), it would be of the nature that sentimentalism was made too prominent a feature in the selection of charades and dialogues.

The past two weeks, Rev. Brink has been endeavoring to awaken religious enthusiasm among the people in this vicinity of the Pleasant Valley M. E. church. Considering the inclemency of the weather, the Reverend's youthfulness, and the material worked upon, he has met with a fair degree of success.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

South Bend has a crayon artist.

Mr. Fedrow, of Girard, Kansas, visited Mr. Hughes last week.

Mr. F. J. Hughes has returned home after a three month's visit in Iowa.

Mr. Chas. Bryant, of West Virginia, is visiting his brothers, Andy and Cot, in this locality.

Whole, I am recovering. Curtail me again and "I'll tear in shreds my raven locks."

It is rumored that Jake Keffer, a former South Bendite, ranks as postmaster in Florida.

Several ladies and gentlemen met at the residence of Mrs. Graves last week to celebrate the 30th anniversary of Mr. Al Graves.

Some of our bottom farmers are clearing out their timber. When cleared, blue grass will be sown, thus making pasture where useless underbrush once abounded.

Mrs. Graves and her son, George, have gone to visit friends at Centralia, Kansas. They will be absent several weeks, and George will go to Newton to take his position on the Santa Fe, on his return.

'Squire Broadwell is agitating the artichoke question, and "Skipper Hokem" wants to know "what's the matter with raisin' German carp in the middle of that road up north of Sparks."

Mr. and Mrs. Campbell write from Liverpool, England, that during their visit they have been in Ireland, but are now enjoying themselves "immensely" with friends of many by-gone years. They say nothing about coming back yet.

S. B. Atkinson and family, formerly of this place but now in Argonia, write their intention to return to Erin, where the grass grows green. Mr. Atkinson's family were among the first to settle in South Bend, and they will be welcomed back.

Mr. Jordan's little four-year-old boy is very aspiring. 'Squire Broadwell met the youth a few days ago, and was addressed thusly: "Broadwell, I'm goin' to heaven." What're you going there for?" demanded the Squire. "To git Grandpa's pocket knife out of his pocket."

Dr. Michael McClung and family have been visiting his brother, Kyle McClung, of this place. The Doctor lived in Missouri some time, but owing to sickness in his family, went to Texas to winter. He has been looking at our Metropolis with a view of locating, and no doubt will locate with us.

Messrs. Vermilye Bros., of Magnolia farm, recently ordered 100 bushels of orchard grass seed, 30 bushels of blue grass, and six bushels of timothy and clover seed. This is probably the largest order ever given by any one farm in Cowley County. Vermilye Bros. are wide awake businessmen and worthy citizens.

A pedestrian nursery agent recently closed a "go-as-you-please" walking match through this locality. He represents an Arkansas firm, and from appearances, it would be reasonably supposed that he did not chew at regular hours. It would be a wise move on his part to quit his present vocation and seek a position on the stage as "Father Come Home" impersonator.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The wheat on the Holtby estate was threshed last week.

It seems like our sunny Kansas has turned to snowy Kansas.

The Whitson Bros. are entertaining company from Ould Kentuck.

Miss Celina Bliss, of Winfield, visited friends in this vicinity last week.

A good many farmers in the neighborhood have been busy the last week husking corn.

Mr. E. Hunt has been buying stock hogs. He says that he has got as many now as he wants to buy corn to feed.

According to the Beaver Center weather observer, we have had fifteen snows and seventy-five cold days this winter.

Bliss & Wood received 3,000 bushels of wheat at their elevator last Thursday. This tells whether the wheat is all marketed or not.

Mr. Dick Bess has sold his one hundred and sixty acre farm, consideration $3,300. Mr. Bess talks of going west, to grow up with the country.

There was a large audience addressed at the Irwin Chapel last Saturday evening by the lecturer of the State Grange; he gave the people some good ideas in protection of agriculture.

Another Hackney boom, the grangers are talking of building a new store; they will meet next Tuesday to decide whether they will have a hall over the storeroom or not. Success to the grangers.

Mark received her likeness the other day and it was a real beauty. If you had seen the smile on Mark's countenance, you would have imagined the thought running through his mind of "Oh, how I wish you were mine, M ."


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Mr. Will Huston's baby is very sick.

Mr. John Barrick's children are down with the whooping cough.

The Willett heirs have sold their farm for eight thousand four hundred dollars. Mr. Tom Covert was the purchaser.

The special meetings that have been in progress at the Presbyterian church have closed, which resulted in an accession to the church of six members; all on profession of faith.

The Misses Wilson accompanied by their little brother, while returning from church one dark night, drove over some obstacle in the road, upsetting the buggy and throwing them out, breaking Miss Lillie's arm.

One night a short time ago Mr. Norman Hanlin saw lanterns flash around his neighbor's house and thought it robbers, so he armed himself with a shot gun and went down. On arriving there he found the cause to be sick folks.

Mr. James McCollim and Mrs. Billings were married Sunday week, Rev. Graham officiating. We wish them long life and happiness. The boys called on them with their bells and old tin pans; the boys were made happy by a three dollar treat.

Mr. and Mrs. C. Mann have returned to their home after their long absence with their daughters. Their friends are glad to see them back again. On their return they found their house had been broken into; nothing of any value had been taken, but everything was rummaged over.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

I'll growl harder when it thaws.

Hewitt & Burdette have put on their war paint, and, we hope, to the profit of the buyer.

Our old friend, Jim Bliss, is laid up with the rheumatism. Verily, rheumatism is no joke.

J. M. Wood and Emma Church were hitched to the matrimonial oar by Esq. Young on the 17th.

Our school is again in full blast with a full complement of little ones. Miss Ollie Stubblefield wields the birch.

Joseph Fry was seriously injured by being thrown from a load of hay some two weeks since, but is slowly recovering.

John Rohrick has departed for Ashland. Don't forget Uncle John and his good wife should you wander into that thriving hamlet.

Breaking down corn stocks seemed to be the order of the day last week, and it made one feel as if spring was indeed coming, but this week's weather knocks the wind out of such hopes.

Our township election is over and a good set of officers elected, but it would have looked a little better if our northern friends had saved their whiskey until they were out of the woods. "He laughs best who laughs last."


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The cold weather still hangs on.

Mrs. M. J. Weaverling visited Winfield Saturday.

Grandma Ramage has returned from her visit to Cedarvale.

Mr. Hovey has sold his property in this place to Mr. Tom Hicks.

Alex Jones spent Monday in Winfield; also, G. W. Rowe visited there last week.

Items are very scarce in this vicinity at present, but look out for a wedding soon.

The wolves have been making several raids on Mr. Hendrickson's sheep lately, wounding several head.

Miss Hattie Utley's school closed last Saturday. Quite a number were there, and the day passed pleasantly.

J. F. Rowe attended the Institute at New Salem last Saturday in company with Miss Ida Straughan and Miss Bedell.

Mrs. Emma Jones has been visiting at Riley Bedell's the past week. She expects to return to her home in Attica Monday.

Miss Elda Kinley has been very ill for two weeks past, but is convalescent now. D. Ramage's little child has also been quite sick.

E. J. Sherlock, of Wyandotte, Kansas, was the guest of Capt. Rowe, Friday and Saturday. Mrs. Sherlock was here looking after his interests in Cowley.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Miss Mattie Linn's school closes next Friday.

Henry Gebblebour has returned from Missouri.

M. G. Yost is still warming himself at the store stove.

Mr. Bruington shipped 1,200 head of sheep to Chicago.

Professor Campf preached here on Sunday for the last time.

The lyceum here will close next Friday after a long and successful term.

Mr. and Mrs. C. L. Butts have been visiting their daughter, Mrs. Snodgrass.

Mr. and Mrs. Gammon and Miss Lillie Maxfield are visiting friends at Clearwater.

Our blacksmith is going to housekeeping on his own account. He is tired of boarding.

Last Wednesday night Dan Schwantes was surprised, and the surprisers spent a very pleasant evening.

Mrs. Gammon resigned her position as teacher of our school last week. This is the second year she has taught with success and we are sorry to lose her. Miss Pixley, of Winfield, is our new teacher.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

Notice of Final Settlement, Estate of Nellie Sellers. James A. Goforth, Administrator, Attorneys: Hackney & Asp.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.


SURGEON DENTIST. Office 3 doors west of postoffice. Nitrous oxide Gas. Teeth examined free of charge. All work warranted.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A few leisure moments of a representative of the Day were improved this forenoon in looking over the array of Indian articles of warfare, toilet, luxury, and general utility, exhibited for sale in the show windows of a popular business house of St. Paul. There were war-clubs, tomahawks, bows and arrows, necklaces of elk's teeth and bear's claws, stone pipes and moccasin of every description, so arranged as to attract the attention of the relic hunter.

"Where do you get these things?" inquired the Day representative.

"Well," said the merchant, "we get them from Indians, trappers, post traders, and sometimes from amateur travelers and adventurers who have started out on small means, and after reaching St. Paul, on their way home from the West, find it necessary to sell their relics in order sometimes to obtain a meal. It is astonishing how many people go West thinking they will make a speculation in procuring Indian toys and selling them in St. Paul. These people usually find it hard to sell their specimens at any price.

"Post traders and trappers often come to St. Paul expecting to realize handsome profits, but they are generally disappointed. I remember a trapper who came to my store four or five years ago trying to sell me a rare specimen of Indian workmanship. He stated that it was made by one of an extinct tribe, and the only relic left as a memento of the race. I learned afterward that he had tried to sell it to several dealers both in St. Paul and Minneapolis, but had failed. He had started out asking the exorbitant sum of $500 for the specimen, but had knocked off at each successive store until the price asked was only $10. I looked at the man a moment and listened to his story, about the rarity of the specimen, etc., and then said to him: 'My friend, that's a very pretty story you're telling; but you see I shan't be able to make anyone swallow it, and the fact is I'll have hard work to get 10 cents for the trinket.'

"'Well, hang it!' said he, 'give me a drink of whiskey and take the cussed thing. This is the only house in the Nor'west that I haven't tried to sell it to, and I'm broke and dry as a powder horn. Take it along, stranger, and gimme a drink, quick, and call the deal squar.' I gave the man a good flask of whiskey and a cigar, and he wandered off apparently happy."

"Well, how much did you get for the toy?"

"Oh, I happened to be in luck," said he, with a twinkle in his eye. "An English lord came along, and I told him the story I had learned from the trapper, and I think I got about $150 for the specimen."

"Do you sell many of these goods?"

"Yes, a good many; but nearly as many to Americans as I do to Europeans. Of course, Eastern people buy them; but we have to be very moderate in our prices in order to sell to this class. We can get fancy prices for the goods from Europeans, and particularly from English and Scotch people. During the summer season our sales upon these goods to Europeans amount up to thousands of dollars, while to the Americans they scarcely reach into the hundreds."

"Are these goods genuine--that is, made by Indians for their own use?"

"Well, now; not all of them. A large portion is made by the Indians expressly to sell to white people. Such goods would never answer the purpose of an Indian."

Here the merchant showed the difference between a practical war club and a fancy one, a practical tomahawk and a poetical one. "The Indians, half-breeds, and some of the frontier whites make many of these toys expressly to sell," said the doctor. "But then, you see, it's not necessary to mention that fact to foreigners. The cheats bring about as big a price as the genuine articles." St. Paul Day.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The carriage in which the First Napoleon made his famous retreat from Moscow, and in which he, as Emperor, set out from Paris in the campaign which closed at Waterloo, is now preserved in London among the effects of the Duke of Wellington. It is a two-seated conveyance, and the top, or cover, is lined with thin sheet-iron. There is also a front curtain of iron, which can be lowered at will. The wheels are large and heavy, and the steps at either side silver finished and of a curious design. The rear seat was the one used by Napoleon. Under the cushion of the sweat he carried blankets and pillows. The back of the front seat opens, and at the right hand forms a small cupboard, in which were tin plates, knives, spoons, water can, and a small fluid lamp. On the left is a long opening, extending forward nearly to the "dash board," and into which the Emperor of the first nation of Europe was wont to extend his feet and legs, in order that he might lie at full length. The blankets, pillows, spoons, knives, and lamps that were used by the Emperor are still preserved.

Philadelphia Press.


Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A Kansas farmer who had nine head of sheep put the money that came to him from the sale of mutton and wool into more sheep. In nine years he had 1,700 sheep worth $5,000.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

A saddler at Greensburg, Pa., has a curious egg. It is soft-shelled and does not resemble an egg, with the exception of its shell. It is formed of three parts. One resembles very much the shape of a head, and yes and mouth are perceptible in it. A little short neck joins it to the body, which is of an oval shape. To the body there is a tail, resembling very much the tail of a dog. It measures over five inches and is a very queer shape indeed.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

The Colorado Live Stock Record says: "We have it upon good authority that 20,000 sheep have, up to the present date, gone from the southern counties of Colorado to Kansas to feed for mutton.

Winfield Courier, Thursday, February 26, 1885.

General Custer's widow is now living in New York, getting along as best she can upon the slim pension the Government awards her. She is a useful, hard-working little body and is connected with the Women's Decorative Art Association. She possessed many of the relics of the late war which her husband left behind. The most interesting, perhaps, is the flag of truce, under cover of which General Lee surrendered to General Grant.

[There were more items similar to above that I skipped. MAW]